Garry Kimovich Kasparov is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion and political activist, whom many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time. From 1986 until his retirement in 2005, Kasparov was ranked world No. 1 for 225 out of 228 months. His peak rating of 2851, achieved in 1999, was the highest recorded until being surpassed by Magnus Carlsen in 2013. Kasparov holds records for consecutive professional tournament victories and Chess Oscars. Kasparov became the youngest undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 at age 22 by defeating then-champion Anatoly Karpov, he held the official FIDE world title until 1993, when a dispute with FIDE led him to set up a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association. In 1997 he became the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls, when he lost to the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue in a publicized match, he continued to hold the "Classical" World Chess Championship until his defeat by Vladimir Kramnik in 2000.
In spite of losing the title, he continued winning tournaments and was the world's highest-rated player when he retired from professional chess in 2005. After Kasparov retired, he writing, he formed the United Civil Front movement, joined as a member of The Other Russia, a coalition opposing the administration and policies of Vladimir Putin. In 2008, he announced an intention to run as a candidate in that year's Russian presidential race, but failure to find a sufficiently large rental space to assemble the number of supporters, required to endorse such a candidacy led him to withdraw. Kasparov blamed "official obstruction" for the lack of available space. Although he is regarded in the West as a symbol of opposition to Putin, he was barred from the presidential ballot, as the political climate in Russia makes it difficult for opposition candidates to organize, he is chairman for the Human Rights Foundation and chairs its International Council. Kasparov is a frequent critic of U. S. professor emeritus of Russian studies Stephen F. Cohen, whom he describes as a Soviet and Russian apologist.
Kasparov and Cohen participated in a Munk Debate in 2015 over the issue of reengaging or isolating Russia, with 52% of the audience siding with Kasparov's argument of isolating Russia, compared to 42% before the debate. In 2014, he obtained Croatian citizenship, he travels often. Kasparov was born Garik Kimovich Weinstein in Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Union, his father, Kim Moiseyevich Weinstein, was Russian-Jewish, his mother, Klara Shagenovna Kasparova, was Armenian. Kasparov has described himself as a "self-appointed Christian", although "very indifferent" and identifies as Russian. Kasparov first began the serious study of chess after he came across a chess problem set up by his parents and proposed a solution, his father died of leukemia. At the age of twelve, Garry adopted his mother's Armenian surname, russified as Kasparov. From age 7, Kasparov attended the Young Pioneer Palace in Baku and, at 10 began training at Mikhail Botvinnik's chess school under noted coach Vladimir Makogonov. Makogonov helped develop Kasparov's positional skills and taught him to play the Caro-Kann Defence and the Tartakower System of the Queen's Gambit Declined.
Kasparov won the Soviet Junior Championship in Tbilisi in 1976, scoring 7 points of 9, at age 13. He repeated the feat the following year, winning with a score of 8½ of 9, he was being trained by Alexander Shakarov during this time. In 1978, Kasparov participated in the Sokolsky Memorial tournament in Minsk, he had been invited as an exception but became a chess master. Kasparov has said that this event was a turning point in his life, that it convinced him to choose chess as his career. "I will remember the Sokolsky Memorial as long as I live", he wrote. He has said that after the victory, he thought he had a good shot at the World Championship, he first qualified for the Soviet Chess Championship at age 15 in 1978, the youngest player at that level. He won the 64-player Swiss system tournament at Daugavpils on tiebreak over Igor V. Ivanov to capture the sole qualifying place. Kasparov rose through the World Chess Federation rankings. Starting with an oversight by the Russian Chess Federation, he participated in a grandmaster tournament in Banja Luka and Herzegovina, in 1979 while still unrated.
