A basketball uniform is a type of uniform worn by basketball players. Basketball uniforms consist of a jersey that features the number and last name of the player on the back, as well as shorts and athletic shoes. Within teams, players wear uniforms representing the team colors. Different basketball leagues have different specifications for the type of uniform, allowed on the court. Early in the history of the sport, basketball was played in any type of athletic attire, but by the 1900s, special uniforms were developed and marketed to basketball players; the style and fit of basketball uniforms evolved throughout subsequent decades modeled after the general fashion trends of the day. Basketball was played in any type of athletic attire, ranging from track suits to football uniforms; the first official basketball uniforms, as displayed in the Spalding catalog of 1901, featured three types of pants: knee-length padded pants, similar to those worn for playing football, as well as shorter pants and knee-length tights.
There were two types of a quarter-length sleeve and a sleeveless version. The long pants evolved into medium-length shorts in the 1920s, by the 1930s, the material used for jerseys changed from heavy wool to the lighter polyester and nylon. In the 1970s and 80s, uniforms became tighter-fitting and shorts were shorter, consistent with the overall fashion trends of these two decades. At this time, women's basketball uniforms transitioned from longer-sleeved uniforms to tank-top style jerseys similar to men's basketball uniforms, which more explicitly showed off players' muscle tone. In 1984, Michael Jordan asked for longer shorts and helped popularize the move away from tight, short shorts toward the longer, baggier shorts worn by basketball players today. Throughout the 1990s, basketball uniforms fell under the influence of hip hop culture, with shorts becoming longer and looser-fitting, team colors brighter, designs more flashy and suggestive of rappers' bling. At the turn of the 21st century, basketball uniforms became more oversized and loose-fitting.
For the Christmas Day games of 2013, the NBA and its apparel partner Adidas introduced a newly designed sleeved jersey with large team and NBA logos on the front. Marketers for the new uniforms realized that fans were unwilling to wear sleeveless jerseys in their day-to-day life and hoped the new sleeved jerseys would be more popular for everyday wear. However, it was a "not-so-well-kept secret that the NBA wanted to implement jersey ads in the years following the introduction of sleeved jerseys" as the "sleeves allow more space for potential partners to add their corporate logos to jerseys" like association football. After the league deal with Adidas expired and Nike signed on as the new apparel partner, the sleeved jersey did not continue; the sleeved jersey was controversial among players. LeBron James famously ripped the sleeves off during a prime time game against the New York Knicks in 2015, but in the 2016 NBA Finals James convinced his teammates to wear the sleeved jerseys in Game 5 and again in the title-clinching Game 7.
In 1903, a special basketball shoe with suction cups to prevent slippage was added to the official basketball uniform demonstrated in the Spalding catalog. Over the decades, different shoe brands and styles were popular as basketball shoes: Chuck Taylor All-Stars and Keds in the 1960s and 70s. In the 1970s, Slick Watts and Bill Walton began to wear headbands, which soon became popular with other players. Rick Barry popularized wrist-bands, other players soon created variations, such as bands that covered their forearms or biceps; these were used to wipe off sweat, or worn as fashion statements. In professional basketball leagues today, teams playing at home wear lighter-colored uniforms than the visiting team; as of the 2017–18 season, the NBA has eliminated the distinction between designated "home" and "away" uniforms. The home team is now allowed to wear any uniform color it chooses, while its opponent may wear any color that sufficiently contrasts with the home team's choice. In the NBA, basketball shorts must fall at least 1 inch above the knee, T-shirts cannot be worn under the jersey – however, they are permitted in American college basketball.
Some NBA and WNBA teams have allowed sponsors' logos to appear on their uniforms. Uniforms are made of wicking material designed to ensure that it evaporates faster, they are the product of a four-year study researching professional basketball players, who identified the need for fewer seams, lighter weight, faster drying and cooling in their jerseys. The main difference between U. S. basketball uniforms and those of other countries is the appearance of sponsorship iconography. S. uniforms feature center. For the 2017-18 season, some U. S. teams have started putting sponsorship logos on their jerseys on the upper left of the jersey, a maximum of 2.5 inches by 2.5 inches. Sportswear
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
Anderson is a city in and the county seat of Madison County, United States. It is the principal city of the Anderson, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Madison County. Anderson is the headquarters of the Church of God and home of Anderson University, affiliated with Christian denomination. Highlights of the city include the Gruenewald Historic House; the population was 56,129 at the 2010 census. This is down from 70,000 in 1970. Prior to the organization of Madison County, William Conner entered the land upon which Anderson is located. Conner sold the ground to John and Sarah Berry, who donated 32 acres of their land to Madison County on the condition that the county seat be moved from Pendleton to Anderson. John Berry laid out the first plat of Anderson on November 7, 1827. In 1828 the seat of justice was moved from Pendleton to Anderson; the city is named for Chief William "Adam" Anderson, whose mother was a Delaware Indian and whose father was of Swedish descent. Chief Anderson's Indian name was Kikthawenund meaning "creaking boughs".
