Colmar is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France. It is the seat of the prefecture of the Haut-Rhin department and the arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé; the town is situated on the Alsatian Wine Route and considers itself to be the "capital of Alsatian wine". The city is renowned for its well-preserved old town, its numerous architectural landmarks, its museums, among, the Unterlinden Museum, with the Isenheim Altarpiece. Colmar was founded in the 9th century and is mentioned as Columbarium Fiscum by the monk Notker Balbulus in a text dated 823; this was the location where the Carolingian Emperor Charles the Fat held a diet in 884. Colmar was granted the status of a free imperial city by Emperor Frederick II in 1226. In 1354 it joined the Décapole city league. In 1548 Josel of Rosheim urged the Reichskammergericht court to repeal the Colmar market ban on Jewish merchants; the city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1575, long after the northern neighbours of Strasbourg and Sélestat.
During the Thirty Years' War, it was taken by the Swedish army in 1632. In 1634 the Schoeman family started the first town library. In 1635 the city's harvest was spoiled by Imperialist forces while the residents shot at them from the walls; the city was conquered by France under King Louis XIV in 1673 and ceded by the 1679 Treaties of Nijmegen. With the rest of Alsace, Colmar was annexed by the newly formed German Empire in 1871 as a result of the Franco-Prussian War and incorporated into the Alsace-Lorraine province, it returned to France after World War I according to the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, reverted to French control after the battle of the "Colmar Pocket" in 1945. Colmar has been continuously governed by conservative parties since 1947, the Popular Republican Movement, the Union for French Democracy and the Union for a Popular Movement, has had only three mayors during that time; the Colmar Treasure, a hoard of precious objects hidden by Jews during the Black Death, was discovered here in 1863.
Colmar is 64 kilometres south-southwest of Strasbourg, at 48.08°N, 7.36°E, on the Lauch River, a tributary of the Ill. It is connected to the Rhine in the east by a canal. In 2013, the city had a population of 67,956, the metropolitan area of Colmar had a population of 126,957 in 2009. Colmar is the center of the arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé, which had 199,182 inhabitants in 2013. Colmar has a sunny microclimate and is one of the driest cities in France, with an annual precipitation of just 607 mm, making it ideal for Alsace wine, it is considered the capital of the Alsatian wine region. The dryness results from the town's location next to mountains, which force clouds arriving from the west to rise, much of their moisture to condense and fall as precipitation over the higher ground, leaving the air warmed and dried by the time it reaches Colmar. Spared from the destructions of the French Revolution and the wars of 1870–1871, 1914–1918 and 1939–1945, the cityscape of old-town Colmar is homogenous and renowned among tourists.
An area, crossed by canals of the river Lauch is now called "little Venice". Colmar's secular and religious architectural landmarks reflect eight centuries of Germanic and French architecture and the adaptation of their respective stylistic language to the local customs and building materials. Maison Adolph – 14th century Koïfhus known as Ancienne Douane – 1480 Maison Pfister – 1537. Ancien Corps de garde – 1575 Maison des Chevaliers de Saint-Jean – 1608 Maison des Têtes – 1609 Poêle des laboureurs – 1626 Ancien Hôpital – 1736–1744 Tribunal de grande instance – 1771 Hôtel de ville – 1790 Colmar prison –- 1791 a convent built in 1316. Cour d'Assises – 1840 Théâtre municipal – 1849 Marché couvert – 1865; the city's covered market, built in stone and cast iron, still serves today. Préfecture – 1866 Water tower – 1886. Oldest still preserved water tower in Alsace. Out of use since 1984. Gare SNCF – 1905 Cour d'appel – 1906 Église Saint-Martin – 1234–1365; the largest church of Colmar and one of the largest in Haut-Rhin.
