Fraser Canyon Gold Rush
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. Though the rush was over by 1927, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold fields throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo; the rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, the founding of many towns. Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint.
People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement. Within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. 4000 of these Gold Rush pioneers settlers were Chinese. Until that time, the village had had a population of only about 500; this was a record for mass movement of mining populations on the North American frontier though more men in total were involved in the California and Colorado By the fall, tens of thousands of men who had failed to stake claims, or were unable to because of the summer's high water on the river, pronounced the Fraser to be "humbug". Many returned to San Francisco. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet. All these routes were technically illegal since the Governor required that entry to the colony to be made via Victoria, but thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners on the upper Fraser, are therefore difficult to reckon.
During the gold rush tens of thousands of prospectors from California flooded into the newly declared Colony of British Columbia and disrupted the established balance between the Hudson's Bay Company's fur traders and indigenous peoples. The influx of prospectors included numerous European Americans and African Americans, Germans, English Canadians, French Canadians, Italians and French, other European ethnicities, Chinese, West Indians, others. Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, this included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others; the numbers of "Americans" associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented. Alfred Waddington, an entrepreneur and pamphleteer of the gold rush infamous for the disastrous road-building expedition which led to the Chilcotin War of 1864, estimated there were 10,500 miners on the Fraser at the peak of the gold rush.
This estimate did not include the non-mining "hangers-on" population. When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment. Moody had hoped to begin the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hill's Bar; this led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody quashed a group of rebellious American miners. Governor Douglas placed restrictions on immigration to the new British colony, including the proviso that entry to the territory must be made via Victoria and not overland, but thousands of men still arrived via the Okanagan and Whatcom Trails.
Douglas sought to limit the importation of weapons, one of the reasons for the Victoria-disembarkation requirement, but his lack of resources for oversight meant that overland routes to the goldfields could not be controlled. During the fall of 1858, tensions increased between miners and the Nlaka'pamux, the First Nations people of the Canyon; this led to the Fraser Canyon War. Miners wary of venturing upriver beyond Yale began to use the Lakes Route to Lillooet instead, prompting Douglas to contract for the building of the Douglas Road, the Mainland Colony's first public works project; the governor arrived in Yale to accept the apologies of the Americans who had waged war on the natives. Wanting to make the British military and governmental presence more visible, Douglas appointed justices of the peace and revised the slapdash mining rules which had emerged along the river. Troops to maintain order, were still in short supply. Competition and interracial tensions between European Americans and non-white miners erupted on Christmas Eve 1858, with the beating of Isaac Dixon, a freed American black.
He was the town barber and in years was a popular journalist in the Cariboo. Dixon was beaten by two men from Hill's Bar, the other main town in the southern part of the goldfields; the complicated series of events that ensued is known as McGowan's War. Its potential to provoke United State
Seton Lake is a freshwater fjord draining east via the Seton River into the Fraser River at the town of Lillooet, British Columbia, about 22 km long and 243 m in elevation and 26.2 square kilometres in area. Its depth is 1500 feet; the lake is natural in origin but was raised as part of the Bridge River Power Project, the two main powerhouses of which are on the north shore of the upper end of the lake near Shalalth. At the uppermost end of the lake is the community of Seton Portage and the mouth of the short Seton Portage River, which connects Anderson Lake on the farther side of the Portage to Seton Lake; the Seton Portage River is the main source of natural inflow to Seton Lake, is fed by Anderson Lake but by Whitecap Creek, which has its origin on the east slopes of Whitecap Mountain, the highest in the Bendor Range, by Spider Creek, which has its origin on the north slopes of an unnamed summit to the south of Seton Lake, which happens to be the highest of the Cayoosh Range which lines the south flank of the valley.
