Hawadax Island is an island in the Rat Islands archipelago of the western Aleutian Islands in the U. S. state of Alaska. The island was known as Rat Island until May 2012 when it was renamed Hawadax Island, an Aleut name meaning "entry" and "welcome"; the island has a land area of no permanent population. It is within the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, it is 3.1 miles in width. The former name is the English translation of the name given to the islands by Captain Fyodor Petrovich Litke in 1827 when he visited the Aleutian Islands on a voyage around the world; the Rat Islands are earthquake-prone as they are on the boundary of the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. In 1965, there was a major earthquake with the magnitude 8.7 in the Rat Islands. The island was infested with brown rats, which are considered a nuisance invasive species due to their negative impact on the population of ground-nesting wild birds; the rats arrived on the island before 1780 due to a Japanese shipwreck.
Since the rats had a devastating effect on local seabirds that have no natural defenses against the rats. Invasive rats are present on 16 other islands in the Aleutian chain. In 2007, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which manages the refuge, was formulating plans to eradicate the rats; the eradication plan is modelled on a successful one to eliminate the Arctic fox from various Aleutian islands, where they were deliberately introduced for breeding. In June 2009, the island was declared rat-free for the first time in 229 years, although the site will be continually monitored for another two years for confirmation. In the preceding autumn, helicopters dropped brodifacoum poison onto the island from buckets for a week, which eliminated the rat population. However, the associated nontarget mortality, i.e. the deaths of animals other than the rats, was significant. Some nontarget mortality was expected, but the actual quantity exceeded what was predicted; the Ornithological Council reported that more than 420 birds were killed as a result of the rat eradication program.
Forty-six bald eagles died. Of the 320 glaucous-winged gull carcasses collected, toxicology tests implicated brodifacoum in 24 of the 34 tested. Fifty-four carcasses of another 25 bird species were found; the report found that the lead contractor which the FWS used, Island Conservation, had dropped more poisonous bait than they had proposed, including bait, intended to be saved as a backup. The FWS asked the Ornithological Council to determine if Island Conservation had exceeded the limit of their poison quantities, but the council decided not to resolve any "legal questions"; as of 2011, the State of Alaska issued a Notice of Violation and FWS law enforcement is still investigating. Steve Delehanty, the manager of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge said that, "It was a learning experience, we made mistakes together." However, he stated, "...if you do the math this was a rip-roaring conservation success." Campbell Island, New Zealand, the largest successful rat eradication. Rat Island Invasive Rat Eradication Project Environmental Assessment Rat Island: Block 1140, Census Tract 1, Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau THE RAT ISLAND RAT ERADICATION PROJECT: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF NONTARGET MORTALITY.
PREPARED FOR ISLAND CONSERVATION THE NATURE CONSERVANCY and the U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, ALASKA MARITIME NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE. PREPARED BY THE ORNITHOLOGICAL COUNCIL. Final report issued December 2010. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law Enforcement, Report of Investigation #2009703127R001
Bogoslof Island or Agasagook Island is the summit of a submarine stratovolcano at the south edge of the Bering Sea, 35 miles northwest of Unalaska Island of the Aleutian Island chain. It is uninhabited; the peak elevation of the island is 490 feet. It is 1,512 m wide; the stratovolcano rises about 6,000 ft from the seabed, but the summit is the only part that projects above sea level. The island is believed to be new, with the volcano being below sea level before 1796, most of the presently 300 acre island being formed by eruptions since 1900; the first known emergence of the island above sea level was recorded during an underwater eruption in 1796. Since parts of the island have been successively added and eroded. About 2,000 feet northwest of Bogoslof, a small volcanic dome emerged in 1883 from the same stratovolcano and has become a stack rock formation known as Fire Island. On the southwest side of Bogoslof, another dome erupted in 1796. Other eruptions have occurred in 1796-1804, 1806-1823, 1883-1895, 1906, 1907, 1909-1910, 1926-1928, 1992, 2016-2017.
The island is a breeding site for seabirds and sea lions. An estimated 90,000 tufted puffins, red-legged kittiwakes and gulls nest here. In 1909, President Theodore Roosevelt designated Bogoslof and Fire Island, a sanctuary for sea lions and nesting marine birds. Together, as the Bogoslof Wilderness, they are part of the Aleutian Islands unit of Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. In November 1967, Bogoslof Island was designated a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; the Bogoslof Island group was added to the National Wilderness Preservation System in 1970. 20 December 2016: A series of short nearly-daily volcanic eruptions started, producing towering volcanic ash clouds and volcanic lightning, changing the geography of the island. As there are no cameras or monitoring stations on the island and the area is overcast, details were uncertain. However, when the weather became favorable, it was seen that a small vent offshore of Bogoslof's northeast beach had erupted explosively, fracturing the original island in two, forming a new, smaller island to the northeast.
