National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Rómulo Ángel del Monte Carmelo Gallegos Freire was a Venezuelan novelist and politician. For a period of some nine months during 1948, he was the first cleanly elected president in his country's history. Rómulo Gallegos was born in Caracas to Rómulo Gallegos Osío and Rita Freire Guruceaga, into a family of humble origin, he began his work as a schoolteacher, classical music enthusiast, journalist in 1903. His novel Doña Bárbara was first published in 1929, it was because of the book's criticisms of the regime of longtime dictator Juan Vicente Gómez that he was forced to flee the country, he took refuge in Spain, where he continued to write: his acclaimed novels Cantaclaro and Canaima date from this period. He was appointed Minister of Public Education. In 1937 he was elected to Congress and, in 1940–41, served as Mayor of Caracas. In 1945, Rómulo Gallegos was involved in the coup d'état that brought Rómulo Betancourt and the "Revolutionary Government Junta" to power, in the period known as El Trienio Adeco.
In the 1947 general election he ran for the presidency of the republic as the Acción Democrática candidate and won in what is believed to be the country's first honest election. He took over 74 percent of the vote, still a record for a free election in Venezuela, he took office in February 15, was noted for raising the state's tax revenue for oil profits increase from 43% to 50%, a tax scheme known as "fifty / fifty" and, subsequently replicated in several producing countries as Saudi Arabia. Army officers Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Luis Felipe Llovera Páez, threw him out of power November in the 1948 Venezuelan coup d'état, he took refuge first in Cuba and in Mexico. Gallegos returned to his country after the fall of the dictatorship of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958. While he was named a senator for life, he no longer took an active role in politics. Gallegos was awarded the National Literature Prize, elected to the Venezuelan Academy of the Language. From 1960 to 1963, he was a Commissioner of the newly created Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, he was its first President a position he held until 1963.
He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1960 due to the efforts of Miguel Otero Silva, gained widespread support in Latin America, but lost out to Saint-John Perse. The Rómulo Gallegos international novel prize was created in his honor in 1964, with the first award being made in 1967; the Rómulo Gallegos International Novel Prize was created on 6 August 1964 by a presidential decree enacted by Venezuelan president Raúl Leoni, in honor of him. The declared purpose of the prize is to "perpetuate and honor the work of the eminent novelist and to stimulate the creative activity of Spanish language writers", it is awarded by the government of Venezuela, through the offices of the Rómulo Gallegos Center for Latin American Studies. The first prize was given in 1967, it was awarded every five years until 1987. The award includes a cash prize of €100,000 making it among the richest literary prizes in the world. Gallegos was married to Teotiste Arocha Egui, who served as First Lady of Venezuela in 1948.
Rómulo Gallegos Freire died in Caracas on 5 April 1969. El último Solar La trepadora Doña Bárbara Cantaclaro Canaima Pobre negro El forastero Sobre la misma tierra La rebelión La brizna de paja en el viento Una posición en la vida El último patriota El piano viejo Presidents of Venezuela List of Venezuelans Gallegos: Doña Bárbara / Donald Leslie Shaw. 1972 Rómulo Gallegos: an Oklahoma encounter and the writing of the last novel / Lowell Dunham. 1974 Nine essays on Rómulo Gallegos / Hugo Rodríguez-Alcalá. 1979 Three Spanish American novelists a European view / Cyril A Jones. 1967 Sociopolitical aspects of the novels of Rómulo Gallegos / Earl Leon Cardon. 1962 The function of symbol in the novels of Rómulo Gallegos / Jeannine Elizabeth Hyde. 1964 DUNHAM, LOWELL. 1990: "Cartas familiares de Rómulo Gallegos". Cuadernos Lagoven. Lagoven, S. A. Caracas - Venezuela. MORON, GUILLERMO. 1979: "Los presidentes de Venezuela 1811–1979". Meneven, S. A. Caracas - Venezuela. ROMERO MARTÍNEZ, VINICIO. 1987: "Mis mejores amigos".