The Delaware village was known as Anderson's Town, though the Moravian Missionaries called it "The Heathen Town Four Miles Away." Anderson was known as Andersonton before being formally organized as Anderson. Introduction of internal improvements by the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act caused a growth in the population in 1837. In December, 1838, Anderson was incorporated as a town with 350 inhabitants; the Central Canal, a branch of the Wabash and Erie Canal, was planned to come through Anderson. Work continued on the canal during 1838 and the beginning of 1839, but work on the canal was soon suspended by the state following the Panic of 1837; the town again became a sleepy village until 1849. Many new commercial ventures located around the Courthouse Square; this incorporation was short-lived and Anderson once again went back to village status in 1852. However, with the completion of the Indianapolis Bellefontaine Railroad, as well as their station in 1852, Anderson burst to life; the third incorporation of Anderson as a town occurred on June 9, 1853.
The population continued to increase. On August 28, 1865, with a population was nearly 1,300 people, Anderson was incorporated as a city. Between 1853 and the late 19th century, twenty industries of various sizes located there. On March 31, 1887, natural gas was discovered in Anderson; as the Indiana Gas Boom began, this discovery led new businesses that could use natural gas, such as glass-making, to move to the city. Anderson grew to such proportions that a Cincinnati newspaper editor labeled the city "The Pittsburgh on White River." Other appellations were "Queen City of the Gas Belt" and "Puncture Proof City." In 1897 the Interurban Railroad was born in Anderson. Charles Henry, a large stock holder, coined the term "Interurban" in 1893, it continued to operate until 1941. The year 1912 spelled disaster for Anderson: the natural gas ran out, due to the residents squandering their resources; the city left its gas powered lights on day and night, there are stories of a pocket of natural gas being lit in the river and burning for a prolonged period for the spectacle of it.
The result of the loss of natural gas was. The whole city slowed down; the Commercial Club was the forerunner of the present chamber of commerce. This club persuaded the Remy brothers to stay in others to locate there. For decades, Delco Remy and Guide Lamp, during World War II built the M3, M3a1 submachine gun and the liberator pistol for the allies, were the top two employers in the city. From 1913 through the 1950s, the Ward-Stilson Company was one of the country's largest producers of uniforms, regalia and props for the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows and dozens of other U. S. fraternal organizations. The Church of God of Anderson located its world headquarters in Anderson in 1905. Anderson Bible School was opened in 1917, this was separated from Gospel Trumpet in 1925. At the same time, it became known as Seminary. In 1925, the name was changed to Anderson College and to Anderson University in 1988. Over the years, 17 different types of automobiles were manufactured in Anderson with the Lambert family among the city's leaders in its development and Buckeye Gasoline Buggy the Lambert product.
Many other inventions were perfected in Anderson including: the gas regulator, the stamp vending machine, clothes presser, "Irish Mail" handcars, flower car for funeral homes, Sisson choke, the vulcanizing process to retread tires. Like most other industrial cities in Indiana and the Rust Belt as a whole, Anderson suffered tremendously from deindustrialization in the 1970s and 1980s. For example, nearly 22,000 people were employed by General Motors in the 1970s. Anderson has since struggled with higher rates of unemployment. Anderson is located at 40°06′00″N 85°40′53″W; the city of Anderson is located in parts of six townships: Anderson, Richland, Lafayette and Fall Creek. According to the 2010 census, Anderson has a total area of 41.479 square miles, of which 41.37 square miles is land and 0.109 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, there were people and families residing in the city; the population density was 1,356.8 inhabitants per s
Frank Sands Brian was an American professional basketball player. A 6’1" guard from Louisiana State University, Brian signed with the Anderson Packers of the National Basketball League in 1947. In 1949 the NBL and BAA merged to form the NBA, he scored 2,442 points in three seasons with the Packers joined the Chicago Stags of the NBA when the Packers franchise folded following the 1949–1950 season. The Stags traded Brian to the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, whom Brian represented as an NBA All-Star in 1951. Brian earned All-NBA Second Teams honors in 1951 after averaging 16.8 points, 3.9 assists and 3.6 rebounds. Frank Led Tri-Cities Blackhawks in scoring in 1951. Frank was 5th in the League with his 1,144 points for the Blackhawks during 1951–1952 season. In May 1951, the Blackhawks traded Brian to the Fort Wayne Pistons for Dick Mehen. Frank led Ft. Wayne Pistons in scoring in 1952 & 1953, ranking 6th in the league with 1,051 points during the 1951–52 season. Brian had five productive seasons with the Pistons, who went to the NBA Championships in 1955 and 1956, he retired in 1956 with 6,663 combined NBL/NBA career points.