Kasparov won this high-class tournament, emerging with a provisional rating of 2595, enough to catapult him to the top group of chess players. The next year, 1980, he won the World Junior Chess Championship in Dortmund, West Germany; that year, he made his debut as second reserve for the Soviet Union at the Chess Olympiad at Valletta and became a Grandmaster. As a teenager, Kasparov tied for first place in the USSR Chess Championship in 1981–82, his first win in a superclass-level international tournament was scored at Bugojno, Yugoslavia in 1982. He earned a place in the 1982 Moscow Interzonal tournament, which he won, to qualify for the Candidates Tournament. At age 19, he was the youngest Candidate since Bobby Fischer, 15 when he qualified in 1958. At this stage, he was the No. 2-rated player in the world, trailing only World Chess Champion Anatoly Karpov on the January 1983 list. Kasparov's fir
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
Alexander Sergeyevich Morozevich is a Russian chess Grandmaster. Morozevich is a two-time World Championship Candidate, two-time Russian Champion and has represented Russia in seven Olympiads, winning numerous team and board medals, he has won both the Melody Biel tournaments several times. Morozevich is known for his unorthodox playing style, his peak ranking was second in the world in July 2008. His first win in an international tournament was in 1994, when at the age of 17 he won the Lloyds Bank tournament in London with a 9½ out of 10 score. In 1994 he won the Pamplona tournament, a victory he repeated in 1998. In 1997 Morozevich was the top seed at the World Junior Chess Championship, but lost to the eventual champion, American Tal Shaked in a bishop and knight checkmate; that same year, Morozevich participated in the FIDE World Championship, eliminating former World Champion Vassily Smyslov beaten in the second round by Lembit Oll. In 1999 Morozevich played in his first super-tournament in Sarajevo and finished in fourth with 5½ points of 9.
In beginning of 2000 Morozevich participated at the Corus chess tournament in Wijk aan Zee and finished fifth out of 14 players. The event was won by Kasparov ahead of Kramnik and Leko. In the same year he participated in the FIDE K. O. World championship played in New Delhi. Due to his rating he was seeded directly into the second round in which he eliminated Milos with the score of 2–0 he proceeded to beat Evgeny Vladimirov 1½–½ in the third round before being eliminated in the fourth round by Vladislav Tkachiev. In Wijk aan Zee 2001 Morozevich became the first player to defeat World Champion Vladimir Kramnik after beating him with black, he shared fifth together with Shirov, behind Kasparov, Anand and Kramnik. In the 2001 FIDE K. O. Championship, Morozevich beat Zeliavok and Gurevich before losing in tie-breaks in the fourth round against the eventual winner of the event Ponomariov. In September 2005, Morozevich played in the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 in San Luis, taking fourth place behind Veselin Topalov and Peter Svidler.
In December 2006, he won the strong Pamplona tournament with a score of 6 and an Elo performance of 2951. He shared second place with Magnus Carlsen behind Anand at the 2007 Linares tournament, his San Luis result earned him direct entry to the World Chess Championship 2007. In that tournament he scored 6 out of 14, he was the only player. In December 2007 Morozevich won the Russian Championship. In June 2008 Morozevich won the Bosna tournament with a margin of 1½ points ahead of second place. In August 2008 Morozevich finished shared second place in the Tal Memorial after leading the tournament in early rounds. While being fourth in the world, Morozevich unofficially climbed to the top spot of the world rating list, but fell back to fourth by the end of the tournament. In June 2011 he won the Russian Higher League championship in Taganrog with 8/11, earning a spot in the Super Final, in which he came second behind the eventual winner Peter Svidler. In October 2011 he won the Saratov Governor's Cup in Russia with 8½/11, one and a half points ahead of the field, a 2917 performance.