25 December 2016: Satellite images of the island showed that the island had fractured into three smaller islands centered on what was thought to be the active vent of the eruption, gaining a net 1.2 acres, compared to its previous area of 71.2 acres. Bogoslof continued to grow in the following weeks, reaching a size of 108.0 acres on January 11, 2017, merging again into a single island. 02:08 UTC on 20 February: A significant explosive eruption began at Bogoslof volcano. Seismic and infrasound data showed a series of short-lived explosive pulses through 02:45 UTC. Recent satellite images show a cloud as high as 25,000 ft asl. 11 March 2017: Bogoslof was 242 acres in size, having more than tripled in size, forming into a large circular island around the central vent, would continue to grow. 10 May 2017: Bogoslof was estimated to have an area of about 319 acres or 1.3 square kilometers. 17 May 2017: An eruption sent ash 34,000 feet into the atmosphere. 28 May 2017: Another eruption sent ash as high as 35,000 feet and raised Aviation Color Code to red, its highest level.
Ash that rises above 20,000 feet is a threat to airliners in the area The National Weather Service Alaska Aviation Weather Unit issued an alert that the ash cloud may climb as high as 50,000 feet. 30 August 2017: An eruption occurred, with slight volcanic activity continuing into early December, after which the volcano appeared to return to relative inactivity. Bogoslof Wilderness List of National Natural Landmarks List of volcanoes in the United States of America Volcanoes of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands-Selected Photographs Bogoslof Island: Block 1069, Census Tract 1, Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau
Tanaga Island is an island in the western Andreanof Islands, in the southwest part of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The island has a land area of 204 square miles, making it the 33rd largest oceanic island in the United States, its highest point is volcano Mount Tanaga at 5,925 feet. Tanaga Island measures 38 kilometres wide. Tanaga Island is about 62 miles west of the nearest inhabited island. There are several large waterfalls on Tanaga Island. Tanaga Island is uninhabited, but several cabins are shown on the NOAA nautical chart, as well as some Aleut villages on the east side of the island. There are no native land mammals on Tanaga Island. Tanaga Island was established as a Navy emergency landing field in July 1943 as an adjunct to the Adak Naval Operation Base. Navy Seabees built a runway, small-craft pier, mooring area and storage buildings, radio building and mess facilities, 4 miles of gravel road in 1943, near Lash Bay in the southwest of the island; the site was abandoned in 1945. The control tower is still shown on nautical charts.
The last known eruption of Tanaga volcano occurred in 1914. Earlier eruptions were reported in 1763-1770, 1791, 1829. Reports of these eruptions are vague, but deposits on the flanks of the volcano show that typical eruptions produce blocky lava flows and occasional ash clouds. Eruptions have occurred both from the summit vent and a 5,197-foot-high satellite vent on the volcano's northeast flank. West of Tanaga volcano lies Sajaka, a 4,443-foot-high compound edifice. Takawangha's 4,754-foot-high summit is ice-covered, except for four young craters that have erupted ash and lava flows in the last few thousand years. Parts of Takawangha's edifice are hydrothermally altered and may be unstable, could produce localized debris avalanches. No historical eruptions are known from Takawangha. A swarm of earthquakes was reported in January 2017 about 6 kilometers from Takawangha, causing the Alaska Volcano Observatory to raise the alert level to YELLOW/ADVISORY Tanaga Island Photos Photos from Tanaga Island, July 2008]
Amukta is a small yet mountainous island in the Islands of Four Mountains group lying between the Fox Islands and the Andreanof Islands in the Aleutian Islands. The nearest islands to it are Seguam Island; the small island of Chagulak lies directly northeast of it. The island reaches a total height of 3,461 feet; the island measures 9 kilometres long and 8.3 kilometres wide
Akun Island is one of the Fox Islands subgroup of the Aleutian Islands in the Aleutians East Borough of southwestern Alaska. The island lies east across the Unimak Pass strait; the Krenitzin Islands lie across the Avatanak Strait. Akun Island has a land area of 64.39 sq mi. It is 18.2 kilometres wide. It is unpopulated, except for a few people controlling the cattle. Akun Island is home to a significant population of cows, they are no longer domesticated but the population is controlled. Three domesticated horses inhabit the island. With the cessation of amphibious airplane service to Akutan on Akutan Island, the Akutan Seaplane Base closed in 2012, it was replaced by a new $75.5m land-based airstrip 6 miles across the water on Akun Island, named Akutan Airport. It was built by Kiewit, R&M Consultants, DOT; the airport was connected to Akutan by an expensive hovercraft shuttle, which couldn't operate safely when winds were too strong or waves too high. Operating costs were high. A helicopter provides the link between Akun and Akutan.
The airport has a small hotel, used when a flight arrives but the hovercraft is unable to run
Seguam Island is a small volcanic island in the Andreanof Islands group in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The island is oval shaped with a land area of 80.04 square miles. It is 6.8 miles wide. The 2000 census reported a population of one person; the island consists of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, it contains two calderas each with central volcanic cones. About 10 historical eruptions have been recorded since the late 18th century, the most recent in 1993. All recent activity has occurred at Pyre Peak, the cone within the western caldera and the highest point on the island, has produced explosive eruptions and basaltic lava flows. "Seguam". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Alaska Volcano Observatory: Seguam Island Seguam Island: Block 1083, Census Tract 1, Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska United States Census Bureau