The Canadian National Railway runs along the north shore of the lake. Prior to the construction of the power project, Seton was considered the bluer and clearer and more brilliant of the two lakes. Afterwards, diversion of the glacial silt-laden waters of the Bridge River into Seton Lake have transformed it into a dull turquoise, Anderson is now considered the bluer of the two lakes; the lake was named in the 1860s by Alexander Caulfield Anderson, who traversed the uncharted territory in 1846, after his cousin and boyhood friend, Lt. Col. Alexander Seton, drowned in the wreck of the troopship HMS Birkenhead off the South African coast in 1852. In 1858 the route of the Douglas Road incorporated the lake passage. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia Aerial view looking W Aerial view looking NW Aerial view looking NW Seton Lake Lookout Hiking Trail
The Peace River is a 1,923-kilometre-long river in Canada that originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows to the northeast through northern Alberta. The Peace River joins the Athabasca River in the Peace-Athabasca Delta to form the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River; the Finlay River, the main headwater of the Peace River, is regarded as the ultimate source of the Mackenzie River. The combined Finlay–Peace–Slave–Mackenzie river system is the 13th longest river system in the world; the regions along the river are the traditional home of the Danezaa people, called the Beaver by the Europeans. The fur trader Peter Pond is believed to have visited the river in 1785. In 1788 Charles Boyer of the North West Company established a fur trading post at the river's junction with the Boyer River. In 1792 and 1793, the explorer Alexander Mackenzie travelled up the river to the Continental Divide. Mackenzie referred to the river as Unjegah, from a native word meaning "large river".
The decades of hostilities between the Danezaa and the Cree, ended in 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the Cree. The Treaty of the Peace was celebrated by the smoking of a ceremonial pipe; the treaty made the Peace River a border, with the Danezaa to the Cree to the South. In 1794, a fur trading post was built on the Peace River at Fort St. John; the rich soils of the Peace River valley in Alberta have been producing wheat crops since the late 19th century. The Peace River region is an important centre of oil and natural gas production. There are pulp and paper plants along the river in Alberta and British Columbia; the Peace River has two navigable sections, separated by the Vermilion Chutes, near Fort Vermilion. The first steam-powered vessel to navigate the Peace River was the Grahame, a Hudson's Bay Company vessel built at Fort Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca. Brothers of the Oblate Order of Mary Immaculate built the St. Charles to navigate the upper reaches of the River, from Fort Vermilion to Hudson's Hope.
A dozen vessels were to navigate the river. Most of the early vessels were wood-burning steamships, fueled by wood cut from the river's shore; the last cargo vessel was the Watson's Lake, retired in 1952. This river is 1,923 kilometres long, it drains an area of 302,500 square kilometres. At Peace Point, where it drains in the Slave River, it has an annual discharge of 68.2 billion cubic metres. A large man-made lake, Williston Lake, has been formed on the upper reaches by the construction of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam for hydroelectric power generation. Prior to its flooding, the confluence of the Finlay and Parsnip Rivers at Finlay Forks was distinct. A half mile east of that location were the half-mile long Finlay Rapids and a further seven miles east is the Peace Pass, which separates the Muskwa Ranges and the Hart Ranges of the Canadian Rockies; the only river cutting through the Rockies, it nowadays flows into Dinosaur Lake, a reservoir for the Peace Canyon Dam. After the dams, the river flows east into Alberta and continues north and east into the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Wood Buffalo National Park, at the western end of Lake Athabasca.
Water from the delta flows into the Slave River east of Peace Point and reaches the Arctic Ocean via the Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River. Communities located directly on the river include: Hudson's Hope, British Columbia Taylor, British Columbia Peace River, Alberta Fort Vermilion, AlbertaMany provincial parks and wildland reserves are established on the river, such as Butler Ridge Provincial Park, Taylor Landing Provincial Park, Beatton River Provincial Park, Peace River Corridor Provincial Park in British Columbia and Dunvegan Provincial Park, Dunvegan West Wildland, Peace River Wildland Provincial Park, Greene Valley Provincial Park, Notikewin Provincial Park, Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta. A few Indian reserves are located on the river banks, among them Beaver Ranch 163, John D'Or Prairie 215, Fox Lake 162, Peace Point 222 and Devil's Gate 220. Tributaries of the Peace River include: List of rivers of Alberta List of rivers of British Columbia List of longest rivers of Canada Steamboats of the Peace River "Peace River".
BC Geographical Names. "Peace Reach". BC Geographical Names. "Peace River Canyon". BC Geographical Names. "Peace Canyon Dam". BC Geographical Names. Http://pgnewspapers.pgpl.ca/fedora/repository Discover The Peace Country
British Columbia Coast
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada. In a sense excluding the urban Lower Mainland area adjacent to the Canada–United States border, considered "The Coast," the British Columbia Coast refers to one of British Columbia's three main regions, the others being the Lower Mainland and The Interior; the aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres in length. However, because of its many deep inlets and complicated island shorelines—and 40,000 islands of varying sizes, including Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii —the total length of the British Columbia Coast is over 25,725 kilometres, making up about 10% of the Canadian coastline at 243,042 kilometres; the coastline's geography, shared with Southeast Alaska and adjoining parts of northwest Washington, is most comparable to that of Norway and its indented coastline of fjords, a landscape found in southern Chile.
