Danish sculpture as a nationally recognized art form can be traced back to 1752 when Jacques Saly was commissioned to execute a statue of King Frederick V of Denmark on horseback. More recently, Danish sculpture has been inspired by European trends, especially those from Paris, from roughly the same period, there are sculpted figures in the granite reliefs depicting the Removal from the Cross in the tympanum above the so-called Cats Head Door of Ribe Cathedral. However the Reformation in 1536 brought such work to an almost total stop. During the Renaissance period, sculptors from abroad were the source of work in Denmark, the Flemish sculptor Cornelis Floris from Antwerp produced tombs for Herluf Trolle and Birgitte Gøye in Herlufsholm and for Christian III in Roskilde Cathedral. Gert van Groningen was one of the leading Dutch artists to participate in the design of Kronborgs main entrance, another Flemish sculptor active towards the end of the 16th century in Denmark was Gert van Egen who designed Frederik IIs tomb in Roskilde Cathedral.
Shortly after the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts was founded in March 1754, Saly was appointed as its director and it has been called one of the finest equestrian statues in Europe. Soon after his return to Denmark in 1758, he was commissioned to sculpt a monument to the long deceased King Christian VI by his widowed wife. Completed in 1768, the monument was not installed in Roskilde Cathedral until 1777. The sarcophagus with two figures and Berømmelsen is considered to be Denmarks first Neoclassical work. Wiedewelt went on to large collections of sculptures for gardens such as those at Fredensborg Palace. The memorial chapel was the result of collaboration between Wiedewelt and the architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, Wiedewelt was chosen for eight annual periods as Director of the Academy between 1772 and 1794. Bertel Thorvaldsen is the most famous Danish sculptor, recognised across Europe as one of the leading Neoclassical sculptors, after entering the Art Academy in Copenhagen when he was only 11, he went on to win all four of the institutions medals.
In 1796, he received a stipend for a short study tour to Italy but, apart from a short visit to Denmark in 1819. After a model for his statue of Jason and the Golden Fleece received recognition from the leading Italian sculptor of the day, Antonio Canova, his success was ensured. Thorvaldsen gradually employed numerous assistants, extending his work to be executed in five studios in Rome, among his most important works are the colossal series of statues of Christ and the twelve Apostles for the rebuilding of Vor Frue Kirke in Copenhagen. His works can be seen in many European countries, but there is a large collection at the Thorvaldsen Museum in Copenhagen. During his stay in Rome, Thorvaldsen played an important role in encouraging young Danish artists spending time in the city and his masterpiece, the Ragnarok Freize, which occupied him for many years, was completed by Bissen after his death but was destroyed by the Christianborg fire. There is a plaster cast of part of the freize in Statens Museum for Kunst, herman Wilhelm Bissen, initially a Neoclassicist, is remembered for the Realism of his monumental works celebrating Danish military victories while reflecting the nationalistic trend of the times
Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Ministers Office, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables. The palace is home to the three supreme powers, the executive power, the legislative power, and the judicial power. It is the building in the world that houses all three of a countrys branches of government. The name Christiansborg is thus used as a metonym for the Danish political system. The present building, the third with this name, is the last in a series of castles and palaces constructed on the same site since the erection of the first castle in 1167. The palace today bears witness to three eras of Danish architecture, as the result of two serious fires, the first fire occurred in 1794 and the second in 1884. The main part of the current palace, finished in 1928, is in the historicist Neo-baroque style, the chapel dates to 1826 and is in a neoclassical style.
The showgrounds were built 1738-46, in a baroque style, Christiansborg Palace is owned by the Danish state, and is run by the Palaces and Properties Agency. Several parts of the palace are open to the public, the first castle on the site was Absalons Castle. According to the Danish chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde built a castle in 1167 on an island outside Copenhagen Harbour. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings, such as the bishops palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the ownership of the castle and city was contested between kings and bishops. Furthermore, the castle was frequently under attack, for example by Wend pirates and the Hanseatic cities, in 1369, following a conflict with king Valdemar IV of Denmark, the Hanseatic League sent 40 stonemasons to demolish the castle stone by stone.