Displays some early stained glass windows, several Gothic and Renaissance sculptures and altars, a grand Baroque organ case. The choir is surrounded by an ambulatory opening on a series of Gothic chapels, a unique feature in Alsatian churches. Église des Dominicains – 1289–1364. Now disaffected as a church, displays Martin Schongauer's masterwork La Vierge au buisson de roses as well as 14th century stained glass windows and baroque choir stalls; the adjacent convent buildings house a section of the municipal library. Église Saint-Matthieu – 13th century. Gothic and Renaissance stained glass windows and mural paintings, as well as a wooden and painted ceiling. Couvent des Antonins – 13th century. Disaffected church and convent buildings notable for a richly ornate cloister. Now housing the Unterlinden Museum. Église Sainte-Catherine – 1371. Disaffected church and convent buildings now used as an assembly festival venue. Chapelle
Bernhard Boll was a German Roman Catholic priest, Cistercian monk and the first Archbishop of Freiburg. Born Johann Heinrich Boll, he studied theology as a Jesuit novice in Rottweil from 1772 and at the seminary in Dillingen an der Donau, he became a Cistercian monk at Salem Abbey in 1774. He was assessed as intelligent but angry and arrogant and so his probation was extended by a year, meaning he only took his perpetual vows on 13 November 1776, he developed into a devout monk and scholar and was ordained priest in 1780 becoming professor of philosophy at Salem and at Tennenbach Abbey. In 1805 he became professor of philosophy at the University of Freiburg and in 1809 a canon at Freiburg Minster. Secularization and mediatization meant that Germany's dioceses and archdioceses had to be reorganized. One of the archdioceses formed as a result was that of Freiburg, formed by merging the Diocese of Constance with parts of the Mainz, Straßburg, Worms and Würzburg dioceses, it was set up by pope Pius VII in the papal bull "Provida solersque" of 16 August 1821.
The territory of the new archdiocese of Freiburg was in the Grand Duchy of Baden and difficulties arose finding a candidate for its archbishop who would be acceptable to both the pope and to Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden. Pope Leo XII suggested Boll as a compromise candidate in 1824 after Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg was rejected and the second choice Ferdinand Geminian Wanker died during the negotiations. Boll was consecrated as archbishop by Ferdinand August von Spiegel, archbishop of Cologne on 21 October 1827. Boll was 71 and suffering form old age and illness, meaning his term of office was an unsuccessful one; the Grand Duchy retained the nomination of all bishops in its lands and held that state power was superior to that of the church in every respect, leaving Boll little leeway. He had to set up an administrative structure for the archdiocese from scratch, since only Hermann von Vicari was transferred to him from the former church administrations in Konstanz and Bruchsal, his cathedral chapter could not reach consensus and so had less influence on the archdiocese's spiritual and liturgical life than traditions left over from its predecessor bishoprics - for example, what had been the diocese of Konstanz was still more marked by the Age of Enlightenment whereas the northern parts of the archdiocese were more traditionalist.
Boll became aware that the work was beyond his abilities and offered the pope his resignation, but he died on 6 March 1836 before the pope could decide whether to accept it. Friedrich von Weech, "Boll, Bernhard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 3, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 108 Christoph Schmider: Die Freiburger Bischöfe: 175 Jahre Erzbistum Freiburg. Eine Geschichte in Lebensbildern. Freiburg i. Br.: Herder Verlag, 2002. ISBN 3-451-27847-2. Bernhard Boll on catholic-hierarchy.org Biography on konradsblatt
Freiburg Minster is the cathedral of Freiburg im Breisgau, southwest Germany. The last duke of Zähringen had started the building around 1200 in romanesque style; the construction continued in 1230 in Gothic style. The minster was built on the foundations of an original church, there from the beginning of Freiburg, in 1120. In the Middle Ages, Freiburg lay in the Diocese of Konstanz. In 1827, Freiburg Minster became the seat of the newly erected Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg, thus a cathedral; the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt once said that the church's 116-meter tower will forever remain the most beautiful spire on earth. His remark gave rise to the heard misquote of the most beautiful tower in the whole of Christianity; the tower is nearly square at the base, at its centre is the dodecagonal star gallery. Above this gallery, the tower is octagonal and tapered, above this, is the spire, it is the only Gothic church tower in Germany, completed in the Middle Ages, miraculously, has lasted until the present, surviving the bombing raids of November 1944, which destroyed all of the houses on the west and north side of the market.