Basketball All-American at LSU and 2-time All-Southeast Conference. National All-AAU Basketball Team. National Basketball League All-Rookie 2-Time NBL All-Star Nicknamed "Flash" for being one of the League's fastest players. NBA Basketball Pioneer...played in first 7 seasons of NBA history Played in first two NBA All-Star games All-NBA Led Tri-Cities Blackhawks in scoring in 1951. Was 5th in the League with his 1,144 points for the Blackhawks during 1951–1952 season. Ranked 6th in the league with 1,051 points during the 1951–52 season with the Fort Wayne Pistons. Led Ft. Wayne Pistons in scoring in 1952 & 1953. Anked in Top-6 in NBA in scoring for 3 consecutive seasons Led NBA in Games Played in 1952 2nd Best Free Throw Percentage in NBA in 1955 Played in 1955 and 1956 NBA Championships. Played in first NBA Championship Series of the Shot Clock Era Scored 6,663 points in 10-year professional career. Inducted into the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame in 1986. Inducted into the LSU Hall of Fame on September 13, 2013.
Brian died on May 14, 2017 in Zachary, aged 94. Jimmy Smith, "Playing in the first NBA All-Star Game an unforgettable memory for 90-year-old Frank Brian of Zachary", nola.com, Feb. 11, 2014 Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com
The Waterloo Hawks were a National Basketball League and National Basketball Association team based in Waterloo, Iowa. The Hawks remain the only sports franchise based in Iowa from any of the current Big Four Leagues; the Waterloo Hawks were founded in 1948. In 1949, the National Basketball League was absorbed by its rival, the Basketball Association of America, forming the National Basketball Association. In the 1949–1950 season, their first and only one in the NBA, they finished 19–43, fifth out of six in the Western Division; the National Basketball Association contracted after the 1949–1950 season. The league went from 17 teams to 11 before the 1950–1951 season started. Midway through the 1950–1951 season, the Washington Capitols folded as well, bringing the number of teams in the league down to ten. Meanwhile, the National Professional Basketball League was formed around the former NBA teams, with teams added in new larger markets; the charter teams were the East Division: Sheboygan Redskins, Anderson Packers, Louisville Alumnites and Grand Rapids Hornets.
West Division: Denver Refiners/Evansville Agogans, Saint Paul Lights, Kansas City Hi-Spots and Waterloo Hawks. The Waterloo Hawks played at the Hippodrome known as McElroy Auditorium; the arena is still in use today and is located at 250 Ansborough Ave, Waterloo, IA 50701. It houses the Iowa Roll Hall of Fame. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, % = Win–Loss % Charley Shipp Jack Smiley List of defunct National Basketball Association teams Waterloo Hawks all-time roster Waterloo Hawks Complete History NBL Logoserver Website NBL Standings NPBL Standings Iowa's NBA team from The Des Moines Register Promoter put Hawks on an NBA track from The Des Moines Register
Meat packing industry
The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs and other livestock. Poultry is not included; this greater part of the entire meat industry is focused on producing meat for human consumption, but it yields a variety of by-products including hides, dried blood, through the process of rendering, fat such as tallow and protein meals such as meat & bone meal. In the U. S. and some other countries, the facility where the meat packing is done is called a slaughterhouse, packinghouse or a meat packing plant. An abattoir is a place; the meat packing industry grew with the construction of the railroads and methods of refrigeration for meat preservation. Railroads made possible the transport of stock to central points for processing, the transport of products. Before the Civil War, the meat industry was localized, with nearby farmers providing beef and hogs for local butchers to serve the local market. Large Army contracts during the war attracted entrepreneurs with a vision for building much larger markets.