In February 2012 Morozevich came first in the Vladimir Petrov Memorial, a rapid chess tournament with the time control of 15 minutes plus 6 seconds per move. In 2014 he won the 15th Karpov Poikovsky tournament. Morozevich won the Magistral Ciutat de Barcelona tournament in 2015 on tiebreak over Axel Bachmann, having played more games with the black pieces. Morozevich had great successes in team competitions: in the Chess Olympiad he won the gold medal with the Russian team three times, one silver medal and a bronze medal, he won the gold medal in the World Team Championships in 2005 in which he beat the member of the Chinese team in the last round in a must win situation. He won two gold medals in the European Team Championships. Morozevich is considered to be one of the best blindfold chess players in the world, he has confirmed that status in blindfold sections of Amber Melody tournaments: 2002 first 9/11, 2003 shared second 7/11, 2004 first 8½/11, 2005 shared second 6/11, 2006 first 9½/11, 2007 shared second 7/11, 2008 shared first 6/11 and in 2009 shared fourth with Anand 6½/11.
Morozevich has a Go ranking of 1 dan as of 2018. In July 2016, he go match. Morozevich is known to be an aggressive player with an unorthodox opening repertoire, he has on occasion played the Albin Countergambit. He is well known for preferring complicated positions. Due to his risky and spectacular style which produces few draws, Morozevich is popular among chess fans. In 2007, Morozevich published, along with co-author Vladimir Barsky, a book about the Chigorin Defense, called The Chigorin Defence According to Morozevich. Alexander Morozevich player profile and games at Chessgames.com Alexander Morozevich Morozevich Digest
World Chess Championship
The World Chess Championship is played to determine the world champion in chess. Since 2014, the schedule has settled on a two-year cycle with a championship held in every year. Magnus Carlsen has been world champion since he dethroned Viswanathan Anand in 2013, he went on to defend his title against Anand in 2014, against Sergey Karjakin in 2016 and against Fabiano Caruana in 2018. The official world championship is regarded to have begun in 1886, when the two leading players in Europe and the United States, Johann Zukertort and Wilhelm Steinitz played a match. From 1886 to 1946, the champion set the terms, requiring any challenger to raise a sizable stake and defeat the champion in a match in order to become the new world champion. From 1948 to 1993, the championship was administered by the World Chess Federation. In 1993, the reigning champion broke away from FIDE, which led to the creation of the rival PCA championship; the titles were unified at the World Chess Championship 2006. Though the world championship is open to all players, there are separate events and titles for the Women's World Chess Championship, the World Junior Chess Championship, the World Senior Chess Championship.
There are faster time limit events, the World Rapid Chess Championship and the World Blitz Chess Championship. The World Computer Chess Championship is open to hardware; the concept of a world chess champion started to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, the phrase "world champion" appeared in 1845. From this time onwards various players were acclaimed as world champions, but the first contest, defined in advance as being for the world championship was the match between Steinitz and Zukertort in 1886; until 1948 world championship contests were matches arranged between the players. As a result, the players had to arrange the funding, in the form of stakes provided by enthusiasts who wished to bet on one of the players. In the early 20th century this was sometimes a barrier that prevented or delayed challenges for the title. Between 1888 and 1948 various difficulties that arose in match negotiations led players to try to define agreed rules for matches, including the frequency of matches, how much or how little say the champion had in the conditions for a title match and what the stakes and division of the purse should be.
However these attempts were unsuccessful in practice, as the same issues continued to delay or prevent challenges. The first attempt by an external organization to manage the world championship was in 1887–1889, but this experiment was not repeated. A system for managing regular contests for the title went into operation in 1948, under the control of FIDE, functioned quite smoothly until 1993. However, in that year reigning champion Kasparov and challenger Short were so dissatisfied with FIDE's arrangements for their match that they set up a break-away organization; the split in the world championship continued until the reunification match in 2006. After reunification, FIDE retains the right to organize the world championship match, stabilizing to a two-year cycle; the first match proclaimed by the players as for the world championship was the match that Wilhelm Steinitz won against Johannes Zukertort in 1886. However, a line of players regarded as the strongest in the world extends back hundreds of years beyond them, these players are sometimes considered the world champions of their time.
