BBC World Service
The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays. In November 2016 the BBC announced again that it would start broadcasting in additional languages including Amharic and Igbo, in its biggest expansion since the 1940s. In 2015 World Service reached an average of 210 million people a week; the English-language service broadcasts 24 hours a day. The World Service is funded by the United Kingdom's television licence fee, limited advertising and the profits of BBC Worldwide Ltd; the service is guaranteed £289 million from the UK government. The World Service was funded for decades by grant-in-aid through the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of the British Government until 1 April 2014. BBC World Service English maintains eight different regional feeds with several program variations, covering East and South Africa.
There are two separate online-only streams with one being more news-oriented, known as News Internet. The controller of BBC World Service English is Mary Hockaday; the BBC World Service began in 1932 as the BBC Empire Service, broadcasting on shortwave and aimed principally at English-speakers across the British Empire. In his first Christmas Message, King George V characterised the service as intended for "men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them". First hopes; the Director General, Sir John Reith said in the opening programme:"Don't expect too much in the early days. The programmes will neither be interesting nor good." This address was read out five times. On 3 January 1938 the first foreign-language service was launched - in Arabic. Programmes in German started on 29 March 1938, by the end of 1942 the BBC had started broadcasts in all major European languages; as a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, supplemented by the addition of a dedicated BBC European Service from 1941.
Funding for these services - known administratively as the External Services of the BBC - came not from the domestic licence-fee but from government grant-in-aid. The External Services broadcast propaganda during the Second World War of 1939-1945, its French service Radio Londres sent coded messages to the French Resistance. George Orwell broadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II. By the end of the 1940s the number of broadcast languages had expanded and reception had improved, following the opening of a relay in modern-day Malaysia and of the Limassol relay in Cyprus in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service, it expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with a stronger signal and better reception, with the relay on the Island of Masirah in Oman. In August 1985 the service went off-air for the first time when workers went on strike in protest at the British government's decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin.
Subsequently, financial pressures decreased the number and the types of services offered by the BBC. Audiences in countries with wide access to Internet services have less need for terrestrial radio. Broadcasts in German ended in March 1999, after research showed that the majority of German listeners tuned into the English-language service. Broadcasts in Dutch, French, Italian and Malay stopped for similar reasons. On 25 October 2005, the BBC announced that broadcasts in Bulgarian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Slovak and Thai would end by March 2006, to finance the launch in 2007 of television news-services in Arabic and Persian. Additionally, Romanian broadcasts ceased on 1 August 2008. In January 2011 the closure of the Albanian, Portuguese for Africa and English for the Caribbean services was announced; this reflected the financial situation the Corporation faced following transfer of responsibility for the Service from the Foreign Office, so that it would in future have been funded from within licence-fee income.
The Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese and Spanish for Cuba services ceased radio broadcasting, the Hindi, Kyrgyz, Swahili and Kirundi services ceased shortwave transmissions. The British government announced that the three Balkan countries had wide access to international information, so broadcasts in the local languages had become unnecessary. 650 jobs went as part of the 16% budget cut. The Service broadcasts from Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the Corporation, it is located in the newer parts of the building, which contains radio and television studios for use by the various language services. The building contains an integrated newsroom used by the international World Service, the international television channel BBC World News, the domestic television and radio BBC News bulletins, the BBC News Channel and BBC Online. At its launch, the Service was located along with m
British Academy Television Awards
The British Academy Television Awards known as the BAFTA TV Awards, are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. They have been awarded annually since 1955; the first Awards, given in 1955, consisted of six categories. Until 1958, they were awarded by the Guild of Television Directors. From 1958 onwards, after the Guild had merged with the British Film Academy, the organisation was known as the Society of Film and Television Arts. In 1976, this became the British Academy of Television Arts. From 1968 until 1997, the BAFTA Film and Television awards were presented in one joint ceremony known as the BAFTA Awards, but in order to streamline the ceremonies from 1998 onwards they were split in two; the Television Awards are presented in April, with a separate ceremony for the Television Craft Awards on a different date. The Craft Awards are presented for more technical areas of the industry, such as special effects, production design, or costumes.
The Awards are only open to British programmes—with the exception of the audience-voted Audience Award and the International Award —but any cable, terrestrial or digital television stations broadcasting in the UK are eligible to submit entries, as are independent production companies who have produced programming for the channels. Individual performances, such as from actors, can either be entered by the performers themselves or by the broadcasters; the programmes being entered must have been broadcast on or between March and February of the following year to be eligible for the year's awards. Entry is free, entry forms are made available between November and January each year. After all the entries have been received, they are voted for online by all eligible members of the Academy; the programmes and performances attracting the most votes four in each category, are shortlisted as the nominees for each award. The winner is chosen from the four nominees by a special jury of nine academy members for each award, the members of each jury selected by the Academy's Television Committee.
