Foreign relations of Andorra
Since the establishment of sovereignty with the ratification of the constitution in 1993, Andorra has moved to become an active member of the international community. In July 1993, Andorra established its first diplomatic mission in the world to the United Nations. Andorra maintains six embassies abroad: in Austria, France, Spain and the United States. Foreign affairs are supervised by the Ministry of External Affairs. Andorra is a full member of the United Nations, United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, International Criminal Court, International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, International Telecommunications Union, International Red Cross, Universal Copyright Convention, Council of Europe, World Tourism Organization, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Customs Cooperation Council, Interpol. Since 1991, Andorra has had a special agreement with the European Union.
Disputes - international: none Andorra–France border Andorra–Spain border List of diplomatic missions in Andorra List of diplomatic missions of Andorra This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. /// Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Angola–United States relations
Angola – United States relations are diplomatic relations between the Republic of Angola and the United States of America. These relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U. S. government backed National Union for the Total Independence of Angola rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Communism in 1992. Starting in the 1970s, the U. S. supported the National Liberation Front of Angola and UNITA, insurgents opposing the ruling political party, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. When it was discovered that Communist Cuba had 30,000 troops in Angola, the Republican administration of President Ford attempted to counter them; this was thwarted by the Tunney/Clark amendment, passed by a Democratic congress forbidding any involvement. The United States opposed Angola's membership in the United Nations from its declaration of independence in 1975 to its acceptance in December 1976. Angola did not have formal relations with the United States until 1993.
Fidel Castro regarded the attitude of the United States: Why were they vexed? Why had they planned everything to take possession of Angola before 11 November? Angola is a country rich in resources. In Cabinda there is lots of oil; some imperialists wonder. They are used to thinking that one country helps another one only when it wants its oil, diamonds or other resources. No, we are not after material interests and it is logical that this is not understood by the imperialist, they only know chauvinistic and selfish criteria. By helping the people of Angola we are fulfilling a fundamental duty of Internationalism. In a meeting by the National Security Council on 27 June 1975 including President Gerald Ford, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, CIA Director William Egan Colby among others, the U. S. took a closer look at the development in Angola after they became aware of Soviet aid for the MPLA. They found, it was clear that whoever owned the capital owned the country, similar to the situation during the civil war in the Congo, where the U.
S. helped their allies succeed in holding the capital Leopoldville, thus securing or regaining control of all of Zaire. The U. S. considered a diplomatic campaign, both of which Kissinger dismissed. In the further course of the conversation President Ford declared, in spite of planned elections, it is important to get "his man" in first, referring to Savimbi. Secretary Schlesinger thought. Cabinda in the clutches of Mobutu would mean far greater security of the petroleum resources". In any case success must be certain before anything is done otherwise the US should remain neutral. For the president it was unacceptable to do nothing, he ordered the preparation of options. The United States had known of South Africa's covert invasion plans in advance and co-operated militarily with its forces, contrary to Kissinger's testimony to Congress at the time, as well as the version in his memoirs and what President Ford told the Chinese, who were worried about South African engagement in Angola. A report by Henry Kissinger of 13.
January 1976 gives an insight into the activities and hostilities in Angola, inter alia:. There follows an updated situation report based on classified sources. A: Diplomatic Two Cuban delegations were present in Addis Ababa. During the just concluded Organization for African Unity meeting, one..... Headed by Osmany Cienfuegos, PCC? Official concerned with Africa and Middle East and member of the PCC Central Committee, visited the Congo, Nigeria and Algeria prior to the OAU meeting. Another Cuban delegation was headed by Cuba's ambassador Ricardo Alarcon. In late December early January an MPLA delegation visited Jamaica, Guyana and Panama to obtain support for its cause; the delegation is still in the region. B: Military It is estimated that Cuba may now have as many as 9,000 troops in Angola, based on the number of Cuban airlifts and sealifts which have presently transited Angola. Military assistance to the MPLA may have cost Cuba the equivalent of U. S. $30 million. This figure includes the value of the military equipment that Cuba has sent to Angola, the costs of transporting men and materiel, the cost of maintaining troops in the field.
