1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Tennessee's 3rd congressional district
The 3rd Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Chuck Fleischmann since January 2011; the district comprises two halves, joined together through a narrow tendril in Roane County near Ten Mile. The upper half borders Kentucky to the north and is composed of Scott, Roane and Union counties, as well as most of Campbell County; the lower half borders North Carolina to the Georgia to the south. It is composed of Hamilton, Polk, McMinn, Monroe, the southern half of Bradley County. Traditionally, the third district has centered on Chattanooga, part of the district since before the Civil War. In area, the district is sparsely populated. Half of the district's population lives in Hamilton County, home to Chattanooga; the region is mountainous, due to its location in the Appalachian Mountains. It contains many "natural wonders" such as: The Lost Sea, Frozen Head, Ocoee Whitewater Center, most famously, Lookout Mountain, which contains both Ruby Falls and Rock City from the "See Rock City" signs dotted across the South.
The 3rd District is on the dividing line between counties and towns that favored or opposed Southern secession in the Civil War. George Washington Bridges was elected as a Unionist to the Thirty-seventh Congress, but he was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D. C. and taken back to Tennessee. Bridges was held prisoner for more than a year before he escaped and went to Washington, D. C. and assumed his duties on February 23, 1863. During much of the 20th century, southeastern Tennessee was the only portion of Republican East Tennessee where Democrats were able to compete on a more-or-less basis; the Chattanooga papers—the moderate-to-progressive Times and the archconservative Free Press --printed diametrically-opposed political editorials. The northern counties have predominantly voted Republican since the 1860s, in a manner similar to their neighbors in the present 1st and 2nd districts. However, Democrats have received some support in coal mining areas. In the years since World War II, the government-founded city of Oak Ridge, with its active labor unions and a population derived from outside the region, has been a source of potential Democratic votes.
This balance showed signs of changing beginning in the late 1950s, when rural and working-class whites began splitting their tickets in national elections to support Dwight Eisenhower, Barry Goldwater, Governors Winfield Dunn and Lamar Alexander, Ronald Reagan, two Chattanoogans, U. S. Representative LaMar Baker and Senator Bill Brock, it warmly supported George Wallace in his third-party run for president in 1968. The district has only supported a Democrat for president twice in the last half century, in 1956 and 1992. In those cases, that support was entirely attributable to the presence of native sons as vice presidential candidates. In 1956, Senator Estes Kefauver, who had represented the 3rd from 1939 to 1949, was the Democratic vice presidential candidate. In 1992, Senator Al Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate, but with Gore's presence, the Democrats only carried the 3rd by 39 votes out of 225,000 cast; as the district became friendlier to Republicans at the national level, Democrats still held their own at the local level.
Brock won the congressional seat in 1962. He handed the seat to Baker in 1971, but conservative Democrat Marilyn Lloyd regained it in 1974 and held it for 20 years; as late as the early 1990s, area Democrats held at least half the local offices in the region in the southern portion. As the 1990s wore on, Democrats began losing county and local offices that they had held for generations; this trend began as early as 1992, when Lloyd held onto her seat against Republican Zach Wamp. Lloyd retired in 1994, Wamp narrowly won the race to succeed her as part of that year's massive GOP wave. Wamp was handily reelected in 1996, the Republicans have held it without serious difficulty since then. Indeed, the Democrats have only cleared 40 percent of the vote twice. Redistricting after the 2010 census consolidated the Republican hold on the seat, it is now one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Democrats still remain competitive in some local- and state-level races in Chattanooga and Oak Ridge.
Chattanooga elects some Democrats to the state legislature. However moderately liberal politics are a hard sell, most of the area's Democrats—particularly outside Chattanooga—are quite conservative on social issues; the 3rd District is home to several Evangelical Protestant denominations and colleges, contributing to the area's social conservatism. Republican Zach Wamp of Chattanooga had represented the 3rd District since 1995. After Wamp's January 2009 announcement that he would run for governor in 2010 instead of seeking re-election, several candidates announced campaigns for the seat; as of March 2010, the Republican field included former state party chairwoman Robin Smith, Air Force Captain Rick Kernea, Tommy Crangle, Chattanooga attorney Chuck Fleischmann, Bradley County sheriff Tim Gobble, Art Rhodes, Van Irion, Basil Marceaux. Fleischmann won the August 2010 primary with about 28 % of the total vote. Democratic candidates as of October 2009 were Paula Flowers of Oak Ridge, a former member of Governor Phil Bredesen's cabinet, and
Union County, Tennessee
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,109, its county seat is Maynardville. Union County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Union County was formed in 1850 from portions of Grainger, Campbell and Knox counties. There are at least two theories on the source of its name; the name may commemorate the "union" of sections of five counties, or it may reflect East Tennessee's support for the preservation of the Union in the years before the Civil War. The county seat was named "Liberty," but renamed "Maynardville" in honor of attorney and congressman, Horace Maynard, who had defended the county in a court case that sought to block its formation. In the 1930s, the damming of the Clinch River by Norris Dam to form Norris Lake inundated a large part of the county, including the community of Loyston, displaced many residents. With assistance from the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Tennessee Valley Authority developed Big Ridge State Park as a demonstration park on the shore of the lake in Union County.
The park's recreational facilities opened in May 1934. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 247 square miles, of which 224 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the county is situated in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, a range characterized by long, narrow ridges alternating with similarly-shaped valleys. Prominent ridges in Union County include Hinds Ridge and Lone Mountain; the southern end of Clinch Mountain forms part of the county's border with Grainger County to the east. The Clinch River, Union County's primary stream, flows through the northern part of the county; this section of the river is part of Norris Lake. Big Ridge Dam, a small non-generating dam, impounds an inlet of Norris Lake, creating Big Ridge Lake at Big Ridge State Park; the "Loyston Sea," one of the widest sections of Norris Lake, is located in Union County just north of the state park. Claiborne County Grainger County Knox County Anderson County Campbell County Big Ridge State Park Chuck Swan State Forest At the 2000 census, there were 17,808 people, 6,742 households and 5,191 families residing in the county.