The castle had long been a nuisance to the Hanseatic cities trade in the Sound. The castle had a wall and was surrounded by a moat and with a large. The castle was still the property of the Bishop of Roskilde until King Eric VII usurped the rights to the castle in 1417, from on the castle in Copenhagen was occupied by the king. In the middle of the 15th century, the became the principal residence of the Danish kings
The Gefion Fountain is a large fountain on the harbour front in Copenhagen, Denmark. It features a group of animal figures being driven by the Norse goddess Gefjon. It is located in Nordre Toldbod area next to Kastellet and immediately south of Langelinie and it is the largest monument in Copenhagen and used as a wishing well. The fountain was donated to the city of Copenhagen by the Carlsberg Foundation on the occasion of the brewery’s 50-year anniversary. It was originally supposed to be located in the town square outside city hall. It was designed by Danish artist Anders Bundgaard, who sculpted the naturalistic figures 1897-99, the basins and decorations were completed in 1908. The fountain was first activated on July 14,1908, the fountain underwent extensive renovations starting in 1999. The fountain was out of commission for many years, and was re-inaugurated in September 2004, the fountain depicts the mythical story of the creation of the island of Zealand on which Copenhagen is located.
The legend appears in Ragnarsdrápa, a 9th-century Skaldic poem recorded in the 13th century Prose Edda, according to Ynglinga saga, the Swedish king Gylfi promised Gefjun the territory she could plow in a night. She turned her four sons into oxen, and the territory they plowed out of the earth was thrown into the Danish sea between Scania and the island of Fyn. The hole became a lake called Lögrinn and Leginum, Snorri identifies the lake Löginn, as the lake of Old Sigtuna west of Stockholm, i. e. Lake Mälaren, an identification that he returns to in the Saga of Olaf the Holy. The same identification of Löginn/Leginum as Mälaren appears in Ásmundar saga kappabana, where it is the lake by Agnafit, however, was well acquainted with Vänern as he had visited Västergötland in 1219. The Gefion Fountain is seen in the films Jeg elsker en anden m Mor bag rattet, Min søsters børn vælter byen and The Olsen Gangs Big Score
Randers is a city in Randers Municipality, Central Denmark Region on the Jutland peninsula. It is Denmarks sixth-largest city, with a population of 61,163, Randers is the municipalitys main town and the site of its municipal council. The municipality is a part of the East Jutland metropolitan area, by road it is 38.5 kilometres north of Aarhus,43.8 kilometres east of Viborg, and 224 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen. Randers became a market town in medieval times, and many of its 15th-century half-timbered houses remain today, as does St Martins Church. Trade by sea was facilitated through the Gudenå River, entering Randers Fjord, most of the larger historic industries in Randers are gone today. From 1970, the population saw a decline from a peak of 58.500 citizens, the main tourist attraction is Randers Tropical Zoo thanks to its artificial rainforest, the largest in Northern Europe, its 350 varieties of plant and over 175 species of animals. The citys football team, Randers FC, play their homes games at the AutoC Park Randers, and are in Denmarks first league, the Superligaen.
The town is home to Randers rugby union club and Jutland RLFC, a rugby league team, as well as Randers Cimbria. The oldest forms of the name appear on coins minted from the times of King George until those of Svend Grathe. The coins bear the names Ranrosia, Radrusia, ancient written records include the Latin Randrusium, Icelandic Randrosi, and Rondrus, Randrøs. Other early forms provide Randersborg and Randershusen, the name appears to stem from Rand and Aros and probably means town on the hillside by the river mouth. The modern form Randers was first came into use at the end of the 17th century, Randers was formally established around the 12th century, but traces of activity date back to Viking times. Canute IV of Denmark, known as Canute the Saint and Canute the Holy, the peasants of Randers who rose up against him and his plans to attack England and its ruler, William the Conqueror, assembled in this town. Their uprising led to the death of Canute, a chronicle written at Essenbæk Abbey tells of a fire that ravaged the city.
The city was destroyed and rebuilt three times in the 13th century, in 1246, it was burned down by Abel of Denmarks troops during the civil uprising against Eric IV of Denmark. This action led to insurrection against the Germans. Ebbesen died in a battle at Skanderborg Castle in December 1340. A statue to Ebbesen stands in front of Randers Town Hall today, when King Valdemar IV of Denmark tried to assemble a government in 1350 after the mortgaging to the Holsteiners, the town was further reinforced with protection, and was often named as Randershus
François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past and he was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Pariss foremost school of art. Sculpturally, Rodin possessed an ability to model a complex, turbulent. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime and they clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodins most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, Rodin was sensitive to the controversy surrounding his work, but refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the government and the artistic community, by 1900, he was a world-renowned artist.
Wealthy private clients sought Rodins work after his Worlds Fair exhibit and he married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born in 1840 into a family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin. He was largely self-educated, and began to draw at age ten, between ages 14 and 17, Rodin attended the Petite École, a school specializing in art and mathematics, where he studied drawing and painting. His drawing teacher, Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, believed in first developing the personality of his students so that they observed with their own eyes, Rodin still expressed appreciation for his teacher much in life. It was at Petite École that he first met Jules Dalou, in 1857, Rodin submitted a clay model of a companion to the École des Beaux-Arts in an attempt to win entrance, he did not succeed, and two further applications were denied.
