Abellio ScotRail, operating services under the name ScotRail, is the Dutch-owned national train operating company of Scotland. A subsidiary of Abellio, it has operated the ScotRail franchise since 1 April 2015. In November 2013, Transport Scotland announced that Abellio, FirstGroup, MTR Corporation and National Express had been shortlisted to bid for the new ScotRail franchise. In October 2014, the franchise was awarded to Abellio; the franchise will operate for 7 years with a 3-year extension available contingent on performance criteria being met. Abellio began operating the franchise on 1 April 2015 and it opened the Borders Railway on 6 September 2015. In June 2016, the RMT union announced that train guards would be going on strike several times during the summer months in protest at more driver only trains. Six 24-hour and three 48-hour strikes were held on ScotRail services during June and July 2016. An agreement was reached in September 2016, it was agreed that the new Class 385 trains will have the doors controlled by both the driver and guard, with the driver opening the doors and the guard closing them.
On 20 January 2017 the Managing Director of ScotRail and the ScotRail alliance stepped down from his role after 18 months in the company. Within a few days Alex Hynes was named as the new Managing Director. Abellio ScotRail took over all of the services operated by First ScotRail on 1 April 2015, except for the Caledonian Sleeper services, which were transferred to a separate franchise operated by Serco; the franchise agreement requires the introduction of'Great Scottish Scenic Railway' trains on the West Highland, Far North, Borders Railway and Glasgow South Western lines. Steam special services are promoted by Abellio ScotRail. Current off-peak services are as follows. Abellio ScotRail operates 352 stations in Scotland. Not included are Glasgow Prestwick Airport station and operated by the airport, as well as both Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central, which are managed by Network Rail. Abellio ScotRail operates Lockerbie though none of its services call there, it took over management of Dunbar operated by Virgin Trains East Coast, in June 2015.
Abellio ScotRail's fleet is maintained at Edinburgh Haymarket, Glasgow Eastfield, Glasgow Shields Road, Corkerhill Glasgow Yoker, Ayr Townhead and Inverness as well as a newly built EMU stabling depot at Millerhill in Midlothian. Abellio ScotRail operates a diverse fleet of EMUs and loco-hauled stock. From Sunday 10 December 2017, Class 380 EMUs were introduced onto services between Glasgow and Edinburgh via Falkirk High; this was the first step in creating an electric service between the two cities, now expected to start in October 2018 with Class 385 EMUs, which should have entered service in December 2017, but have been delayed due to a windscreen fault. Abellio ScotRail began operations with the rolling stock below transferred from First ScotRail: Abellio ScotRail has mentioned the following as part of the future rolling stock. Abellio ScotRail were meant to introduce a brand new fleet of 46 three-car and 24 four-car Class 385 electric trains from December 2017, to operate services on the lines being electrified as part of the Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme.
However, due to infrastructure problems, issues with the trains involving software and windscreen issues, their introduction was delayed until September. In the meantime Abellio ScotRail hired 10 Class 365 units from Great Northern. If Abellio is granted a three-year optional franchise extension, it will order a further 10 three-car Class 385 units. From October 2018, Abellio ScotRail introduced former GWR HSTs on services between Edinburgh, Glasgow and Inverness, branded as "Inter7City" in reference to Scotland's seven main cities; the Mark 3 coaches, up to 40 years old, were intended to all have refurbished interiors and are fitted with powered doors. There will be 26 sets: 9 four-car trains; as with the Class 385’s there have been delays getting the refurbished trains into service. As a result a considerable number have been pressed in to service without refurbishment to allow for others to have refurbishment completed; this new rolling stock will result in ten Class 156, eight Class 158 and 21 Class 170 sets returning to their leasing companies when their leases expire in 2018.
