France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Douai is a commune in the Nord département in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department. Located on the river Scarpe some 40 kilometres from Lille and 25 km from Arras, Douai is home to one of the region's most impressive belfries; the population of the metropolitan area, including Lens, was 552,682 in 1999. The main industries in the town are in the metal engineering sectors. Renault has a large vehicle assembly plant near the town, which has produced many well known Renault vehicles, such as the R14, R11, R19, the Megane and Scenic of today; the Gare de Douai railway station is served by regional trains towards Lille, Lens, Saint-Quentin and Valenciennes. It is connected to the TGV network, with high speed trains to Paris, Lyon and other cities, its site corresponds to that of a 4th-century Roman fortress known as Duacum. From the 10th century the town was a romance fiefdom of the counts of Flanders; the town became a flourishing textile market centre during the Middle Ages known as Douay or Doway in English.
In 1384, the county of Flanders passed into the domains of the Dukes of Burgundy and thence in 1477 into Habsburg possessions. In 1667, Douai was taken by the troops of Louis XIV of France, by the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the town was ceded to France. During successive sieges from 1710 to 1712, Douai was completely destroyed by the British Army. By 1713, the town was integrated into France. Douai became the seat of the Parliament of Flanders. Apart from the ferment of the French Revolution, it was again caught up in hostilities in World War I, in 1918, the town was burned and liberated by the British Army after the Battle of Courtrai. World War II brought considerable damage to Douai; the town is still a transportation and commercial center for the area, known up to the Sixties for its coalfield, the richest in northern France. Douai's ornate Gothic style belfry was begun on the site of an earlier tower; the 80 m high structure includes an impressive carillon. The originals, some dating from 1391 were removed in 1917 during World War I by the occupying German forces, who intended to melt them down for the metal.
They were reinstalled after repairs in 1924, but 47 of them were replaced in 1954 to obtain a better sound. An additional larger bell in the summit, a La called "Joyeuse", dates from 1471 and weighs 5.5 tonnes. The chimes are rung by a mechanism every quarter-hour, but are played via a keyboard on Saturday mornings and at certain other times. In 2005 the belfry was included in a list of world heritage sites as a part of object The Belfries of Belgium and France by UNESCO; the substantial Porte de Valenciennes town gate, a reminder of the town's past military importance, was built in 1453. One face is built in Gothic style; the University of Douai was founded under the patronage of Phillip II, when Douai belonged to the Spanish Netherlands. It was prominent, from the 1560s until the French Revolution, as a centre for the education of English Catholics escaping the persecution in England. Connected with the University were not only the English College, founded by William Allen, but the Irish and Scottish colleges and the Benedictine and Jesuit houses.
The Benedictine priory of St Gregory the Great was founded by Saint John Roberts at Douai in 1605, with a handful of exiled English Benedictines who had entered various monasteries in Spain, as the first house after the Reformation to begin conventual life. The community was established within the English Benedictine Congregation and started a college for English Catholic boys who were unable to find a Catholic education at home, pursued studies in the University of Douai. However, the community was expelled at the time of the French Revolution in 1793 and, after some years of wandering settled at Downside Abbey, Somerset, in 1814. Another English Benedictine community, the Priory of St. Edmund, formed in Paris in 1615 by Dom Gabriel Gifford Archbishop of Rheims and primate of France, was expelled from Paris during the Revolution, took over the vacant buildings of the community of St Gregory's in 1818. Following Waldeck-Rousseau's Law of Associations, this community returned to England in 1903, where it was established at Douai Abbey, near Reading.
Douai School continued as an educational establishment for boys until 1999. In 1609 the English College published a translation of the Old Testament, together with the New Testament published at Rheims 27 years earlier, was the Douay-Rheims Bible used by Anglophone Roman Catholics exclusively for more than 300 years. For a time there was a Carthusian monastery in Douai, now the Musée de la Chartreuse de Douai. Founded as University of Douai in 1562, the state university in Northern France was renamed Université impériale de Douai-Lille in 1808 as Université de Lille with faculty expansion from Douai to Lille from mid-19th century onwards. Université Lille Nord de France-Artois University Douai Business School, established in 1991 École des Mines de Douai Nurse School Douai was the birthplace of: Jehan Bellegambe early Flemish painter François Cosserat and engineer Henri-Edmond Cross, painter Gaston Crunelle, classical flautist Charles Alexandre de Calonne, statesman Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, poet Henri-Joseph Dulaurens, novelist Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, sculptor Jacky Henin and Member of the European Parliament Corinne Masiero, actress André Obey, playwright M
An executioner known as a public executioner, is a person who inflicts capital punishment ordered by the state or other legal authority, known in feudal terminology as high justice. The executioner was presented with a warrant authorizing or ordering him to execute the sentence; the warrant protects the executioner from the charge of murder. Common terms for executioners derived from forms of capital punishment—though they also performed other physical punishments—include hangman and headsman. In the military, the role of executioner was performed by a soldier, such as the provost. A common stereotype of an executioner is a hooded absolutist executioner. Symbolic or real, executioners were hooded, not robed in all black; as Hilary Mantel has pointed out in her 2018 Reith Lectures, "Why would an executioner wear a mask? Everybody knew who he was". While this task can be occasional in nature, it can be carried out in the line of more general duty by an officer of the court, the police, prison staff, or the military.