The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon. The British Columbia Coast is part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. In the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. In the geoclimatic zones system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests the bulk of the region comprises the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, although small areas flanking the Strait of Georgia at the coast's southern extremity are classed in the Coastal Douglas-fir zone; the great fjords of the British Columbia Coast rival those of Norway in length and depth but have higher mountain scenery with a more alpine flavour. Many of the islands offshore are much larger than those along the Norwegian coast, many large enough to have major fjords of their own, as well as their own mountain ranges.
This is of course more true of the large islands farther offshore, Vancouver Island and Graham and Moresby Islands in Haida Gwaii, which together form the Insular Mountains, distinct from the Coast Mountains of the mainland. Here are the most important fjords, inlets and sounds, including those important for reasons other than their size, listed south to north: The many fjord-like waterways between the coast and the islands, within the archipelago, cannot be listed here, there are many more others that are not so much fjord-like as flooded valleys between what had been mountain peaks many thousands of years ago, when the shoreline was lower; the waterway route through these islands between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, between Seattle and Alaska, is known as the Inside Passage. It has played a role in U. S.-Canada relations more than once, from the Klondike Gold Rush to the Salmon War of the 1990s. Major and important waterways are: Vancouver Island Haida Gwaii Graham Island Moresby Island Louise Island Lyell Island Kunghit Island Porcher Island Pitt Island McCauley Island Banks Island Gil Island Gribbell Island Hawkesbury Island Princess Royal Island Aristazabal Island Price Island Swindle Island Campbell Island Denny Island Hunter Island King Island Calvert Island Caamano Island Malcolm Island Broughton Archipelago Broughton Island Gilford Island Knight Inlet West/East Cracroft Islands Knight Inlet Hardwicke Island Johnstone Strait Discovery Islands East Thurlow Island West Thurlow Island Sonora Island Maurelle Island Read Island Raza Island Quadra Island Cortes Island East Redonda Island West Redonda Island Hernando Island Stuart Island Rendezvous Islands Nelson Island Northern Gulf Islands: Savary Island Texada Island Lasqueti Island Hornby Island Denman Island The above list ends at the northern Strait of Georgia, the last several forming a group known as the northern Gulf Islands.
The southern Gulf Islands are as follows: Gabriola Island Valdes Island Thetis Island Kuiper Island Saltspring Island Prevost Island Galiano Island Mayne Island North Pender Island South Pender Island Saturna Island Sidney Island James IslandThe Gulf Islands continue southeast across the Haro Straits as the San Juan Islands. The islands of Howe Sound are classed among the southern Gulf Islands, but they adjoin the mainland rather than Vancouver Island and are considered separately, they are: Bowen Island Gambier Island Anvil Island Keats island Bowyer IslandThe islands of the Fraser River estuary are: Barnston Island Lulu Island Sea Island Westham Island Iona Island Deas Island Annacis Island Research from the 1990s has indicated that the Ice Age-era coastline of the British Columbia Coast was lower by about 100 metres. The effect of the waterlevel on the coastline was such that the Queen Charlotte Strait, between Haida Gwaii and the northern end of Vancouver Island, was a coastal plain, as were all the straits inland from it, except for those that were mountain valleys.
Underwater archaeology has shown the presence of permanent human habitations and other activity at the 100-metre contour, the Ice Age existence of such a coastal plain has put a new light on Ice Age populations in North America as well as on the strong likeli
The Stikine River is a river also the Stickeen River 610 km long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in southeast Alaska in the United States. Its Grand Canyon represents, at the top grade in difficulty for a kayak descent. Considered one of the last wild major rivers in British Columbia, it drains a rugged pristine, area east of the Coast Mountains, cutting a fast-flowing course through the mountains in deep glacier-lined gorges to empty into Eastern Passage, just north of the city of Wrangell, situated at the north end of Wrangell Island in the Alexander Archipelago; the meaning is in Smalgyax-Tsimshian and is "Stik'iin" and is a name for the Tahltan people who live up in the rivers interior. They, Tsimshian-Nisga, named the river after the people; the BC Names branch, say its Tlingit meaning is "great river" or "the definitive, or great river" as reported by Captain Rowan of the Boston trader Eliza in 1799. Its Russian name, first reported in Russian was Ryka Stahkin, in 1848, changed to its current form in 1869 after the Alaska Purchase in 1869.