Editorial Larense. Caracas - Venezuela. SUBERO, EFRAÍN. 1984: "Aproximación sociologica a la obra de Rómulo Gallegos homenaje en el centenario de su nacimiento". Cuadernos Lagoven. Lagoven, S. A. Caracas - Venezuela
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Margarita Island is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea. The capital city of Nueva Esparta, La Asunción, is located on the island. Primary industries are tourism and construction. Christopher Columbus was the first European to arrive on Margarita Island in 1498; the local natives were the Guaiqueries people. The coast of the island was abundant in pearls, which represented a third of all New World tribute to the Spanish Crown. Margarita Island was fortified against the increasing threat of pirate attacks, some fortifications remain today, it was the center of Spanish colonial Margarita Province, established in 1525. In 1561, the island was seized by Lope de Aguirre, a notoriously violent and rebellious conquistador. Around 1675, the island was captured again, this time by Red Legs Greaves, a pirate known for his humanity and morality, he captured a fleet of Spanish ships off port, before turning the guns on the forts which he stormed and claimed a large booty of pearls and gold.
The story of Greaves' capture of the island does not appear in historical Spanish records and may be fictional. Construction of the fort Santa Rosa was ordered by the governor, Juan Muñoz de Gadea, after the French buccaneer Marquis de Maintenon attacked the island in early 1676; the island gained independence from the Spanish in 1814 after the collapse of the First Republic of Venezuela. It became the first permanently free territory in Venezuela. In the same year, Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi was detained in a dungeon of the Fortress of Santa Rosa on the island in an attempt to put pressure on her husband Juan Bautista Arismendi, fighting for independence, her detention lasted for over three years. Simón Bolívar was confirmed as Commander-in-Chief of the Second Republic of Venezuela on the island in 1816. From there he started a nine-year campaign to free Venezuela, Ecuador and Bolivia from the Spanish Crown. Located in the Caribbean Sea between latitudes 10°52'N and 11°11'N and longitudes 63°48'W and 64°23'W, the island, along with the islands of Coche and Cubagua, comprises the state of Nueva Esparta.
The island is split into two peninsulas joined by an 18 kilometres long isthmus and covers an area of 1,020 square kilometres. It is 78 kilometres long and measures 20 kilometres at its widest; the climate is sunny and dry, with average temperatures ranging from 24 °C to 37 °C. Most of the island's 420,000 residents live in the more developed eastern part of the island, which includes the large cities of Porlamar and Pampatar along with the state capital of La Asunción; the island can be reached by direct flights from Caracas or ferries from Puerto La Cruz, Cumaná, La Guaira. There are no international flights to the island at present; the Macanao peninsula to the west has a central mountain range in the east-west direction. The highest altitude is 760 metres at Pico de Macanao. Several smaller ranges derive from this axis following a north-south orientation with deep valleys between them; the most notable of these valleys is San Francisco in the north-central part of the peninsula. The Paraguachoa peninsula to the East is formed by a mountain range in the north-south direction from Porlamar to Cabo Negro.
The highest peaks are El Copey 890 metres. The peninsulas are connected by the La Restinga isthmus. There are two breast-shaped hills known as Tetas de Maria Guevara on the isthmus. Macanao peninsula consists of mountainous spine of the central west-east, with several culminations, including Macanao Peak, the highest, with an altitude of 760 meters above sea level stands; this axial region several side brackets oriented north-south off, including deep valleys are dissected. The central massif is surrounded by foothills forming a more or less continuous, narrow strip, which reaches to the coast north and south of the peninsula. Isla Margarita eastern is formed by a mountain range which runs north-south, from northern Porlamar to Cabo Negro; the hills are Guayamurí Los Andes foothills. To the north stands the Tragaplata hill. Among the higher elevations found on the island, are cited: The average temperature is 32 °C with minimum ranging between 22 °C and 23 °C and maximum that can exceed 34 °C. Rainfall is common in the winter months and rainy season.
Being located in the Caribbean Sea near the Earth's equator, solar rays fall perpendicularly on the island and therefore it is advisable to always use some sort of sunscreen when visiting its beaches. La Asunción is the capital of the Federal State of Nueva Esparta with a population of around 28,500, it is the seat of the regional government. The city is overlooked by the Santa Rosa Castle of La Asunción The urban area of Pampatar has a population of around 50,000. A number of the island's larger shopping malls are located in the city, namely Sambil Margarita, Rattan Depot, Centro Comercial La Vela, Centro Comercial Costa Azul, Centro Comercial AB and La Redoma; the Royal Fortress of San Carlos Borromeo, constructed in the late 17th century, is located in Pampatar. The city has several beaches; the largest city on Margarita Island is Porlamar. The population can reach 125,000 in the high season, while i
Floral Games were any of a series of related poetry contests with floral prizes. In Occitan, their original language, Catalan they are known as Jocs florals. In French they became the Jeux floraux, in Basque Lore jokoak; the original contests may have been inspired by the Roman Floralia held in honour of Flora. The original floral games of the troubadours were held by the Consistori del Gay Saber in Toulouse, annually from 1324, traditionally on 1 May. One contestant would receive golden violet, for the poem judged the best; the second prize was a silver wild rose, the other prizes, awarded for particular poetic forms, were floral. The first prize was awarded on 3 May 1324 to Arnaut Vidal de Castelnou d'Ari for a sirventes in praise of the Virgin Mary; the contests were held intermittently until 1484, when the last prize was awarded to Arnaut Bernart de Tarascon. From this period of 160 years survive the record of around a hundred prizes; these contests were judged in accordance with the Leys d'amor, a grammatical and literary treatise on Occitan poetry.
