Sultanate of Gowa
Sultanate of Gowa, was one of the great kingdoms and the most successful kingdom in the South Sulawesi region. People of this kingdom come from the Makassar tribe who lived in the south end and the west coast of southern Sulawesi. Before the establishment of the kingdom, the region had been known as Makassar and its people as Suku Makassar; the history of the kingdom can be divided into two eras: pre-Islamic kingdom and post-Islamic sultanate. According to the epic poem The Nagarakretagama, in praise of King Rajasanagara of Majapahit, it lists Makassar as one of the kingdom's tributaries in 1365; the first queen of Gowa was Tomanurung Baine. There is not much known about the exact time when the kingdom was established nor about the first queen, only during the ruling of the 6th king, Tonatangka Kopi, local sources have noted about the division of the kingdom into two new kingdoms led by two Kopi's sons: Kingdom of Gowa led by Batara Gowa as its 7th king covering areas of Paccelekang, Bontomanai Ilau, Bontomanai'Iraya and Mangasa while the other son, Karaeng Loe ri Sero, led a new kingdom called Tallo which includes areas of Saumata, Moncong Loe, Parang Loe.
For years both kingdoms were involved in wars. During the reign of King of Gowa X, I Manriwagau Daeng Bonto Karaeng Lakiung Tunipalangga Ulaweng, the two kingdoms were reunified to become twin kingdoms under a deal called Rua Kareng se're ata and enforced with a binding treaty. Since when someone becomes a king of Tallo, he becomes the king of Gowa. Many historians simply call these Gowa-Tallo twin kingdoms as Makassar or just Gowa; the traces of Islam in South Sulawesi existed since the 1320s with the arrival of the first Sayyid in South Sulawesi, namely Sayyid Jamaluddin al-Akbar Al-Husaini, the grandfather of Wali Songo. The conversion of the kingdom to Islam is dated as September 22, 1605 when the 14th king of Tallo-Gowa kingdom, Karaeng Matowaya Tumamenaga Ri Agamanna, converted to Islam, where changed his name to Sultan Alauddin, he ruled the kingdom from 1591 to 1629. His conversion to Islam is associated with the arrival of three ulama from Minangkabau: Datuk Ri Bandang, Datuk ri Tiro and Datuk Patimang.
From 1630 until the early twentieth century, Gowa's political leaders and Islamic functionaries were both recruited from the ranks of the nobility. Since 1607, sultans of Makassar established a policy of welcoming all foreign traders. In 1613, an English factory built in Makassar; this began the hostilities of English-Dutch against Makassar. The most famous Sultan of the kingdom was Sultan Hasanuddin, who from 1666 to 1669 started a war known as Makassar War against the Dutch East India Company, assisted by the prince of Bone kingdom of Bugis dynasty, Arung Palakka. Since 1673 the area around Fort Rotterdam grew into a city known as Makassar. Since 1904 the Dutch colonial government performed an expedition called South Sulawesi expedition and started war against small kingdoms in South Sulawesi, including Gowa. In 1911 the Sultanate lost its independence after losing the war and became one of the Dutch Indies' regencies. Following the Indonesian Independence from Netherlands in 1945, the sultanate dissolved and has since become part of the Republic of Indonesia and the former region becomes part of Gowa Regency.
In 1644, Bone rose up against Gowa. The Battle of Passempe saw Bone defeated and governed by a regent, the head of an Islamic religious council. In 1660 Arung Palakka, the long haired prince of Bone sultanate, led a Bugis revolt against Gowa, but failed. In 1666, under the command of Admiral Cornelis Speelman, The Dutch East India Company attempted to bring the small kingdoms in the North under their control, but had not managed to subdue the Sultanate of Gowa. After Sultan Hasanuddin ascended to the throne as the 16th sultan of Gowa, he tried to combine the power of the small kingdoms in eastern Indonesia to fight the VOC. On the morning of 24 November 1666, the VOC expedition and the Eastern Quarters set sail under the command of Speelman; the fleet consisted of the admiralship Tertholen, twenty other vessels carrying some 1860 people, among them 818 Dutch sailors, 578 Dutch soldiers, 395 native troops from Ambon under Captain Joncker and from Bugis under Arung Palakka and Arung Belo Tosa'deng.