Each jury is designed to have a balance in areas such as sex and experience, have experience related to the categories concerned but no direct connections to the short-listed programmes or performers. There are a number of non-competitive honorary Awards—the Dennis Potter Award for Outstanding Writing for Television; these Awards are awarded by the Academy's Council. They are not always given every year, but as and when appropriate; the Awards ceremony is broadcast on British television the day after it has taken place. Between 1998 and 2006, it was alternated between BBC One, but since 2007, it has been broadcast by BBC One. In 1991, a controversial selection was made in the Best Drama Serial category, when Prime Suspect beat G. B. H. to win the award. Following the ceremony, four of the seven voting members of the jury signed a public statement declaring that they had voted for G. B. H. to win. Jury chairperson Irene Shubik, who did not cast a vote, refused to comment publicly on the affair, but BAFTA Chairman Richard Price stated that the ballot papers passed on to him by Shubik had shown four votes for Prime Suspect and three for G.
B. H. Price claimed. No blame was attached to Shubik by the four judges, it was to her that they had turned to raise the apparent discrepancy with BAFTA; the main competitive Award categories presented every year are: Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Comedy Includes sketch shows. Judged on the basis of a single episode. Lew Grade Award for Best Entertainment Programme Includes general entertainment programmes, variety shows, game shows, panel games, stand-up and celebrity chat shows. Judged on the basis of a single episode. Best Entertainment Performance - Known as Best Light Entertainment Performance prior to 2000. Best Female Comedy Performance - Previously one award for Best Comedy Performance, Separate male and female categories created in 2010. Best Male Comedy Performance Best Drama Serial A drama where one main story is told across more than one episode, the story is resolved in the final episode. Best International Programme Best Drama Series A drama which consists of several episodes, but each episode tells a self-contained story, with the same characters continuing across the episodes.
Best Single Drama A drama where one self-contained story is told in a single one-off episode, equivalent to a television movie. The minimum length is five minutes. Best Soap and Continuing Drama A drama which transmits a minimum of twenty episodes per year; the nominees are soap operas. Best Current Affairs - replaced The entered programme can be a one-off or part of a series, but if part of a series the same episode may not be entered in another category; this category was ceased in 2007 due to lack of entrants for the award. However, current affairs programmes can still qualify, but under the category of either Best Single Documentary or Best Factual Series, depending on the genre of the programme. Longlist and nominations for these two categories are expected to expand. Best Factual Series or Strand Best Mini-Series Best Feature For p
Balliol College, Oxford
Balliol College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. One of Oxford's oldest colleges, it was founded around 1263 by John I de Balliol, a rich landowner from Barnard Castle in County Durham, who provided the foundation and endowment for the college; when de Balliol died in 1269 his widow, Dervorguilla, a woman whose wealth far exceeded that of her husband, continued his work in setting up the college, providing a further endowment, writing the statutes. She is considered a co‑founder of the college. Among the college's alumni are three former prime ministers, Harald V of Norway, five Nobel laureates, numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Aldous Huxley. John Wycliffe, who translated the Bible into English, was Master of the college in the 1360s. In 2018 Balliol had an endowment of £139.3m. Balliol College was founded in about 1263 by John I de Balliol under the guidance of Walter of Kirkham, the Bishop of Durham.
According to legend, the founder had abducted the bishop as part of a land dispute and as a penance he was publicly beaten by the bishop and had to support a group of scholars at Oxford. After de Balliol's death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day. Along with University and Merton, Balliol can claim to be the oldest Oxford college. Balliol’s claim is that a house of scholars was established by the founder in Oxford in around 1263, before Merton in 1274 and University in around 1280. Under a statute of 1881, New Inn Hall, one of the remaining medieval halls, was merged into Balliol College in 1887. Balliol acquired New Inn Hall's admissions and other records for 1831–1887 as well as the library of New Inn Hall, which contained 18th-century law books; the New Inn Hall site was sold and is now part of St Peter's College, Oxford.
In 1880, seven mischievous Balliol undergraduates published The Masque of B-ll--l, a broadsheet of forty quatrains making light of their superiors – the Master and selected Fellows and Commoners – and themselves. The outraged authorities suppressed the collection, only a few copies survived, three of which found their way into the College Library over the years, one into the Bodleian Library. Verses of this form are now known as Balliol rhymes; the best known of these rhymes is the one on Benjamin Jowett. This has been quoted and reprinted in every book about Jowett and about Balliol since. First come I. My name is J-W-TT. There's no knowledge but I know it. I am Master of this College; this and 18 others are attributed to Henry Charles Beeching. The other quatrains are much less well known. William Tuckwell included 18 of these quatrains in his Reminiscences in 1900, but they all came out only in 1939, thanks to Walter George Hiscock, an Oxford librarian, who issued them then and in a second edition in 1955.
For many years, there has been a traditional and fierce rivalry shown between the students of Balliol and those of its immediate neighbour to the east, Trinity College. It has manifested itself on the river; the rivalry reflects that which exists between Trinity College and Balliol's sister college, St John's College, Cambridge. In college folklore, the rivalry goes back to the late 17th century, when Ralph Bathurst, President of Trinity, was observed throwing stones at Balliol's windows. In fact, in its modern form, the rivalry appears to date from the late 1890s, when the chant or song known as a "Gordouli" began to be sung from the Balliol side; the traditional words run: Gordouli Face like a ham,Bobby Johnson says so And he should know. The shouting of chants over the wall is still known as "a Gordouli", the tradition continues as the students gather to sing following boat club dinners and other events; the traditional Gordouli is said to have been sung by Balliol and Trinity men in the trenches of Mesopotamia in the First World War.