Transport Scotland negotiated to retain an extra 13 Class 170s to support services through Fife to Aberdeen and the Borders railway. Northern will receive five of all the 158s and 16 of the 170s. In June 2018 it was announced that ScotRail will lease 5 Class 153 and reconfigure them to accommodate bikes and other outdoors sports equipment; the Class 153 will be attached to ScotRail Class 156s which will operate the line from Summer 2019 travelling between Glasgow, Fort William and Mallaig and may be introduced on Northern lines between Inverness, Kyle of Lochalsh and Wick. Media related to Abellio ScotRail at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Caledonian Railway was a major Scottish railway company. It was formed in the early 19th century with the objective of forming a link between English railways and Glasgow, it progressively extended its network and reached Edinburgh and Aberdeen, with a dense network of branch lines in the area surrounding Glasgow. It was absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway in 1923. Many of its principal routes are still used, the original main line between Carlisle and Glasgow is in use as part of the West Coast Main Line railway. In the mid-1830s railways in England evolved from local concerns to longer routes that connected cities, became networks. In Scotland it was clear that this was the way forward, there was a desire to connect the central belt to the incipient English network. There was controversy over the route that such a line might take, but the Caledonian Railway was formed on 31 July 1845 and it opened its main line between Glasgow and Carlisle in 1848, making an alliance with the English London and North Western Railway.
In the obituary of the engineer Richard Price-Williams written in 1916 the contractor of the Caledonian Railway is stated to be Thomas Brassey and the civil engineer George Heald. Although the company was supported by Scottish investors, more than half of its shares were held in England. Establishing itself as an inter-city railway, the Caledonian set about securing territory by leasing other authorised or newly built lines, fierce competition developed with other, larger Scottish railways the North British Railway and the Glasgow and South Western Railway; the company remained less than successful in others. A considerable passenger traffic developed on the Firth of Clyde serving island resorts, fast boat trains were run from Glasgow to steamer piers. In 1923 the railways of Great Britain were "grouped" under the Railways Act 1921 and the Caledonian Railway was a constituent of the newly formed London Midland and Scottish Railway, it extended from Aberdeen to Portpatrick, from Oban to Carlisle, running express passenger services and a heavy mineral traffic.
In the closing years of the 18th century, the pressing need to bring coal cheaply to Glasgow from the plentiful Monklands coalfield had been met by the construction of the Monkland Canal, opened throughout in 1794. This encouraged development of the coalfield but dissatisfaction at the monopoly prices said to be exacted by the canal led to the construction of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, Scotland's first public railway. Development of the use of blackband ironstone by David Mushet, the invention of the hot blast process of iron smelting by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 led to a huge and rapid increase in iron production and demand for the ore and for coal in the Coatbridge area; the industrial development led to the construction of other railways contiguous with the M&KR, in particular the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway and the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. These two lines worked in harmony, merging to form the Glasgow and Coatbridge Railway in 1841, competing with the M&KR and its allies.
All these lines used the local track gauge of 4 ft 6 in, they were referred to as the coal lines. During this period, the first long-distance railways were opened in England, it was followed by the London and Birmingham Railway in 1838 and the Grand Junction Railway in 1837, the North Union Railway reaching Preston in 1838, so that London was linked with the Lancashire and West Midlands centres of industry. It was desirable to connect central Scotland into the emerging network. At first it was assumed that only one route from Scotland to England would be feasible, there was considerable controversy over the possible route. A major difficulty was the terrain of the Southern Uplands: a route running through the hilly lands would involve steep and lengthy gradients that were challenging for the engine power of the time. Many competing schemes were put forward, not all of them well thought out, two successive Government commissions examined them. However, they did not have mandatory force, after considerable rivalry, the Caledonian Railway obtained an authorising Act of Parliament on 31 July 1845, for lines from Glasgow and Edinburgh to Carlisle.