Speelman accepted Sultan Ternate's offer to contribute a number of his war canoes for the war against Gowa. A week after June 1667 Speelman's armada set sail toward Sulawesi and Makassar from Butung; when the fleet reached the Sulawesi coast, Speelman received news of the abortive Bugis uprising in Bone in May and of the disappearance of Arung Palakka during the crossing from the island of Kambaena. The war broke in 1666 between the VOC and the sultanate of Gowa; the war continued until 1669, after the VOC had strengthened its troops on a desperate and weakening Gowa. On 18 November 1667 the Treaty of Bungaya was signed by the major belligerents in a premature attempt to end the war. Feeling aggrieved, Hasanuddin started the war again; the VOC requested assistance for additional troops to Batavia. Battles broke out again in various places. Sultan Hasanuddin gave fierce resistance. Military reinforcement sent from Batavia strengthened the VOC's military capability, thus it managed to break the Sultanate of Gowa's strongest fortress in Somba Opu on June 12, 1669 and marked the end of the war.
Sultan Hasanuddin resigned from the royal throne, dying on June 12, 1670. After the Makassar war, Admiral Cornelis Speelman destroyed the largest fortress in Somba Opu, preferred the Fort Rot
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor; the Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra". The term became popular during the early-19th century Peninsular War, when the Spanish and Portuguese people rose against the Napoleonic troops and fought against a superior army using the guerrilla strategy. In correct Spanish usage, a person, a member of a "guerrilla" unit is a "guerrillero" if male, or a "guerrillera" if female; the term "guerrilla" was used in English as early as 1809 to refer to the fighters, to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare; the use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state. Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare: competition between opponents of unequal strength.
It is a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Accordingly, guerrilla strategy aims to magnify the impact of a small, mobile force on a larger, more-cumbersome one. If successful, guerrillas weaken their enemy by attrition forcing them to withdraw. Tactically, guerrillas avoid confrontation with large units and formations of enemy troops, but seek and attack small groups of enemy personnel and resources to deplete the opposing force while minimizing their own losses; the guerrilla prizes mobility and surprise, organizing in small units and taking advantage of terrain, difficult for larger units to use. For example, Mao Zedong summarized basic guerrilla tactics at the beginning of the Chinese "Second Revolutionary Civil War" as:"The enemy advances, we retreat. At least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with inspiring Mao's tactics. In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
In addition to traditional military methods, guerrilla groups may rely on destroying infrastructure, using improvised explosive devices, for example. They also rely on logistical and political support from the local population and foreign backers, are embedded within it, many guerrilla groups are adept at public persuasion through propaganda. Many guerrilla movements today rely on children as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles, which has drawn international condemnation. There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic by belligerents to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. Contrary to some terrorist groups, guerrillas work in open positions as armed units, try to hold and seize land, do not refrain from fighting enemy military force in battle and apply pressure to control or dominate territory and population. While the primary concern of guerrillas is the enemy's active military units, terrorists are concerned with non-military agents and target civilians.
Guerrilla forces principally fight in accordance with the law of war. In this sense, they respect the rights of innocent civilians by refraining from targeting them. According to the Ankara Center for Crisis and Policy Studies, terrorists do not limit their actions and terrorise civilians by putting fear in people's hearts and kill innocent foreigners in the country. Irregular warfare, based on elements characteristic of modern guerrilla warfare, has existed throughout the battles of many ancient civilizations; the growth of guerrilla warfare in the 20th century was inspired in part by theoretical works on guerrilla warfare, starting with the Manual de Guerra de Guerrillas by Matías Ramón Mella written in the 19th century and, more Mao Zedong's On Guerrilla Warfare, Che Guevara's Guerrilla Warfare, Lenin's text of the same name, all written after the successful revolutions carried by them in China and Russia, respectively. Those texts characterized the tactic of guerrilla warfare as, according to Che Guevara's text, being"used by the side, supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression".
The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. This directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the other hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism and religious fundamentalism have played an important role in shaping insurgencies and guerrilla warfare; the Moroccan national hero Mohamed ben Abdelkrim el-Khattabi, along with his father, unified the Moroccan
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
National Hero of Indonesia
National Hero of Indonesia is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia. It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens" or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people"; the Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows: Have been an Indonesian citizen, deceased and, during his or her lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state. Nominations must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must make a request to the province's governor; the governor makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles. Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta.
Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November. The legal framework for the title styled National Independence Hero, was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month; this title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have been awarded. Hero of the Revolution was given in 1965 to ten victims of the 30 September Movement that resulted in end of Sukarno reign, while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence. A total of 165 men and 14 women have been deemed national heroes, most Abdurrahman Baswedan, Prince Mohammad Noor, Andi Depu, Depati Amir, Kasman Singodimedjo and Syam'un on 2018; these heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east.