The 1865–1873 era provided five factors that nationalized the industry: The rapid growth of cities provided a lucrative new market for fresh meat. The emergence of large-scale ranching, the role of the railroads and entrepreneurial skills. Cattle ranching on a large-scale move to the Great Plains, from Texas northward. Overland cattle drives moved large herds to the railheads in Kansas, where cattle cars brought live animals eastward. Abilene, became the chief railhead, shipping 35,000 cattle a year to Kansas City and Chicago. In Milwaukee, Philip Armour, an ambitious entrepreneur from New York who made his fortune in Army contracts during the war, partnered with Jacob Plankinton to build a efficient stockyard that serviced the upper Midwest. Chicago built the famous Union Stockyards in 1865 on 345 swampy acres to the south of downtown. Armour opened the Chicago plant, as did another wartime contractor. Cincinnati and Buffalo, both with good water and rail service opened stockyards. Most energetic entrepreneur was Gustavus Franklin Swift, the Yankee who operated out of Boston and moved to Chicago in 1875, specializing in long distance refrigerated meat shipments to eastern cities.
A practical refrigerated rail car was introduced in 1881. This made it possible to ship cattle and hog carcasses, which weighed only 40% as much as live animals. Swift developed an integrated network of cattle procurement, meat-packing and shipping meat to market. Up to that time cattle were driven great distances to railroad shipping points, causing the cattle to lose considerable weight. Swift developed a large business; the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of legislation that led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration. Another such act passed; the new laws helped the large packers, hurt small operations that lacked economy of scale or quality controls. Historian William Cronon concludes: Because of the Chicago packers, ranchers in Wyoming and feedlot farmers in Iowa found a reliable market for their animals, on average received better prices for the animals they sold there. At the same time and for the same reason, Americans of all classes found a greater variety of more and better meats on their tables, purchased on average at lower prices than before.
Seen in this light, the packers' "rigid system of economy" seemed a good thing indeed. In the early part of the 19th century, they used the most recent immigrants and migrants as strikebreakers in labor actions taken by other workers usually immigrants or early descendants; the publication of the Upton Sinclair novel The Jungle in the U. S. in 1906, shocked the public with the poor working conditions and unsanitary practices in meat packing plants in the United States Chicago. Meat packing plants, like many industries in the early 20th century, were known to overwork their employees, failed to maintain adequate safety measures, fought unionization. Public pressure to U. S. Congress led to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act, both passed in 1906 on the same day to ensure better regulations of the meat packing industry as well as better treatment of its employees working there. Before the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, workers were exposed to dangerous chemicals, sharp machinery, horrible injuries.
In the 1920s and early 1930s, workers achieved unionization under the CIO's United Packinghouse Workers of America. An interracial committee led the organizing in Chicago, where the majority of workers in the industry were black, other major cities, such as Omaha, where they were an important minority in the industry. UPWA workers made important gains in wages and benefits. In 1957 the stockyards and meat packing employed half the workers of Omaha; the union supported a progressive agenda, including the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. While the work was still difficult, for a few decades workers achieved blue-collar, middle-class lives from it. Though the meat packing industry has made many improvements since the early 1900s, extensive changes in the industry since the late 20th century have caused new labor issues to arise. Today, the rate of injury in the meat packing industry is three times that of private
John Hargis (basketball)
John Arlington "Shotgun" Hargis was an American professional basketball player, first in the National Basketball League and in the National Basketball Association. He was born in Nacogdoches and attended Nacogdoches High School. Hargis enrolled in the University of Texas at Austin in the early 1940s and played college basketball there. In both 1942–43 and 1946–47, he led the Longhorns to the NCAA Final Four, where they would lose to eventual national champion Wyoming and win the third-place game over CCNY, respectively. In each of those two seasons he was named All-Southwest Conference and, in 1947, a consensus Second Team All-American. After the 1943 season, Hargis enlisted in the United States military and fought in World War II for three years returned to Austin to finish college in 1947. After school, Hargis played for the Anderson Packers for three seasons split time between the Fort Wayne Pistons and Tri-Cities Blackhawks during his fourth and final year as a professional. For the first two years, the Packers were a member of the NBL.
In 1949–50, they merged into the NBA. As a rookie in 1947–48, Hargis was second on the team in scoring. In his second season, he scored 444 points, in his final season with the Packers, Hargis averaged 10.7 ppg while scoring 643 points. In addition to moderate personal success, the Packers won the NBL championship in Hargis' second year on the team. In April 1948, Hargis played in final edition of the World Professional Basketball Tournament with the Packers and earned "second all-tournament team" honour after scoring 34 points in 3 games. In April 1950, Hargis was drafted by the Fort Wayne Pistons from the Anderson Packers in a dispersal draft because their franchise had folded. After only playing in a handful of games for the Pistons, he was sold in December 1950 to the Tri-Cities Blackhawks. Hargis finished out the rest of the season with them but was not re-signed to any team and never played professionally again. A Hargis' statistical totals only account for his two seasons in the NBA, they do not include his two years in the NBL