In the wording of that a letter to Secretary Seward, "Purchase of the Russian Possessions in North America by the U. S. A.", a letter from a Mr. Collins, dated 4 April 1867, New York, was St. Francis River, it has been known as Pelly's River, variously spelled Shikene, Stachin, Stah-Keena, Stakeen, Stickienes, Stikin, Sucheen. The Stikine watershed encompasses 52,000 square kilometres; the glacier-laden lower Stikine was compared by naturalist John Muir to Yosemite. The Stikine River arises in the Spatsizi Plateau, the southeasternmost subplateau of the Stikine Plateau, a large and mountainous plateau lying between the Stikine Ranges of the Cassiar Mountains and the Boundary Ranges in northern British Columbia. From there the river flows in a large northward arc turning to the west and southwest, past the gold rush and Tahltan community of Telegraph Creek. Above Telegraph Creek is the spectacular 45-mile -long and 300 m -deep Grand Canyon of the Stikine, the upper end of, in the area of the 130th Line of Longitude.
Below Telegraph Creek, at the head of river navigation during the Stikine and Cassiar Gold Rushes, the river cuts through the Tahltan Highland and in this region are the confluences of the Tuya and Tahltan Rivers. Much farther down, nearer the U. S. border, is the confluence of the Iskut and several other notably large rivers such as the Porcupine and Chutine. After passing Great Glacier and Choquette Hot Springs Provincial Parks and the old border-station at Stikine, British Columbia, it passes through a steeply cut gorge in the Boundary Ranges along the Canada–U. S. Border, above that Grand Canyon of the Stikine, it enters southeast Alaska for its lower 64 km to form a delta opposite Mitkof Island 40 km north of Wrangell. The Stikine's north arm empties into Frederick Sound while its main arm and southern distributaries empty into Sumner Strait and Stikine Strait. Other oceanic bodies of water that are influenced by the Stikine's estuary include the fjord-channel Eastern Passage separating Wrangell Island from the mainland and the shallow tidal Dry Strait separating Mitkof Island from the mainland.
The outlet of the river is now in Alaska, but at the time of the boundary survey in 1901–03 it had been at the boundary. According to the terms of the treaty, as per prior usage by mining and commercial traffic in the Stikine, Canadian marine traffic technically has the right of navigation of this river from the sea, independent of U. S. border controls, but this is no longer in practical effect through disuse and because of the relocation of the river's mouth. The Stikine's main tributaries are, in descending order from its source: Duti River Chukachida River Spatsizi River Pitman River McBride River Klappan River Little Klappan River Tanzilla River Klastline River Tuya River Little Tuya River Tahltan River Little Tahltan River Chutine River Porcupine River Choquette River Scud River Iskut River Little Iskut River Tasakili River The river is navigable for 210 km upstream from its mouth, it was used by the coastal Tlingit as a transportation route to the interior region. The first European to explore the river was Samuel Black, who visited the headwaters during his Finlay River expedition in 1824.
It was more extensively explored in 1838 by Robert Campbell, of the Hudson's Bay Company, completing the last link in the company's transcontinental canoe route. In 1879 the lower third was travelled by John Muir who likened it to "a Yosemite, a hundred miles long". Muir recorded over 300 glaciers along the river's course; the Grand Canyon of the Stikine has been navigated by less than 50 expert whitewater kayakers. It is considered one of the world's most difficult whitewater rivers in that particular section. From 1897 to 1898 it was one of the laborious routes to the Klondike Gold Rush in the Yukon Territory. Several railway schemes were floated to provide an "All Canadian" route to the Dawson goldfields—A Teslin Railway, Omineca Railway, the Canadian Yukon Railway promoted by the CPR. Railway contractors were hired and ready to build the route, though the Federal Senate and American government prevented the 500-mile project from proceeding. Several river steamers were built to haul materials to Glenora to aid the project.
The first road bridge was built across the river in the 1970s as part of the Stewart-Cassiar Highway. In 1978, BC Hydro began to study the feasibility of building a two-dam project on the S
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known