Cuban troops bore the brunt of fighting in the MPLA offensive in the northern sector last week which resulted in MPLA capture of Uige. The MPLA may be preparing for an offensive in the south at the request of the SWAPO. Eight Soviet fighters MiG-17s, are reported being assembled in Luanda; these fighters arrived from an unknown source at the end of December. Eight MiGs, type unknown, are expected to be sent to Angola from Nigeria, numerous Cuban pilots arrived during December; the pilots are operating many aircraft now available to the MPLA including a Fokker Friendship F-27. The Cubans will operate the MiGs. Cuban troops are in complete control of Luanda by January 9, they are conducting all security patrols, operating police checkpoints, will soon assume control of Luanda's airport complex. Cuba may have begun to use 200 passenger capacity IL-42 aircraft in its airlift support operations; the IL-42 has double the capacity of Bristol Britannias and IL? which Cuba has employed and has a longer range as well.
IL-42 left Havana for Luanda Jan. 10. and Jan. 11. C: Other: All Portuguese commercial flights now landing at Luanda carry as cargo as much food as possible. Food supplies available to the general population have become
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Equatorial Guinea–United States relations
Equatorial Guinea – United States relations are bilateral relations between Equatorial Guinea and the United States. The Equatoguinean Government views the U. S. Government and American companies favorably; the United States is the largest single foreign investor in Equatorial Guinea. U. S. companies have the largest and most visible foreign presence in the country. In an effort to attract increased U. S. investment, American passport-holders are entitled to visa-free entry for short visits. The United States is the only country with this privilege. With the increased U. S. investment presence, relations between the U. S. and the Government of Equatorial Guinea have been characterized by a positive, constructive relationship. Equatorial Guinea maintains an embassy in Washington, D. C. and has received approval for a consulate in Texas. President Obiang has worked to cultivate the Equatorial Guinea-U. S. relationship with regular visits to the U. S. for meetings with senior government and business leaders.
The 2005 U. S. State Department Human Rights report on Equatorial Guinea cited shortcomings in basic human rights, political freedom, labor rights. Equatorial Guinea attributes deficiencies to excessive zeal on the part of local authorities and promises better control and sensitization. U. S. Government policy involves constructive engagement with Equatorial Guinea to encourage an improvement in the human rights situation and positive use of petroleum funds directed toward the development of a working civil society. Equatoguineans visit the U. S. under programs sponsored by the U. S. Government, American oil companies, educational institutions; the Ambassador's Self-Help Fund annually finances a number of small grassroots projects. In view of growing ties between U. S. companies and Equatorial Guinea, the U. S. Government's overseas investment promotion agency, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, has concluded the largest agreement in Sub-Saharan Africa for a major U. S. project in Equatorial Guinea.
The U. S. Agency for International Development has no Equatorial Guinea-related programs or initiatives nor is the Peace Corps present. American-based non-governmental organizations and other donor groups have little involvement in the country. Principal U. S. officials include: Ambassador--Donald C. Johnson Deputy Chief of Mission—Anton Smith Management/Consular Officer—Maureen McGovern USAID Contractor-Social Needs—William GelmanThe United States has reopened its full-time Embassy in Malabo, with the first resident Ambassador in 12 years. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Equatorial Guinea - U. S. relations
Libya–United States relations
Libya–United States relations are today cordial and cooperative, with strong security cooperation only after the 2012 attack on the US liaison office or mission in Benghazi. Furthermore, a Gallup poll conducted in March and April 2012 found that Libyans had "among the highest approval" of US leadership in the entire Middle East and North Africa region. However, for decades prior to the 2011 Libyan Civil War, the countries were not on good terms and engaged each other in several military skirmishes; the Libyan government of Muammar Gaddafi funded terror operations against the United States, most notably the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing, to which the United States retaliated by bombing Libya, the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. When the Libyan civil war broke out in 2011, the United States took part in a military intervention in the conflict, aiding anti-Gaddafi rebels with air strikes against the Libyan Army. With the success of the revolution and the overthrow of Gaddafi, US President Barack Obama said that the United States was "committed to the Libyan people" and promised partnership in the development of a new Libyan state.