The share capital was to be £1,800,000. The Glasgow and Edinburgh lines combined at Carstairs in Clydesdale, the route crossed over Beattock summit and continued on through Annandale; the promoters had engaged in a frenzy of provisional acquisitions of other lines being put forward or being constructed, as they considered it was vital to secure territory to their own control and to exclude competing concerns as far as possible. However, if they hoped to operate the only Anglo-Scottish route, they were disappointed; the North British Railway opened between Edinburgh and Berwick-upon-Tweed on 22 June 1846, forming part of what has become the East Coast Main Line
A turnstile called a baffle gate or turnstyle, is a form of gate which allows one person to pass at a time. It can be made so as to enforce one-way traffic of people, in addition, it can restrict passage only to people who insert a coin, a ticket, a pass, or similar, thus a turnstile can be used in the case of paid access, for example to access public transport, a pay toilet, or to restrict access to authorized people, for example in the lobby of an office building. Turnstiles were used, like other forms of stile, to allow human beings to pass while keeping sheep or other livestock penned in; the use of turnstiles in most modern applications has been credited to Clarence Saunders, who used them in his first Piggly Wiggly store. Turnstiles are used at a wide variety of settings, including stadiums, amusement parks, mass transit stations, office lobbies, ski resorts, power plants and casinos. From a business/revenue standpoint, turnstiles give an accurate, verifiable count of attendance. From a security standpoint, they lead patrons to enter single-file, so security personnel have a clear view of each patron.
This enables security to efficiently isolate potential trouble or to confiscate any prohibited materials. On the other hand, physical barriers become a serious safety issue when a speedy evacuation is needed, requiring emergency exits that bypass any turnstiles. Persons with disabilities may have difficulties using turnstiles. In these cases a wide aisle gate or a manual gate may be provided. At some locations where luggage is expected, a line of turnstiles may be formed of wide aisle gates, for example at Heathrow Terminals 2 & 3 Underground station. Turnstiles use ratchet mechanisms to allow the rotation of the stile in one direction allowing ingress but preventing rotation in the other direction, they are designed to operate only after a payment has been made by inserting a coin or token in a slot. Turnstiles are used for counting the numbers of people passing through a gate when payment is not involved, they are used extensively in this manner in amusement parks, in order to keep track of how many people enter and exit the park and ride each ride.
The first major use of turnstiles at a sporting venue was at Hampden Park in Scotland. Waist-high turnstiles are used in fairs and arenas; the user inserts a pass into the slot, from which a barcode is read. Sometimes referred to as "half-height" turnstiles, this fixed arm style has traditionally been the most popular type of turnstile. There are many variations of this style available, including one, designed to be accompanied by a matching ticket box, one with a ticket box built in; some styles are designed to allow entry only after a payment are inserted, while others allow access after a valid barcode is electronically read. A disadvantage to this type is people can "jump the turnstile" as happens on the Moscow Metro and other mass transport systems in Russia. Optical turnstiles are an alternative to the traditional "arm"-style turnstile and are used in locations where a physical barrier is deemed unnecessary or unaesthetic. Optical turnstiles use an infrared beam to count patrons and recognize anyone attempting to enter a site without a valid entry pass.
The drop arm optical turnstile is a combination of the security of a tripod or barrier turnstile and a optical turnstile. The lanes can have either double arms; when access is granted the arms drop into recesses in the cabinet. Once the arms drop out of the way, the turnstile functions as a optical turnstile; the full-height turnstile is a larger version of the turnstile 7-foot high, similar in operation to a revolving door, which eliminates the possibility of anyone jumping over the turnstile. However, this type of turnstile functions differently than a revolving door, in that it does not allow someone to come in as someone else goes out, it is pejoratively known as an "iron maiden", after the torture device of the same name, or "high-wheel". It is sometimes called a "Rotogate" in Chicago, where it is used at unstaffed exits of Chicago'L' stations, is used at many New York City Subway stations. In Europe, however, "Rotogate" refers to a different kind of gate, not a turnstile. There are two types of High Entrance/Exit Turnstile and Exit-Only.
The difference between them is that HEET turnstiles can rotate in both directions thus allowing two-way traffic, while exit-only turnstiles can only rotate in one direction thus allowing one-way traffic. Exit-only turnstiles are used in mass transit stations to allow passengers to exit the system without interfering with those entering. Exit-only models are used at enclosed areas such as theme parks, zoos, or amusement parks, to allow visitors to leave, while denying admission to those who have not paid. Additionally there are single, double or tandem turnstiles that contain two rotors side by side in the same frame; this allows more throughput in a limited space, as tandems are more narrow than two single turnstiles when placed side-by-side. In the public transport systems of the Soviet Union, the only common use of turnstiles was at the entrance to subway stations. City buses and
Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the railway network in Great Britain. Network Rail is an arm's length public body of the Department for Transport with no shareholders, which reinvests its income in the railways. Network Rail's main customers are the private train operating companies, responsible for passenger transport, freight operating companies, who provide train services on the infrastructure that the company owns and maintains. Since 1 September 2014, Network Rail has been classified as a "public sector body". To cope with rising passenger numbers, Network Rail is undertaking a £38 billion programme of upgrades to the network, including Crossrail, electrification of lines, upgrading Thameslink and a new high-speed line. Britain's railway system was built by private companies, but it was nationalised by the Transport Act 1947 and run by British Railways until re-privatisation, begun in 1994 and completed in 1997. Infrastructure and freight services were separated at that time.