They include Ruy López de Segura around 1560, Paolo Boi and Leonardo da Cutri around 1575, Alessandro Salvio around 1600, Gioachino Greco around 1623. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, French players dominated, with Legall de Kermeur, François-André Danican Philidor, Alexandre Deschapelles and Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais all regarded as the strongest players of their time. Something resembling a world championship match was the La Bourdonnais - McDonnell chess matches in 1834, in which La Bourdonnais played a series of six matches – and 85 games – against the Irishman Alexander McDonnell; the idea of a world champion goes back at least to 1840, when a columnist in Fraser's Magazine wrote, "To whom is destined the marshal's baton when La Bourdonnais throws it down, what country will furnish his successor?... At present de La Bourdonnais, like Alexander the Great, is without heir, there is room to fear the empire may be divided under a number of petty kings."After La Bourdonnais' death in December 1840, Englishman Howard Staunton's match victory over another Frenchman, Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant, in 1843 is considered to have established Staunton as the world's strongest player.
A letter quoted in The Times on 16 November 1843, but written before that, described the second Staunton vs Saint-Amant match, played in Paris in November–December 1843, as being for "the golden sceptre of Philidor." The earliest recorded use of the term "World Champion" was in 1845, when Howard Staunton was described as "the Chess Champion of England, or... the Champion of the World". The first known proposal that a contest should be defined in advance as being for recognition as the world's best player was by Ludwig Bledow in a letter to von der Lasa, written in 1846 and published in the Deutsche Schachzeitung in 1848: "... the winner of the battle in Paris should not be overly proud of his special position, since it is in Trier that the crown will first be a
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963. Working as an electrical engineer and computer scientist at the same time, he was one of the few players who achieved distinction in another career while playing top-class competitive chess, he was a pioneer of computer chess. Botvinnik was the first world-class player to develop within the Soviet Union, putting him under political pressure but giving him considerable influence within Soviet chess. From time to time he was accused of using that influence to his own advantage, but the evidence is unclear and some suggest he resisted attempts by Soviet officials to intimidate some of his rivals. Botvinnik played a major role in the organization of chess, making a significant contribution to the design of the World Chess Championship system after World War II and becoming a leading member of the coaching system that enabled the Soviet Union to dominate top-class chess during that time.
His pupils include Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik. Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik was born on August 17, 1911, in what was Kuokkala, Vyborg Governorate, Grand Duchy of Finland, but is now the district of Repino in Saint Petersburg, his parents were Russian Jews, his father was a dental technician and his mother a dentist, which allowed the family to live outside the Pale of Settlement to which most Jews in the Russian Empire were restricted at the time. As a result, Mikhail Botvinnik grew up in Saint Petersburg's Nevsky Prospekt, his father forbade the speaking of Yiddish at home, Mikhail and his older brother Issy attended Soviet schools. Mikhail Botvinnik said, "They asked me sometime: What do you think of yourself by nationality? I answered: Yes, my situation is complex. I am a Jew by blood, Russian by culture, Soviet by upbringing." On his religious views, Botvinnik called himself an atheist. In 1920, his mother became ill and his father left the family, but maintained contact with the children after his second marriage, to a Russian woman.
At about the same time, Mikhail started reading newspapers, became a committed Communist. In autumn 1923, at the age of twelve, Mikhail Botvinnik was taught chess by a school friend of his older brother, using a home-made set, fell in love with the game, he finished in mid-table in the school championship, sought advice from another of his brother's friends, concluded that for him it was better to think out "concrete concepts" and derive general principles from these – and went on to beat his brother's friend quite easily. In winter 1924, Botvinnik won his school's championship, exaggerated his age by three years in order to become a member of the Petrograd Chess Assembly – to which the Assembly's President turned a blind eye. Botvinnik won his first two tournaments organized by the Assembly. Shortly afterwards, Nikolai Krylenko, a devoted chess player and leading member of the Soviet legal system who organized Joseph Stalin's show trials, began building a huge nationwide chess organization, the Assembly was replaced by a club in the city's Palace of Labor.