According to a 2012 poll conducted by Gallup, 54% of Libyans approve of U. S. leadership, compared to only 22% and 19% respective approval for China and Russia's, 75% of Libyans say they approved of NATO's military intervention in the civil war. The U. S. began bombing Libya again on August 1, 2016 with permission from the GNA, as part of the military intervention against ISIL. Following Italy's colonial occupation of Libya and the German occupation during World War II the U. S. leased the strategically important Wheelus Air Base from the Kingdom of Libya. The United States supported the UN resolution providing for Libyan independence in 1951 and accordingly raised the status of its office at Tripoli from a consulate general to a legation. Libya opened a legation in Washington, D. C. in 1954. Both countries subsequently raised their missions to embassy level. Oil was discovered in Libya in 1959, what had been one of the world's poorest countries became comparatively wealthy; the United States continued a warm relationship with Libya and pursued policies centered on interests in operations at Wheelus Air Base and the considerable U.
S. oil interests. During the early 1960s, many children of U. S. oil personnel sent to develop the oil field installations and pipelines were allowed to attend the high school facility at Wheelus riding buses from residential areas in or near Tripoli. Classes had to pause while large aircraft were taking off; the strategic value of Wheelus as a bomber base declined with the development of nuclear missiles and Wheelus served as a tactical fighter training facility in the 1960s. In September 1969 King Idris I was overthrown by a group of military officers centered around Muammar Gaddafi. Before the revolution, the U. S. and Libya had reached agreement on U. S. withdrawal from Wheelus. After Muammar Gaddafi's 1969 coup, U. S.-Libyan relations became strained when Gaddafi removed the American oil companies by nationalizing the oil industry. In 1972, the United States recalled its ambassador. Export controls on military and civil aircraft were imposed during the 1970s, U. S. embassy staff members were withdrawn from Tripoli after a mob attacked and set fire to the embassy in December 1979.
The U. S. Government designated Libya a "state sponsor of terrorism" on December 29, 1979. Throughout the 1970s Gaddafi was a vocal supporter of the Palestinians and anti-Israeli Arab governments and he supported the Arab states during the Yom Kippur War and the Arab Oil Embargo. On August 19, 1981, the Gulf of Sidra incident occurred. Two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 jets fired on U. S. aircraft participating in a routine naval exercise over international waters of the Mediterranean claimed by Libya. The U. S. planes returned shot down the attacking Libyan aircraft. In December 1981, the State Department invalidated U. S. passports for travel to Libya and, for purposes of safety, advised all U. S. citizens in Libya to leave. In March 1982, the U. S. Government prohibited imports of Libyan crude oil into the United States and expanded the controls on U. S.-origin goods intended for export to Libya. Licenses were required except food and medicine. In March 1984, U. S. export controls were expanded to prohibit future exports to the Ras Lanuf petrochemical complex.
In April 1985, all Export-Import Bank financing was prohibited. United States adopted additional economic sanctions against Libya in January 1986, including a total ban on direct import and export trade, commercial contracts, travel-related activities. In addition, Libyan Government assets in the United States were frozen; when Libyan complicity was reported in the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing, which killed two American servicemen, the United States responded by launching an aerial bombing attack against targets near Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986. At least 15 people died in the U. S. air strikes on Libya – including leader Colonel Gaddafi's adopted 15-month-old daughter – and more than 100 were injured. Subsequently, the United States maintained its trade and travel embargoes and brought diplomatic and economic pressure to bear against Libya; this pressure helped to bring about the Lockerbie settlement and Libya's renunciation of WMD and MTCR-class missiles. In 1991, two Libyan intelligence agents were indicted by federal prosecutors in the U.
S. and Scotland for their involvement in the December 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 near Lockerbie, Scotland. In January 1992, the UN Security Council approved Resolution 731 demanding that Libya surrender the suspects