Between 1994 and 2002 the infrastructure was operated by Railtrack. The Hatfield train crash on 17 October 2000 was a defining moment in the collapse of Railtrack; the immediate major repairs undertaken across the whole British railway network were estimated to have cost in the order of £580 million and Railtrack had no idea how many more'Hatfields' were waiting to happen because it had lost considerable in-house engineering skill following the sale or closure of many of the engineering and maintenance functions of British Rail to external companies. The costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line were spiralling. In 2001, Railtrack announced that, despite making a pre-tax profit before exceptional expenses of £199m, the £733m of costs and compensation paid out over the Hatfield crash had plunged Railtrack from profit into a loss of £534m, it approached the government for funding, which it used to pay a £137m dividend to its shareholders in May 2001. Network Rail Ltd took over control by buying Railtrack plc, in "railway administration", from Railtrack Group plc for £500 million.
The purchase was completed on 3 October 2002. The former company had thus never ceased to exist but continued under another name: for this reason Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd was the defendant in prosecutions in respect of events which had occurred in the days of Railtrack. Following an initial period in which Network Rail established itself and demonstrated its competence in addressing the principal challenges of improving asset condition, reducing unit costs and tackling delay, the Government's Rail Review in 2004 said that Network Rail should be given responsibility for whole-industry performance reporting, timetable development, specification of small and medium network enhancements, the delivery of route-specific utilisation strategies; some of these are functions which Network Rail had. The SRA was abolished in November 2006; the company moved its headquarters to Kings Place, 90 York Way, from 40 Melton Street, Euston, in August 2008. In October 2008, Sir Ian McAllister announced that he would not stand for re-election as chairman of Network Rail.
He had held the position for six years. He noted that as Network Rail moved to a "new phase in its development" it was appropriate for a new chairman to lead it there. Many track safety initiatives have been introduced in the time Network Rail has been responsible for this area; the latest, announced in December 2008, known as "All Orange", states that all track personnel must not only wear orange hi-vis waistcoats or jackets, but must wear orange hi-vis trousers at all times when working on or near the track. This ruling came into force in January 2009 for maintenance and property workers and in April 2009 for infrastructure and investment sites. In 2009, allegations appeared in the media from the Transport Salaried Staffs' Association concerning treatment of Network Rail employees. Former chief executive Iain Coucher was accused of financial impropriety involving unspecified payments to his business partner Victoria Pender during his tenure at Network Rail. An internal investigation held by Network Rail in 2010, vetted by its auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers, uncovered no evidence of wrongdoing.
An independent enquiry headed by Anthony White QC in 2011 further examined the claims, but exonerated Coucher. Critical commentary appeared in the media concerning the knighthood awarded to John Armitt in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and construction. Armitt was Chief Executive of Network Rail at the time of the 2007 Grayrigg derailment and the family of a victim of the accident criticised the award, which coincidentally was conferred on the same day that Network Rail were prosecuted for the accident. In 2011 the company began the process of reorganising its operational structure into nine semi-autonomous regional entities, each with their own managing director; the reorganisation has been interpreted as a move back towards vertical integration of track and train operations. In 2016 Network Rail failed to check whether the Flying Scotsman could fit through tunnels along the Borders Route resulting in the ca
British Rail brand names
British Rail was the brand image of the nationalised railway owner and operator in Great Britain, the British Railways Board, used from 1965 until its breakup and sell-off from 1993 onwards. From an initial standardised corporate image, several sub-brands emerged for marketing purposes, in preparation for privatisation; these brands covered rail networks, customers services, several classes of new trains. With the size of British Rail's fleet, due to the time required to repaint rolling stock, in terms of the physical trains brand switchovers could be lengthy affairs lasting years; this worsened into privatisation, with the same services using 3 or 4 different liveries. Following privatisation, several of the brands disappeared, although some such as ScotRail, Merseyrail and Freightliner remain; some privatised train operating companies have since introduced their own brands along the same lines, such as, Midland Mainline's "Meridian" trains, the Virgin Trains "Voyager" services. The iconic double-arrow symbol introduced with the creation of the British Rail brand remains post-privatisation, as a unifying branding device for the privatised National Rail network, used on most tickets and publicity, but not trains.