To test the strength of Soviet chess masters, Krylenko organized the Moscow 1925 chess tournament. On a rest day during the event, world champion José Raúl Capablanca gave a simultaneous exhibition in Leningrad. Botvinnik was selected as one of his opponents, won their game. In 1926, he reached the final stage of the Leningrad championship; that year, he was selected for Leningrad's team in a match against Stockholm, held in Sweden, scored +1=1 against the future grandmaster Gösta Stoltz. On his return, he entertained his schoolmates with a vivid account of the rough sea journey back to Russia. Botvinnik was commissioned to annotate two games from the match, the fact that his analyses were to be published made him aware of the need for objectivity. In December 1926, he became a candidate member of his school's Komsomol branch. Around this time his mother became concerned about his poor physique, as a result he started a program of daily exercise, which he maintained for most of his life; when Botvinnik finished the school curriculum, he was below the minimum age for the entrance examinations for higher education.
While waiting, he qualified for his first USSR Championship final stage in 1927 as the youngest player at that time, tied for fifth place and won the title of National Master. He wanted to study Electrical Technology at the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute and passed the entrance examination. After an appeal by a local chess official, he was admitted in 1928 to Leningrad University's Mathematics Department. In January 1929, Botvinnik played for Leningrad in the student team chess championship against Moscow. Leningrad won and the team manager, Deputy Chairman of the Proletstud, secured Botvinnik a transfer to the Polytechnic's Electromechanical Department, where he was one of only four students who entered straight from school; as a result, he had to do a whole year's work in five months, failed one of the examinations. Early in the same year he placed joint third in the semi-final stage of the USSR Championship, thus failed to reach the final stage, his early progress was rapid under the training of Soviet Master and coach Abram Model, in Leningrad.
Elo rating system
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess. It is named after a Hungarian-American physics professor; the Elo system was invented as an improved chess rating system over the used Harkness system, but is used as a rating system for multiplayer competition in a number of video games, association football, American football, Major League Baseball, table tennis, board games such as Diplomacy and other games. The difference in the ratings between two players serves as a predictor of the outcome of a match. Two players with equal ratings who play against each other are expected to score an equal number of wins. A player whose rating is 100 points greater than their opponent's is expected to score 64%. A player's Elo rating is represented by a number which increases or decreases depending on the outcome of games between rated players. After every game, the winning player takes points from the losing one; the difference between the ratings of the winner and loser determines the total number of points gained or lost after a game.
In a series of games between a high-rated player and a low-rated player, the high-rated player is expected to score more wins. If the high-rated player wins only a few rating points will be taken from the low-rated player. However, if the lower-rated player scores an upset win, many rating points will be transferred; the lower-rated player will gain a few points from the higher rated player in the event of a draw. This means. Players whose ratings are too low should, in the long run, do better than the rating system predicts and thus gain rating points until the ratings reflect their true playing strength. Arpad Elo was a master-level chess player and an active participant in the United States Chess Federation from its founding in 1939; the USCF used a numerical ratings system, devised by Kenneth Harkness, to allow members to track their individual progress in terms other than tournament wins and losses. The Harkness system was reasonably fair, but in some circumstances gave rise to ratings which many observers considered inaccurate.
On behalf of the USCF, Elo devised a new system with a more sound statistical basis. Elo's system replaced earlier systems of competitive rewards with a system based on statistical estimation. Rating systems for many sports award points in accordance with subjective evaluations of the'greatness' of certain achievements. For example, winning an important golf tournament might be worth an arbitrarily chosen five times as many points as winning a lesser tournament. A statistical endeavor, by contrast, uses a model that relates the game results to underlying variables representing the ability of each player. Elo's central assumption was that the chess performance of each player in each game is a distributed random variable. Although a player might perform better or worse from one game to the next, Elo assumed that the mean value of the performances of any given player changes only over time. Elo thought of a player's true skill as the mean of that player's performance random variable. A further assumption is necessary because chess performance in the above sense is still not measurable.