The tower was subject to severe vibration at the time, its survival of these vibrations is attributed to its lead anchors, which connect the sections of the spire. The windows had been taken out of the spire at the time by church staff led by Monsignor Max Fauler, so these suffered no damage. Freiburg Minster was not the seat of a bishop until 1827; the tower has the oldest being the "Hosanna" bell from 1258, which weighs 3,290 kilograms. This bell can be heard on Thursday evening after the Angelus, on Friday at 11:00 am, on Saturday evenings, each year on 27 November in remembrance of the air raid. There are two important altars inside the cathedral: the high altar of Hans Baldung, another altar of Hans Holbein the Younger in a side chapel; the nave windows were donated by the guilds, the symbols of the guilds are featured on them. The deep red color in some of the windows is not the result of a dye, but instead the result of a suspension of solid gold nanoparticles. In 2003, the Lenten cloth was backed with a supporting material.
It now weighs over a ton, so must be carried from the workshop with heavy machinery for its use during Lent. The cathedral holds 19 bells, altogether 25 tonnes, making it one of the largest peals in Germany. Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen From the time of its construction, the cathedral was not owned by the Roman Catholic Church but by the people of Freiburg. In the Middle Ages, the situation changed so that the building was self-owned, administered by a guardian appointed by the people of the city. More the Münsterbauverein association was created, which now owns the cathedral. For the conservation of the cathedral, the Freiburger Münsterbauverein was established; the association invests several million euros each year in the care and maintenance of the building and its interior. The present architect in charge is Yvonne Faller and the chair of the association is Sven von Ungern-Sternberg; the Ten Virgins This article is based on a translation of the German Wikipedia article Freiburger Münster.
Media related to Freiburg Minster at Wikimedia Commons Cathedral windows
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts
The Dresden Academy of Fine Arts abbreviated HfBK Dresden or HfBK, is a vocational university of visual arts located in Dresden, Germany. The present institution is the product of a merger between the famous Dresden Art Academy, founded in 1764, the workplace and training ground of a number of influential European artists, another well-established local art school, Hochschule für Werkkunst Dresden, after World War II. One of three buildings of today’s Dresden Academy of Fine Arts, the former Royal Academy of Arts, built in 1894, is located at a prominent position in town on Brühl's Terrace just next to the Frauenkirche. Since 1991, the building built by Constantin Lipsius on Brühl's Terrace between 1887 and 1894 – the glass dome of, known as Lemon Squeezer due to its form – has been renovated and the parts that were destroyed during World War II were reconstructed; the studios for painting/graphic arts/sculpture/other artistic media, the graphic workshops, the rector's office and the exhibition rooms of the Academy, which house the annual graduation exhibitions of the graduates, are located on Brühl's Terrace.
On the side of the building facing the Elbe, the names of Pheidias, Praxiteles, Lysippos, Erwin von Steinbach, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Dürer are inscribed on the wall and on the other side the motto "DEM VATERLAND ZU ZIER UND EHR" - "For the Honour and Adornment of the Fatherland" - is inscribed. Apart from this magnificent building, the Academy owns the building for sculpture in Pfotenhauerstrasse, the studios and workshops of which were built in a big open-air exhibition ground in 1910; the workshops and studios for the courses of study of restoration, stage setting and costume design and the technical college degree course for theatre setting and costume design are located at Güntzstrasse in the buildings of the former Academy of Applied Arts. In 1764, the “Allgemeine Kunst-Academie der Malerey, Bildhauer-Kunst, Kupferstecher- und Baukunst” was founded by order of the Prince-Elector Frederick Christian. From 1768 to 1786 it was located in the Fürstenberg Palace, its first director was the Frenchmen Charles Hutin.
After the death of Hutin in 1776, Johann Eleazar Zeissig, referred to as Schenau, became alternating director of the Academy together with Giovanni Battista Casanova. The Academy was the successor institution of the first “Zeichen- und Malerschule” founded in 1680, it was one of the oldest academies of art in the German-speaking area. In 1950 the Akademie der Bildenden Künste Dresden was merged with the Staatliche Hochschule für Werkkunst – the successor of the Königlich Sächsische Kunstgewerbeschule – into today's "Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden”. Today it is one of the academies of art in Germany that are attractive for a degree in art due to their unmistakable profile and optimum general conditions; the students are provided with well equipped workshops. The possibilities for exhibitions at the Academy are excellent: The Academy is provided with presentation space in the octagon below the glass dome referred to as “Lemon Squeezer”, a landmark in the town, in the two big adjacent exhibition rooms as well as the former library and the “Galerie Brühlsche Terrasse” which may be used by students from all degree courses and co-operation partners of the Academy.