Under the Transport Act 1962, responsibility for the state railway operation, British Railways, was transferred from being a trade name and subsidiary of the British Transport Commission, to a separate public corporation, under the British Railways Board. As the last steam locomotives were being withdrawn under the 1955 Modernisation Plan, the corporation's public name was re-branded in 1965 as British Rail, which introduced the double-arrow symbol, a standard typeface and the BR blue livery, applied to nearly all locomotives and rolling stock; the first major BR sub-brand to appear was InterCity brand. This was augmented with the InterCity 125 brand in 1976, in conjunction with the introduction of the InterCity 125 High Speed Train. In the 1980s under sectorisation blue livery was phased out as the organisation converted from a regional structure to being sector-based; the Intercity brand was relaunched, passenger brands Network SouthEast and Regional Railways introduced, seeing these divisions introduce many sub-brands.
Freight operations were split into the Trainload Freight, Railfreight Distribution and Rail Express Systems sectors. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, new multiple-unit train designs being introduced to replace rolling stock brought new brand names linked to other branding exercises, such as the Networkers built for Network SouthEast. In the 1990s, BR created the European Passenger Services division, to run passenger services through the Channel Tunnel, under the Eurostar brand. After construction delays, this was operated from 1994, until it passed to the London and Continental Railways consortium in 1996 as Eurostar Ltd.. In preparation for privatisation, the freight sectors were further split into smaller business units, as regional splits of Trainload Freight, or further splits along customer market, such as inter-modal traffic, each with their own branding. With all freight businesses going straight to EWS, most of these brands were short lived. Island Line - passenger services on the Isle of Wight from 1989.
Part of Network SouthEast. Merseyrail - passenger service brand for Merseyside. Network NorthWest - passenger service brand paralleling "Network SouthEast" for Greater Manchester and Lancashire introduced in 1989 as part of Regional Railways. After a few years it was replaced by the Regional Railways branding. Network SouthEast - commuter and medium-distance trains operating in an area bounded by King's Lynn, Worcester, Bedwyn and Weymouth and including the Waterloo & City line now part of London Underground Regional Railways - other passenger services in England and Wales suffixed by a regional description, e.g. Regional Railways North West Ryde Rail - passenger services on the Isle of Wight 1985-1989. Part of Network SouthEast from 1987. ScotRail - passenger services within Scotland Strathclyde Transport - brand operated by ScotRail on behalf of Strathclyde Regional Council. Strathclyde transport operating commuter services within Greater Glasgow and the wider Strathclyde area, had its own distinct livery.
The brand survived privatisation and was shortened to SPT, but disappeared when responsibility for co-ordinating rail services was taken away from SPT following the Transport Act 2005 when Strathclyde Passenger Transport Executive, along with the WESTRANS voluntary regional transport partnership, were replaced by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.. Tynerail and Tynerider - passenger service brand for Tyneside. Alphaline - sub-brand of Regional Railways, for regional express services on secondary routes, operated using 90 mph Class 158 trains, complementing the InterCity network. Eurostar - international high speed passenger trains from London-Paris/Brussels through the Channel Tunnel using Network SouthEast tracks in Britain. InterCity - high-speed express trains between major towns and cities Motorail - long-distance passenger services that carried cars Pullman - first Class carriages in InterCity trains offering a full at-seat catering service Railair - through ticketing service for coach links to airports.
Sealink - ferry services. Rail Express Systems - Post Office and parcels services Red Star Parcels - express parce
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were