Given that entrance requirements at the Grande École were not particularly high, Rodins inability to gain entrance may have been due to the judges Neoclassical tastes, while Rodin had been schooled in light, 18th-century sculpture. Leaving the Petite École in 1857, Rodin earned a living as a craftsman, Rodins sister Maria, two years his senior, died of peritonitis in a convent in 1862. Rodin was anguished and felt guilty because he had introduced Maria to an unfaithful suitor, turning away from art, he briefly joined a Catholic order, the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament. Saint Peter Julian Eymard and head of the congregation, recognized Rodins talent and, sensing his lack of suitability for the order and he returned to work as a decorator, while taking classes with animal sculptor Antoine-Louis Barye. The teachers attention to detail – his finely rendered musculature of animals in motion – significantly influenced Rodin, in 1864, Rodin began to live with a young seamstress named Rose Beuret, with whom he would stay – with ranging commitment – for the rest of his life.
The couple had a son, Auguste-Eugène Beuret and that year, Rodin offered his first sculpture for exhibition, and entered the studio of Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, a successful mass producer of objets dart
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Emil Blichfeldt was a Danish architect who worked in the Historicist style. Emil Blichfeldt was born on 5 November 1849 in Copenhagen and he studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1864 to 1871 while at the same time working as an assistant for Ferdinand Meldahl. He won the Academys small gold medal in 1876 and the gold medal in 1878 with a project for a national museum. His first assignment was under the supervision of Meldahl to plan and oversee the construction of a housing fringe surrounding the Marble Church in Copenhagen
F. M. I was a Danish engineer who pioneered the soil melioration of Jutland. Dalgas was born on 16 July 1828 in Naples, where his father Jean Antoine was the Danish consul and he was baptised Heinrich D. Dalgas. His mother Johanne Tomine née Stibolt was the daughter of a Danish naval officer from a distinguished family, Jean Antoine was descended from Huguenots who settled in Switzerland after the edict of Fontainebleau, whence his grandfather Antoine settled in Denmark. His brother, Carlo Dalgas, was an animal artist. When he was 7, his father died and his mother brought him back to Denmark, Dalgas joined the Danish Army as an officer of the Engineer Corps. He mostly served as a engineer, reaching the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before he moved to the newly established civilian body of the Highway Authority. He served as an officer during the First and Second Schleswig Wars. Dalgas applied the knowledge and skills he gained as a military engineer toward the reclamation and afforestation of western Jutland, after Denmarks defeat in the Schleswig wars and the ensuing loss of territory, the removal of hardpan was considered a national priority.
As he performed assessments of damage, he got to know locals and learn about their concerns. Dalgas was among the forces behind the planting of heaths, for while they had been cultivated before. In 1867, Dalgas founded the Danish Heath Society, with jurist Georg Morville and it added a branch in northern Germany, the Haide-Cultur-Verein. Dalgass work was used by German soil scientist Carl Emeis as the basis for his theory on hardpan and heaths. In 1855 Dalgas married Marie Magdalene Christiane Købke, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Niels Christian Købke and they had three sons, Christian Dalgas, a forester and the director of the Danish Heath Society, Frederik Dalgas, director of the Royal Porcelain Manufactory, and philosopher Ernesto Dalgas. On 16 April 1894, Dalgas died in Aarhus and they had at least one daughter, Ellen Margareth, who emigrated to Brazil and was the mother of engineer and naturalist Johan Dalgas Frisch. Dalgas Avenue in Aarhus, Dalgasgade in Herning and Dalgas Boulevard in Copenhagen are named after him, and a number of Danish cities have erected statues of him
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in part a matter of technique and training. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the depiction of lifeforms, perspective. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of realism, regionalism. There have been various movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the appearance of scenes. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism, realistic art was created in many periods, and it is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.
It becomes especially marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Jan van Eyck, however such realism is often used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had ever seen in real life. It is the choice and treatment of matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting. The development of increasingly accurate representation of the appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy. Pliny the Elders famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects. The art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy and gradually spread across Europe, and accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art.
As in classical times, idealism remained the norm, having led the development of illusionic painting, still life was to be equally significant in its abandonment in Cubism. The depiction of ordinary, everyday subjects in art has a history, though it was often squeezed into the edges of compositions. However these objects are at least largely there because they carry layers of complex significance, pieter Bruegel the Elder pioneered large panoramic scenes of peasant life