The reorganisation of the Academy started in 1990 offered the chance for innovative and organic development of an academy with a long and successful history and distinct traditions. Well-known artists from the global world of art are teaching at the Academy; the different courses available for the study of painting and graphics as well as sculpture are diverse. The classic cornerstones of artistic teaching at the Dresden Academy complemented and led to discourse and artistic exchange in the project class “New Media” and in a specialised course for comprehensive artistic works; the rules for study allow for changes within and between the specialized courses and for using the courses in the best possible way for one’s own artistic ambitions and projects. The degree course of Bildende Kunst leads to the Diplom degree; the degree course Kunsttechnologie, Konservierung und Restaurierung von Kunst- und Kulturgut is one of the oldest and most renowned education courses on university level in Germany.
The degree course Bühnen- und Kostümbild and the technical college degree course Theaterausstattung offer with their practical oriented integration of designing and realising disciplines conditions for work and study that are hard to find anywhere else. The Laboratory Theatre in the Güntzstrasse completed in April 2000 which houses a well-equipped rehearsal and experimental stage room allows the Academy to provide the theatre courses as well with ideal teaching conditions in addition to the studios; the new postgraduate course Kunst-Therapie, established just a few years ago does only exist a second time at one other art academy in Germany. After their academy studies and art teachers are given attractive new chances for qualification in the artistic-social field. Eberhard Bosslet teaches sculpture and concepts of space. One of its most illustrious teachers was Bernardo Bellotto, the painter of the world-famous town scapes of Dresden. At the b
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul in Poznań is one of the oldest churches in Poland and the oldest Polish cathedral, dating from the 10th century, it stands on the island of Ostrów Tumski north-east of the city centre. The cathedral was built in the second half of the 10th century within the fortified settlement of Poznań, which stood on what is now called Ostrów Tumski; this was one of the main political centres in the early Polish state, included a ducal palace. The palace included a chapel built for Dobrawa, Christian wife of Poland's first historical ruler, Mieszko I. Mieszko himself was baptised in 966 at Poznań – this is regarded as a key event in the Christianization of Poland and consolidation of the state; the cathedral was built around this time. Saint Peter became the patron of the church because, as the first cathedral in the country, it had the right to have the same patron as St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican; the pre-Romanesque church, built at that time was about 48 meters in length.
Remains of this building are still visible in the basements of today's basilica. The first church survived for about seventy years, until the period of the pagan reaction and the raid of the Bohemian duke Bretislav I; the cathedral was rebuilt in the Romanesque style, remains of which are visible in the southern tower. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the church was rebuilt in the Gothic style. At that time, a crown of chapels was added. A fire in 1622 did such serious damage that the cathedral needed a complete renovation, carried out in the Baroque style. Another major fire broke out in 1772 and the church was rebuilt in the Neo-Classical style. In 1821, Pope Pius VII raised the cathedral to the status of a Metropolitan Archcathedral and added the second patron - Saint Paul; the last of the great fires occurred on 15 February 1945, during the liberation of the city from the Germans. The damage was serious enough that the conservators decided to return to the Gothic style, using as a base medieval relics revealed by the fire.
The cathedral was reopened on 29 June 1956. In 1962, Pope John XXIII gave the church the title of minor basilica; the cathedral is the place of burial of the following rulers: 992 - Mieszko I 1025 - Boleslaus the Brave 1034 - Mieszko II 1058 - Casimir the Restorer 1239 - Ladislaus Odonic 1257 - Przemysł I 1279 - Bolesław Pobożny 1296 - Przemysł II Bishops of Poznań Royal coronations in Poland Sword of Saint Peter Poznań Nightingales Official cathedral website Archdiocese of Poznań at Catholic-Hierarchy.com