André Weil was a French mathematician, known for his foundational work in number theory and algebraic geometry. He was the de facto early leader of the mathematical Bourbaki group; the philosopher Simone Weil was his sister. André Weil was born in Paris to agnostic Alsatian Jewish parents who fled the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by the German Empire after the Franco-Prussian War in 1870–71; the famous philosopher Simone Weil was Weil's only sibling. He studied in Paris, Rome and Göttingen and received his doctorate in 1928. While in Germany, Weil befriended Carl Ludwig Siegel. Starting in 1930, he spent two academic years at Aligarh Muslim University. Aside from mathematics, Weil held lifelong interests in classical Greek and Latin literature, in Hinduism and Sanskrit literature: he taught himself Sanskrit in 1920. After teaching for one year in Aix-Marseille University, he taught for six years in Strasbourg, he married Éveline in 1937. Weil was in Finland, his wife Éveline returned to France without him.
Weil was mistakenly arrested in Finland at the outbreak of the Winter War on suspicion of spying. Weil returned to France via Sweden and the United Kingdom, was detained at Le Havre in January 1940, he was charged with failure to report for duty, was imprisoned in Le Havre and Rouen. It was in the military prison in Bonne-Nouvelle, a district of Rouen, from February to May, that Weil completed the work that made his reputation, he was tried on 3 May 1940. Sentenced to five years, he requested to be attached to a military unit instead, was given the chance to join a regiment in Cherbourg. After the fall of France, he met up with his family in Marseille, he went to Clermont-Ferrand, where he managed to join his wife Éveline, living in German-occupied France. In January 1941, Weil and his family sailed from Marseille to New York, he spent the remainder of the war in the United States, where he was supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Guggenheim Foundation. For two years, he taught undergraduate mathematics at Lehigh University, where he was unappreciated and poorly paid, although he didn't have to worry about being drafted, unlike his American students.
But, he hated Lehigh much for their heavy teaching workload and he swore that he would never talk about "Lehigh" any more. He quit the job at Lehigh, he moved to Brazil and taught at the Universidade de São Paulo from 1945 to 1947, where he worked with Oscar Zariski, he returned to the United States and taught at the University of Chicago from 1947 to 1958, before moving to the Institute for Advanced Study, where he would spend the remainder of his career. He was a Plenary Speaker at the ICM in 1950 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1954 in Amsterdam, in 1978 in Helsinki. In 1979, Weil shared the second Wolf Prize in Mathematics with Jean Leray. Weil made substantial contributions in a number of areas, the most important being his discovery of profound connections between algebraic geometry and number theory; this began in his doctoral work leading to the Mordell–Weil theorem. Mordell's theorem had an ad hoc proof. Both aspects of Weil's work have developed into substantial theories. Among his major accomplishments were the 1940s proof of the Riemann hypothesis for zeta-functions of curves over finite fields, his subsequent laying of proper foundations for algebraic geometry to support that result.
The so-called Weil conjectures were hugely influential from around 1950. Weil introduced the adele ring in the late 1930s, following Claude Chevalley's lead with the ideles, gave a proof of the Riemann–Roch theorem with them. His'matrix divisor' Riemann–Roch theorem from 1938 was a early anticipation of ideas such as moduli spaces of bundles; the Weil conjecture on Tamagawa numbers proved resistant for many years. The adelic approach became basic in automorphic representation theory, he picked up another credited Weil conjecture, around 1967, which under pressure from Serge Lang became known as the Taniyama–Shimura conjecture based on a formulated question of Taniyama at the 1955 Nikkō conference. His attitude towards conjectures was that one should not dignify a guess as a conjecture and in the Taniyama case, the evidence was only there after extensive computational work carried out from the late 1960s. Other significant results were on Pontryagin differential geometry, he introduced the concept of a uniform space in general topology, as a by-product of his collaboration with Nicolas Bourbaki.
His work on sheaf theory hardly appears in his published papers, but correspondence with Henri Cartan in the late 1940s, reprinted in his collected papers, proved most influential. He created the symbol ∅ to represent the empty set. Weil made a well-known contribution in Riemannian geometry in his first paper in 1926, when he showed that
Ferdinand Tille is a German volleyball player, a member of Germany men's national volleyball team and German club TSV Herrsching, a gold medalist of European League 2009, a bronze medalist of the World Championship 2014. On May 27, 2014, it was announced. On October 8, 2014 his team won ENEA Polish SuperCup 2014. On May 6, 2015 he won with PGE Skra Bełchatów the bronze medal of the Polish Championship. In May 2015 he signed a contract with TSV Herrsching. 2007/2008 German Championship, with Generali Unterhaching 2008/2009 German Cup, with Generali Unterhaching 2008/2009 German Championship, with Generali Unterhaching 2009/2010 German Cup, with Generali Unterhaching 2009/2010 German Championship, with Generali Unterhaching 2010/2011 German Cup, with Generali Unterhaching 2011/2012 French Championship, with Arago de Sète 2012/2013 French Championship, with Arago de Sète 2014/2015 Polish SuperCup2014, with PGE Skra Bełchatów 2014/2015 Polish Championship, with PGE Skra Bełchatów 2009 European League 2014 FIVB World Championship 2015 European Games 2010 FIVB World Championship - Best Libero FIVB Profile Ferdinand Tille at the Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund
The Vainu Bappu Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. It is located at Kavalur in the Javadi Hills, near Vaniyambadi in Tirupattur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, it is 175 km south-east of Bangalore. The Vainu Bappu Observatory of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics traces its origin back to 1786 when William Petrie set up his private observatory at his garden house at Egmore, which came to be known as the Madras Observatory, it was moved to Kodaikanal and functioned there as the Kodaikanal Observatory since 1899. However, Kodaikanal had few nights available for observation and hence astronomers searched for a new site after India's independence. M. K. Vainu Bappu who took over as the director of the Kodaikanal Observatory in 1960, found a sleepy little hamlet called Kavalur in the Javadi Hills as a suitable site for establishing optical telescopes for observing celestial objects; this came to be known as Kavalur Observatory.