A special case is the tradition of the Roman fustuarium, continued in forms of running the gauntlet, where the culprit receives his punishment from the hands of the comrades gravely harmed by his crime, e.g. for failing in vital sentinel duty or stealing from a ship's limited food supply. Many executioners were professional specialists who traveled a circuit or region performing their duty, because executions were very numerous. Within this region, a resident executioner would administer non-lethal physical punishments, or apply torture. In medieval Europe, to the end of the early modern period, executioners were knackers, since pay from the rare executions was not enough to live off. In medieval Europe executioners taxed lepers and prostitutes, controlled gaming houses, they were in charge of the latrines and cesspools, disposing of animal carcasses. The term is extended to administrators of severe physical punishment, not prescribed to kill, but which may result in death. Executions in France persisted until 1977, the French Republic had an official executioner.
In Western Europe and its colonies, executioners were shunned by their neighbours, with their work as knackers disreputable. In Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers and in the film La veuve de Saint-Pierre, minor character executioners are ostracized by the villagers; the profession of executioner sometimes ran through a family in France, where the Sanson family provided six executioners between 1688 and 1847 and the Deibler dynasty provided five between 1879 and its 1981 abolition. The latter's members included Louis Deibler, his son Anatole, Anatole's nephew Jules-Henri Desfourneaux, his other nephew André Obrecht, André's nephew Marcel Chevalier. In Britain, the most notable dynasty was the Pierrepoints, who provided three executioners between 1902 and 1956 – Henry, his brother Thomas, Henry's son Albert. Unlike in France and many other European countries, far from being shunned, British executioners such as William Marwood, James Berry, Albert Pierrepoint, Harry Allen were known and respected by the public.
In Japan, executioners have been held in contempt as part of the burakumin class. In Memories of Silk and Straw, by Junichi Saga, one of the families surveyed in the Japanese village of Tsuchiura is that of an executioner family; this family does suffer social isolation though the family is somewhat well-off financially. In the Ottoman Empire, only Romani could be executioners. Executioners were seen as "damned" people and their graveyards were separate from public graveyards. There were no inscriptions on executioner tombstones, uncarved and unpolished simple rough stones were used. One of the oldest and largest "executioner graveyards" is in the Eyüp district in Istanbul. After the republican revolution in Turkey, executions continued to be performed by Romani executioners; this situation continued until the abolition of capital punishment in Turkey. List of executioners Scharfrichter Breaking wheel Executioner's sword Sword of justice Pierrepoint The Executioner
Anatole Deibler was a French executioner. Succeeding his father, Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Deibler, as the lead French executioner, he participated in the execution of 395 criminals during his 54-year career. During his 40 years as lead executioner he was responsible for 299 beheadings, he is considered one of the most famous French executioners. This is due to the fact that most of his executions were public and were reported by the media; the advent of the camera made him somewhat of a celebrity. He represented an institution that did not fit in with the current time: the medieval beheading in more modern time with cars and mass media. Abel Pollet Guillotine Cora Lynn Deibler: Anatole Deibler, Last Public Executioner in France. 2011. Geoffrey Abbott: Execution: A Guide to the Ultimate Penalty. Summersdale Publishers Ltd, 2012. Anatole Deibler: Carnets d'exécutions, 1885–1939, présentés et annotés par Gérard A. Jaeger, Éditions L'Archipel, Paris 2004. Robert Frederick Opie: Guillotine: The Timbers of Justice.
The History Press The Mill, Gloucestershire 2013. Boisdejustice.com Letter from Paris, The New York, February 18, 1939 Photo from 1923, criminalwisdom.tumblr.com Must Keep On Beheading People as Long as He Lives, The Milwaukee Sentinel, January 22, 1939
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2. Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is 13 kilometres from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region; the city is nicknamed Nice la Belle, which means Nice the Beautiful, the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by Menica Rondelly in 1912. The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a early use of fire. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after Nike, the goddess of victory.
Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of Savoy, was part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia until its re-annexation by France in 1860; the natural environment of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. The city's main seaside promenade, the Promenade des Anglais owes its name to visitors to the resort; the clear air and soft light have appealed to notable painters, such as Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle and Arman. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year.
It has the third busiest airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice; the first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years. Nice was founded around 350 BC by the Greeks Phoceans of Massalia, was given the name of Nikaia in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians; the city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice. In the 7th century, Nice joined. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens. During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy; as an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence though related to Genoa; the medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.
The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin. In 1388 the commune placed itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy. Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860; the maritime strength of Nice now increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice. During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a ten years' truce.
In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. In 1600, Nice was taken by the Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, proclaiming full freedom of trade, the commerce of the city was given great stimulu