Balliol became known for its radicalism and political activism in the 20th century, saw an abortive coup in the 1960s in which students took over the college and declared it "the People's Republic of Balliol". The contrast between the radical tendencies of many Balliol students and the traditional conservatism and social exclusivity of Trinity gave the rivalry an extra edge; the fact that Balliol had admitted a number of Indian and Asiatic students gave many of the taunts from the Trinity side a distinctly racist tone: Balliol students, for example, were sometime referred to as "Basutos". In Five Red Herrings, a Lord Peter Wimsey novel by Somerville alumna Dorothy L. Sayers, Lord Peter is asked whether he remembers a certain contemporary from Trinity. "'I never knew any Trinity men,' said Wimsey.'The Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.'" Sayers alludes to the rivalry in Murder Must Advertise: Mr Ingleby, a Trinity man, comments, "If there is one thing more repulsive than another it is Balliolity."One of the wittier raids from Balliol, in 1962 or 1963, involved the turfing of the whole of Trinity JCR.
The last incident suspected to relate to the feud was the vandalisation of Trinity's SCR pond, which led to the death of all but one of the fish. For
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
Newshour is BBC World Service's flagship international news and current affairs radio programme, broadcast twice daily: weekdays at 1400, weekends at 1300 and nightly at 2100. Each edition lasts one hour, it consists of news bulletins on the hour and half hour, international interviews and in-depth reports of world news. The BBC World Service considers it one of their most important programmes. In 2011 it was kept despite severe cutbacks, it is broadcast in the United States on various American Public Media stations. The programme is broadcast live from Broadcasting House in London, it covers the major news of the day interviewing heads of state and government ministers. The programme was first broadcast in 1988. Presenter, Owen Bennett-Jones claims, "Newshour is intended to provide detailed coverage of the world. We try to provide a level of analysis that's not available elsewhere." Claire Bolderson, 1997–2012 Robin Lustig, 1989–2012 Mary Ann Sieghart, 2008–10 Paul Welsh Judy Swallow Alex Brodie BBC World Service, the home of Newshour BBC News BBC World News, The BBC's International Television Station Official website
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide. Thorium is an electropositive actinide. All known thorium isotopes are unstable; the most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only three radioactive elements that still occur in large quantities as primordial elements, it is estimated to be over three times as abundant as uranium in the Earth's crust, is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder, its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century.
In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is being replaced in the field with different compositions, it was material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, several thorium reactors have been built. Thorium is a moderately soft, bright silvery radioactive actinide metal. In the periodic table, it lies to the right of actinium, to the left of protactinium, below cerium. Pure thorium is ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled and drawn. At room temperature, thorium metal has a face-centred cubic crystal structure. Thorium metal has a bulk modulus of about the same as tin's. Aluminium's is 75.2 GPa. Thorium is about as hard as soft steel, so when heated it can be rolled into sheets and pulled into wire.
Thorium is harder than either of them. It becomes superconductive below 1.4 K. Thorium's melting point of 1750 °C is above both those of actinium and protactinium. At the start of period 7, from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase, because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four. After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium, where the number of f electrons increases from about 0.4 to about 6: this trend is due to the increasing hybridisation of the 5f and 6d orbitals and the formation of directional bonds resulting in more complex crystal structures and weakened metallic bonding. Among the actinides up to californium, which can be studied in at least milligram quantities, thorium has the highest melting and boiling points and second-lowest density.
Thorium's boiling point of 4788 °C is the fifth-highest among all the elements with known boiling points. The properties of thorium vary depending on the degree of impurities in the sample; the major impurity is thorium dioxide. Experimental measurements of its density give values between 11.5 and 11.66 g/cm3: these are lower than the theoretically expected value of 11.7 g/cm3 calculated from thorium's lattice parameters due to microscopic voids forming in the metal when it is cast. These values lie between those of its neighbours actinium and protactinium, part of a trend across the early actinides. Thorium can form alloys with many other metals. Addition of small proportions of thorium improves the mechanical strength of magnesium, thorium-aluminum alloys have been considered as a way to store thorium in proposed future thorium nuclear reactors. Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, it is miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium. All but two elements up to bismuth have an isotope, stable for all purposes, with the exceptions being technetium and promethium.
All elements from polonium onward are measurably radioactive. 232Th is one of the three nuclides beyond bismuth that have half-lives measured in billions of years. Four-fifths of the thorium present at Earth's formation has survived to the present. 232Th is the only isotope of thorium occurring in quantity in nature. Its stability is attributed to its closed nuclear shell with 142 neutrons. Thorium has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, with atomic weight 232.0377. I
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England