Observations began in 1968 with a 38 cm telescope made in the backyard of the Kodaikanal Observatory. Kavalur observatory is located in Kavalur in the Javadi Hills in Tirupattur District; the Kavalur Observatory is located in a 100-acre forest land in Tamil Nadu, strewn with a variety of greenery of tropical region besides a number of medicinal plants with an occasional appearance of some wildlife like deer and scorpions. Several varieties of birds have been spotted in the campus; the observatory is at an altitude of 725m above mean sea level. Apart from being reasonably away from city lights and industrial areas, the location has been chosen in order to be closer to the earth's equator for covering both northern and southern hemispheres with equal ease. In addition, its longitudinal position is such that it is the only major astronomical facility between Australia and South Africa for observing the southern objects; the first telescope was of 38 cm aperture, with which astronomical observations were started in 1968 at Kavalur Observatory.
The 75 cm telescope has been designed and fabricated at the workshops of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. In 1972 a 1-metre telescope made by Carl Zeiss Jena was installed at Kavalur. Vainu Bappu started the 2.3-metre aperture telescope and built within the country. Bappu would not see the completion of the telescope. On 6 January 1986, the observatory was re-named as Vainu Bappu Observatory and the 2.3 metre telescope as Vainu Bappu Telescope. The telescope is so powerful that it can resolve a 25 paise coin kept forty kilometres away. Deep sky observations are carried out with this telescope using a variety of focal plane instruments; the equatorially mounted horse-shoe-yoke structure of the telescope is ideally suited for low latitudes and permits easy observation near the north celestial pole. The telescope has a F/3.25 paraboloid primary of 2.3 m diameter with the prime focus image scale of 27 arcsec/mm and a Cassegrain focus image scale of 6.7 arcsec/mm. This telescope has been operated as a national facility and attracts proposals from all over the country and sometimes from outside India.
The observatory is home to the Vainu Bappu Telescope, the largest telescope in Asia until a 3.6-meter telescope was set up at Devasthal, Nainital, by ARIES. It has a diameter of 2.3 meters and was first used in 1986. Along with the Vainu Bappu telescope, the observatory has two other telescopes: A 1-meter Zeiss manufactured and another 75-centimeter Cassegrain reflector being refurbished; the observatory has a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. Technical details Primary mirror diameter: 234 cm Prime focus: f/3.25 with a scale of 27".1/mm Cassegrain focus: f/13 with a scale of 6".8/mm Guiding: remote, manual guiding Instruments available At PRIME focus: Imaging camera with a 3-element Wynne corrector High-resolution Echelle spectrograph Detector 4096×4096 pixels TEK CCD, with a pixel size of 12 micrometres At CASSEGRAIN focus: Medium-resolution spectroploarimeter Medium-resolution Optometrics Research spectrograph Detector 1024×1024 pixels TEK CCD, with a pixel size of 24 micrometres The 1-metre telescope is associated with two unique discoveries in the solar system.
In 1972, atmosphere was detected around Jupiter's satellite Ganymede and in the year 1977, participated in the observations that confirmed rings were discovered around the planet Uranus. In 1984, Kavalur reported the discovery of a thin outer ring around Saturn. On 17 February 1988, a new minor planet was discovered using the 45 cm Schmidt telescope, it has been named 4130 Ramanujan after the Indian mathematical genius Srinivasa Ramanujan. This is the first such discovery from India in the 20th century. Front-line research is being carried out with the help of the optical telescopes at Vainu Bappu Observatory using several focal plane instrumentational facilities; the ongoing programmes include observations of stars, star clusters, supernovae, galaxies, optical imaging of gamma-ray burst fields, stellar populations, solar system objects and many others. The telescopes at the observatory had started with modest focal plane instruments and on graduated to more sophisticated ones; these include cameras for fast photography, photoelectric photometers, a single-channel photoelectric spectrum scanner, a medium resolution spectrograph, a quartz-prism calibration spectrograph, infrared photometer, image tube spectrograph, a Universal Astronomical Grating Spectrograph, high-resolution echelle spectrograph and a polarimeter.
Photographic plates were the principal detectors in the early days. Presently the charge-coupl