The floral games were intended to keep alive the poetic language and style of the Occitan troubadours, but in time this aim was forgotten. In 1471 the golden violet was awarded to Peire de Janilhac n'ostan qu'el fos Frances, per so que dictec el lengatge de Tholosa: notwithstanding that he was French, because he composed in the language of Toulouse. In 1554 the Constistori, now the Collège, awarded a silver eglantine rose to none other than Pierre de Ronsard, the greatest French poet of his generation, for his Amours. During the Enlightenment, Fabre d'Églantine received his name from the dog rose the Collège bestowed on him; the Consistori, as the Académie des Jeux floraux, continues to function. At Pentecost, 31 May 1338, a poetic contest was held at Lleida before Peter IV of Aragon, at which awards were given to those poems judged the best. A panel of judges was designated in advance by the king; the winning poets received a piece of expensive golden satin called diasprell. This contest was the first Catalan attempt to emulate the Toulouse games and it may have been part of a pattern of isolated events, though no other records have reached us.
At Valencia on 20 February 1393, John I of Aragon founded an annual festival to be celebrated in honour of the Virgin Mary on the day of Annunciation or the following Sunday in Barcelona. The festival included a Catalan poetry contest, modelled on those held in Toulouse and other illustrious cities, the poems submitted would be judged by a panel of literati; the first recorded contest held by John's Consistori de Barcelona is believed to have taken place on 28 March 1395, with the king in attendance. This festival is called a bella festa... an honor de la dita gaya ciencia, the prizes for which were provided by the municipal government of Barcelona. There is no record of the names of the prizes, or their poems. With the death of John two months and his conflict with the city, the floral games and their source of prize money came to an end. On 1 May 1398, John's successor, Martin the Humane, agreed to subsidise the annual festival and cover the cost of the gold and silver prizes for the winners, to be chosen by mantenidors named by the king.
Under Martin a great festa was held in 1408 beneath the walls where the Mirador del rei Martí—a recent addition the royal palace complex—and the Palau del Lloctinent meet in Barcelona. On 17 March 1413 Ferdinand of Antequera, who had succeeded Martin, confirmed that the floral games occurred on 1 May. At the height of romanticism in 1859, during the Catalan Renaixença, Antoni de Bofarull and Víctor Balaguer re-established the floral games in Barcelona on the first Sunday in May with the theme of Patria, Amor, alluding to the three typical prizes: the Englantina d'or given for the greatest patriotic poem, the Flor Natural for the greatest love poem, the Viola d'or i argent to the greatest religious poem. There were other lesser prizes. A person winning all three great prizes was given the honorific title of Mestre en Gai Saber; the intellectual and political classes swiftly patronised the Jocs Florals and their support lent renewed prestige to Catalan poetry. Several different positions soon became apparent with respect to the models to be used for the creation of a Catalan literature.
Marià Aguiló defended as worthy models authors. Antoni de Bofarull defended sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Catalan authors and the Barcelonese dialect as the best models for Catalan poetry. There was a "third way" that upheld a unique nineteenth-century Catalan poetry in Barcelonese dialect, but it had few defenders among the supporters of the Jocs Florals. In the end the Jocs attracted persons of a wide variety of ideologies: republicans, the young people. Frederic Soler and his followers would participate in the majority of contests; the Jocs Florals went a long way to re-asserting the Catalan language after centuries of decline with respect to Castilian. In 1879 Jocs Florals were established at Valencia two decades after the ones in Barcelona; the games were traditionally held by Lo Rat Penat in the Valencian language. A total of seventeen prizes were awarded annually.