The population density was 80 per square mile. There were 7,916 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.46% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,742 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were non-families. 19.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 2.99. 25.70% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median household income was $27,335 and the median family income was $31,843. Males had a median income of $26,436 versus $18,665 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,375. About 16.80% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.10% of those under age 18 and 27.80% of those age 65 or over. Big Ridge Elementary School Horace Maynard Middle School Luttrell Elementary School Maynardville Elementary School Paulette Elementary School Sharps Chapel Elementary School Tennessee Virtual Academy Union County Alternative Center Grades 6-12 Union County High School Roy Acuff Museum Big Ridge State Park Luttrell Maynardville Plainview Alder Springs Braden Sharps Chapel Loyston Roy Acuff, entertainer Chet Atkins, entertainer Jake Butcher, former banker and politician, convicted of fraud Kenny Chesney, entertainer John Rice Irwin and founder of Museum of Appalachia Florence Reece, who wrote the song "Which Side Are You On?", was born in Sharps Chapel in 1900.
Carl Smith, entertainer National Register of Historic Places listings in Tennessee#Union County Official site Union County Chamber of Commerce Union County Public Schools TNGenWeb Union County at Curlie
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Tennessee, about 25 miles west of Knoxville. Oak Ridge's population was 29,330 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Knoxville Metropolitan Area. Oak Ridge's nicknames include the Atomic City, the Secret City, the Ridge, the City Behind the Fence. Oak Ridge was established in 1942 as a production site for the Manhattan Project—the massive American and Canadian operation that developed the atomic bomb; as it is still the site of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Y-12 National Security Complex, scientific development still plays a crucial role in the city's economy and culture in general. The earliest substantial occupation of the Oak Ridge area occurred during the Woodland period, although artifacts dating to the Paleo-Indian period have been found throughout the Clinch Valley. Two Woodland mound sites—the Crawford Farm Mounds and the Freels Farm Mounds—were uncovered in the 1930s as part of the Norris Basin salvage excavations.
Both sites were located just southeast of the former Scarboro community. The Bull Bluff site, occupied during both the Woodland and Mississippian periods, was uncovered in the 1960s in anticipation of the construction of Melton Hill Dam. Bull Bluff is a cliff located southeast of Haw Ridge, opposite Melton Hill Park; the Oak Ridge area was uninhabited by the time Euro-American explorers and settlers arrived in the late 18th century, although the Cherokee claimed the land as part of their hunting grounds. During the early 19th century, several rural farming communities developed in the Oak Ridge area, namely Edgemoor and Elza in the northeast, East Fork and Wheat in the southwest, Robertsville in the west, Bethel and Scarboro in the southeast; the European-American settlers who founded these communities arrived in the late 1790s following the American Revolutionary War and after the Cherokee signed the Treaty of Holston, ceding what is now Anderson County to the United States. According to local tradition, John Hendrix, an eccentric local resident regarded as a mystic, prophesied the establishment of Oak Ridge some 40 years before construction began.
Upset by the death of his young daughter and the subsequent departure of his wife and remaining family, he became religious and told his neighbors he was seeing visions. When he described his visions, people thought. According to several published accounts, one vision that he described was considered to be a description of the city and production facilities built 28 years after his death, to be used in World War II; the version recalled by neighbors and relatives has been reported as follows: In the woods, as I lay on the ground and looked up into the sky, there came to me a voice as loud and as sharp as thunder. The voice told me to sleep with my head on the ground for 40 nights and I would be shown visions of what the future holds for this land.... And I tell you, Bear Creek Valley someday will be filled with great buildings and factories, they will help toward winning the greatest war that will be, and there will be a city on Black Oak Ridge and the center of authority will be on a spot middle-way between Sevier Tadlock's farm and Joe Pyatt's Place.
A railroad spur will branch off the main L&N line, run down toward Robertsville and branch off and turn toward Scarborough. Big engines will dig big ditches, thousands of people will be running to and fro, they will be building things, there will be great noise and confusion and the earth will shake. I've seen it. It's coming. In 1942, the United States federal government chose the area as a site for developing materials for the Manhattan Project. Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project, liked the area for several reasons, its low population made acquisition affordable, yet the area was accessible by both highway and rail, utilities such as water and electricity were available due to the recent completion of Norris Dam. The project location was established within a 17-mile-long valley; this feature was linear and partitioned by several ridges, providing natural protection against the spread of disasters at the four major industrial plants—so they wouldn't blow up "like firecrackers on a string."When the Governor of Tennessee Prentice Cooper was handed by a junior officer the July 1943 presidential proclamation making Oak Ridge a military district not subject to state control, he tore it up and refused to see the MED Engineer, Lt. Col. James C. Marshall.
The new District Engineer Kenneth Nichols had to placate him. Cooper came to see the project on November 3, 1943. House and dormitory accommodations at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge and Hanford Engineer Works in Washington State were basic, with coal rather than oil or electric furnaces, but they were of a higher standard than Director Groves would have liked, were better than at Los Alamos. Medical care was provided by Army doctors and hospitals, with civilians paying $2.50 per month to the medical insurance fund. The location and low population helped keep the town a secret, though the population of the settlement grew from about 3,000 in 1942 to about 75,000 by 1945; the K-25 uranium-separating facility by itself covered 44 acres and was the largest building in the world at that time. The name "Oak Ridge" was chosen for the settlement in 1943 from among suggestions submitted by project employees; the name related to the settlement's location along Blac