One cannot look at a sequence of moves and say, "That performance is 2039." Performance can only be inferred from wins and losses. Therefore, if a player wins a game, they are assumed to have performed at a higher level than their opponent for that game. Conversely, if the player loses, they are assumed to have performed at a lower level. If the game is a draw, the two players are assumed to have performed at nearly the same level. Elo did not specify how close two performances ought to be to result in a draw as opposed to a win or loss, and while he thought it was that players might have different standard deviations to their performances, he made a simplifying assumption to the contrary. To simplify computation further, Elo proposed a straightforward method of estimating the variables in his model. One could calculate easily from tables how many games players would be expected to win based on comparisons of their ratings to those of their opponents; the ratings of a player who won more games than expected would be adjusted upward, while those of a player who won fewer than expected would be adjusted downward.
Moreover, that adjustment was to be in linear proportion to the number of wins by which the player had exceeded or fallen short of their expected number. From a modern perspective, Elo's simplifying assumptions are not necessary because computing power is inexpensive and available. Moreover within the simplified model, more efficient estimation techniques are well known. Several people, most notably Mark Glickman, have proposed using more sophisticated statistical machinery to estimate the same variables. On the other hand, the computational simplicity of the Elo system has proven to be one of its greatest assets. With the aid of a pocket calculator, an informed chess competitor can calculate to within one point what their next published rating will be, which helps promote a perception that the ratings are fair; the USCF implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, the system gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than the Harkness rating system. Elo's system was adopted by the World Chess Federation in 1970.
Elo described his work in some detail in the book The Rating of Chessplayers and Present, published in 1978. Subsequent statistical tests have suggested that chess performance is certai
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess's international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship. The winner of the Candidates earns the right to a match for the World Championship against the incumbent World Champion; the most recent FIDE World Chess Candidates tournament took place in Berlin from 10–28 March 2018. In the early history, it was contested as a triennial tournament, but after the split of the World Championship in the early 1990s, followed with the changes in the determination of the World Champion Challenger, the tournament is held on a variable time basis; the number of players in the tournament varied between eight and fifteen players. Most of these qualified from Interzonal tournaments, though some gained direct entry without having to play the Interzonal; the first Interzonal/Candidates World Championship cycle began in 1948. Before 1965, the tournament was organized in a round-robin format.
From 1965 on, the tournament was played as knockout spread over several months. In 1995–1996, the defending FIDE champion entered the Candidates, in the semi-finals, so the winner was the FIDE world champion. FIDE discontinued the Candidates Tournaments after 1996, though they have returned in a different form for the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007. During its 1993 to 2006 split from FIDE, the "Classical" World Championship held three Candidates Tournaments under a different sponsor and a different format each time. In one of these cases no title match eventuated, under disputed circumstances; the tables below show the qualifiers and results for all interzonal and world championship tournaments. Players shown bracketed in italics qualified for the Candidates or were seeded in the Candidates, but did not play. Players shown in italics with an asterisk were excluded from the Candidates by a rule limiting the number of players from one country. Players listed after players in italics only qualified due to the non-participation of the bracketed players.
The "Seeded into Final" column refers to the incumbent champion, but this has a different meaning for the World Chess Championship 1948, in which five players were seeded into the championship tournament, the Classical World Chess Championship 2000 in which two players were seeded into the championship final, the FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 in which eight players were seeded into the final championship tournament, the FIDE World Chess Championship 2007, in which four players were seeded into the final championship tournament. After 1996, interzonals ceased to exist, but FIDE continued to organize qualifying zonal tournaments. After the reunification of the FIDE and "classical" titles, the Chess World Cup and FIDE Grand Prix series were introduced as qualification for the Candidates Tournament; the Swiss-system FIDE Grand Swiss is slated to be introduced in the latter half of 2019, acting as another qualification path for the Candidates Tournament. Development of the Women's World Chess Championship FIDE World Championship events 1948-1990, Mark Weeks' chess pages World Championship events 1991-present, Mark Weeks' chess pages World Championships pages, Rybka Chess Community Forum