Cantabria is an autonomous community in northern Spain with Santander as its capital city. It is recognized as a historic community and is bordered on the east by the Basque Autonomous Community, on the south by Castile and León, on the west by the Principality of Asturias, on the north by the Cantabrian Sea. Cantabria belongs to Green Spain, the name given to the strip of land between the Bay of Biscay and the Cantabrian Mountains, so called because of its lush vegetation, due to the wet and moderate oceanic climate; the climate is influenced by Atlantic Ocean winds trapped by the mountains. The most significant site for cave paintings is that in the cave of Altamira, dating from about 37,000 BC and declared, along with nine other Cantabrian caves, as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO; the modern Province of Cantabria was constituted on 28 July 1778 at Reocín. The Organic Law of the Autonomy Statute of Cantabria was approved on 30 December 1981, giving the region its own institutions of self-government.
Numerous authors, including Isidore of Seville, Julio Caro Baroja, Aureliano Fernández Guerra and Adolf Schulten, have explored the etymology of the name Cantabria, yet its origins remain uncertain. It is claimed that the root cant- comes from Celtic for "rock" or "stone", while -abr was a common suffix used in Celtic regions. Thus, Cantabrian could mean "people who live in the rocks" or "highlanders", a reference to the steep and mountainous territory of Cantabria; the name Cantabria could be related to the Celtic root "kant" or "cant" meaning edge or rim thus "coastal district," or "corner-land", "land on the edge" thus having the same probable derivation as the name of the English county of Kent. Cantabria is coastal region, with important natural resources, it has two distinct areas: Coast. A coastal strip of low and rolling valleys some 10 kilometres in width, the altitude of which does not rise above 500 metres, which meets the ocean in a line of abrupt cliffs broken by river estuaries, forming rias and beaches.
Santander Bay is the most prominent indentation in the coastline. To the south, the coastal strip rises to meet the mountains. Mountains; this is a long barrier made up of abruptly rising mountains parallel to the sea, which are part of the Cantabrian Mountains. The mountains are made of limestone with karst topography, occupy most of Cantabria's area, they form deep valleys running north-south. The torrential rivers are fast flowing and of great eroding power, so the slopes are steep; the valleys define different natural regions, delimited physically by the intervening mountain ranges: Liébana, Saja-Nansa, Pas-Pisueña, Miera, Asón-Gándara, Campoo. To the'mountain' region belongs the Escudo Range, a mountain range of 600 to 1,000 metres high that covers 15 or 20 km in a parallel line to the coast in the West part of Cantabria. Towards the south are higher mountains, the tops of which form the watershed between the drainage basins of the Rivers Ebro and the rivers that flow into the Bay of Biscay.
These peaks exceed 1,500 m from the Pass of San Glorio in the west to the Pass of Los Tornos in the eastern part: Peña Labra, Castro Valnera and the mountain passes of Sejos, El Escudo and La Sía. The great limestone masses of Picos de Europa stand out in the southwest of the region: most of their summits exceed 2,500 m, their topography is shaped by the former presence of glaciers. Due to the gulf stream, Cantabria, as well as the rest of "Green Spain", has a much more temperate climate than might be expected for its latitude, comparable to that of Oregon; the region has a humid oceanic climate, with mild winters. Annual precipitation is higher in the mountains; the mean temperature is about 14 °C. Snow is frequent in higher zones of Cantabria between the months of March; some zones of Picos de Europa, over 2,500 metres high, have an alpine climate with snow persisting year round. The driest months are August; the mountainous relief of Cantabria has a dominant effect on local microclimate in Cantabria.
It is the main cause of the peculiar meteorologic situations like the so-called "suradas", due to the foehn effect: the southerly wind coming down from the mountains blows and dry, increasing the temperature closer to the coast. This causes a decrease in air humidity and rainfall; these conditions are more frequent in autumn and winter, the temperatures are higher than 20 °C. Fires are helped by this type of wind: one example is the fire that destroyed part of the city of Santander in the winter of 1941. In these specific cases in the southern part of the mountain range the dry adiabatic gradient produces different conditions to the rest of the region: the wind there is fresher and more humid, there is more rain; the rivers of Cantabria are short and rapid, descending steeply because the sea is so close to their source in the Cantabrian Mountains. They flow perpendicular except for the Ebro, they generally flow year round due to constant rainfall. The rate of flow is modest compared to the other rivers of the Iberian peninsula.
The rapidness of their waters, caused by their steep descents, gives them great erosive power, creating the narrow V-shaped valleys characteristic of Green Spain. Th