They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, Eurasians. They include prime ministers, government ministers, royalty, a bishop; the following list is presented in alphabetical order. The list is further sortable by year of birth and recognition. Names are standardised using the Perfected Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling
Heroes' Cemetery known as Libingan ng mga Bayani, is a national cemetery within Fort Bonifacio in Western Bicutan, Metro Manila, Philippines. First established in May 1947 as a fitting resting place for Filipino military personnel from privates to generals who served during World War II, it became designated as the official place of burial for deceased Philippine presidents, national heroes, National Artists and National Scientists. Among those buried in the cemetery are Filipino soldiers who died during the Philippine Campaign and the Liberation of the Philippines in World War II from 1941 to 1945. Among the Filipino leaders and dignitaries buried there are Presidents Elpidio Quirino, Carlos P. Garcia and Diosdado Macapagal. Former President and dictator Ferdinand Marcos is the most recent president to be buried there, after the Supreme Court of the Philippines dismissed petitions against his burial on November 8, 2016, though controversies continue to run rampant whether his real corpse was used for the burial or is still buried in Ilocos.
The cemetery was first established in May 1947 as the Republic Memorial Cemetery. It was first established as a tribute and final resting place for the 33,520 to 58,780 Filipino soldiers who died during the Philippine Campaign and the Allied Liberation of the Philippines in World War II, it was established as the Filipino counterpart to the Manila American Cemetery and Memorial, which houses the remains of United States personnel who died during the same war. On 16 June 1948, Philippine President Elpidio Quirino signed into law the Republic Act 289 known as An Act Providing for the Construction of a National Pantheon for Presidents of the Philippines, National Heroes, Patriots of the Country. Section 1 of the Act cites the purpose of creating such pantheon: "To perpetuate the memory of all the Presidents of the Philippines, national heroes and patriots for the inspiration and emulation of this generation and of generations still unborn..." While such National Pantheon was never established during Quirino's lifetime, several decrees and laws passed under succeeding administrations led to the eventual use of the Republic Memorial Cemetery as a national pantheon described in Republic Act 289.
On 27 October 1954, President Ramon Magsaysay renamed the Republic Memorial Cemetery as the Libingan ng mga Bayani. On 28 May 1967, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Presidential Proclamation No. 208 ordering the reservation of 142 hectares of land within Fort Bonifacio in consideration for the Libingan to serve not only as a cemetery for military personnel but as a national shrine for fallen heroes. He ordered it placed under the administration of the Military Shrines Services of the Philippine Veterans Affairs Office, an agency under the Department of National Defense. On 9 April 1986, Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos and President Corazon Aquino issued Armed Forces Regulations G 161-373 known as "The allocation of Cemetery Plots at the LNMB"; this military-issued regulation established the internment policy that would become the basis for the burial of personalities at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. Moreover, by virtue of Executive Order No. 131 issued by former President Fidel Ramos on 26 October 1993, National Artists and National Scientists of the Philippines were made eligible for interment at the cemetery.
In 2007, due to overcrowding at the Fort Bonifacio site, the cemetery's administration started exploring sites for Libingan ng mga Bayani annexes in Luzon and Mindanao. Only one has been completed so far, the ₱24-million, five-hectare extension at Camp Hernandez in Dingle, Iloilo. On 18 November 2016, former president Ferdinand Marcos was buried in a private ceremony with military honors, amid much controversy resulting in a handful of protests in various parts of the Philippines; the cemetery is administered and maintained by the Grave Service Unit, a unit of the Philippine Army Support Command of the AFP. Its mission is to provide burial and niche services to deceased military personnel and other personalities interred at the cemetery. Aside from maintaining the cemetery and the military grave site at Manila North Cemetery, the unit is capable of providing mortuary and memorial services to authorized personnel. According to Armed Forces of the Philippines Regulation G 161-373, the following persons are entitled to interment at Heroes' Cemetery: Medal of Valor awardees Presidents or Commanders-in-Chief, AFP The secretaries of National Defense AFP Chiefs of Staff General/Flag Officers Active and retired military personnel of the AFP Former AFP members who laterally entered/joined the Philippine National Police and the Philippine Coast Guard Veterans of the Philippine Revolution of 1896, the First and Second World Wars, as well as recognized guerrillas Government dignitaries, national artists and other deceased persons whose interment has been approved by the commander-in-chief, Congress or the Secretary of National Defense, Former Presidents, Secretaries of National Defense, widows of former Presidents and Chiefs of Staff National Artists and National Scientists of the PhilippinesHowever, the same regulation prohibits "personnel who were dishonorably separated/ reverted/ discharged from the service and personnel who were convicted by final judgment of an offense involving moral turpitude" from interment at the Heroes' Cemetery.
The first structure that visitors will see upon entering the grounds of the cemetery co