Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on several artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour, it was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen. It was laid out as an independent privileged merchant's town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere. For much of the 20th century a working-class neighbourhood, Christianshavn developed a bohemian reputation in the 1970s and it is now a fashionable and lively part of the city with its own distinctive personality. Businessmen, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, but it still has its own local council. Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen.
It has a population of 10,140 and a population density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts. To the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagen's city centre. In 1612, Christian IV initiated an ambitious programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the marshy area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area. In 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, by 1674 it was incorporated into its larger neighbour; the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, again in 1810-1813. Though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavn's fortifications continued in use into the 20th century.
Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, the final areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the total fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen, are one of Denmark’s best preserved fortifications from the 17th century. Today the area around the fortifications is a park area. Christianshavn is a lively residential area, it is quartered by the Christianshavn Canal, running north-south along its length, Torvegade, the main thoroughfare of Christianshavn, running east-west, connecting Amager Side Copenhagen to the city centre across Knippelsbro. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the geographical centre of Christianshavn, lies the square Christianshavns Torv. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood; the Lower City Side of Christianshavn known as Christiansbro, is the most affluent part of the neighbourhood, with several modern residential developments built on the grounds of the former Burmeister & Wain / B&W Shipyard.
Several headquarters are found in the area, including most notably the Danish headquarters of Nordea along its entire harbourfront, while its most important historic building is Christian's Church. On the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Christianshavn's Upper City Side, stretching along Strandgade from Torvegade to the Trangaven Canal, is dominated by old renovated warehousess and merchant's houses. A number of large institutions are located in the area, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Cultural institutions include the North Atlantic House. On the other side of the canal, Christianshavn's Upper Rampart Side is the densest and most neglected part of the neighbourhood with around half of Christianshavn's 10,000 inhabitants living in that area, it is in this area that the Church of Christiania are found. Holmen is characterized by a mixture of old military buildings and new residential developments and is the home of many creative business like advertising agencies and architectural practices as well as creative educational institutions like Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Danish Film School.
Freetown Christiania, a self-governing neighborhood which has established semi-legal status as an independent community in an area of abandoned military barracks, appears as a "city within the city". It has a considerable population and is a venue for many cultural events as well as experimental and idiosyncratic "Architecture Without Architects". Church of Our Saviour Christian's Church North Atlantic House with Restaurant Noma Christiania Christianshavn Rampart Danish Architecture Centre Lille Mølle Copenhagen Opera House Nyholm Arsenal Island Christianshavn metro station is located at Christianshavns Torv at the intersection of Christianshavn Canal and Torvegade; the station serves both the M2 lines of the Copenhagen Metro. The 901 & 902 lines of the Copenhagen Harbour Buses have a stop at Christianshavn at the end of Knippelsbro. In Søren Kierkegaard's philosophical work Stages on Life's Way, his pseudonymous alter ego Hilarius Bookbinder states that in Christianshavn "one is far far away from Copenhagen" and therefore Langebro deserves its name.
The Church of Our Saviour in Christianshavn appears in a chapter of Jules Verne's A Journey to the Center of the Earth. The character Axel is m
Johan Henrik Deuntzer
Johan Henrik Deuntzer was a Danish politician, member of the Liberal Venstre party until 1905 where he joined the Danish Social Liberal Party. He was Council President and Foreign Minister of Denmark from 1901 to 1905 as the leader of the Cabinet of Deuntzer. From 1914 to 1918 he was one of the king's appointed members of the Landsting
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Robert Nisbet Bain
Robert Nisbet Bain was a British historian and linguist who worked for the British Museum. Bain was a fluent linguist. Besides translating a number of books he used his skills to write learned books on foreign people and folklore. Bain was a frequent contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, his contributions were biographies and varied from Andrew Aagensen to Aleksander Wielopolski. He taught himself Hungarian in order that he could read Mór Jókai in the original after first reading him in German, he translated from Finnish and Russian and tackled Turkish authors via Hungarian. He was the most prolific translator into English from Hungarian in the nineteenth century, he died young after publishing a wide range of literature from or about Europe. He is buried in Brookwood Cemetery. Gustavus III. and his contemporaries 1746-1792. 2 Bände. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1894 The daughter of Peter the Great. A history of Russian diplomacy. Westminster: Archibald Constable, 1899 Peter III. Emperor of Russian.
The story of a crisis and a crime. London: Archibald Constable, 1902 Biography of Leo Tolstoy, 1903 Scandinavia. A political history of Denmark and Sweden from 1513 to 1900. Cambridge: University Press, 1905 The First Romanovs. A History of Moscovite Civilisation and the Rise of Modern Russia Under Peter the Great and His Forerunners. 1905. Reprint, New York: Russell & Russell, 1967. Slavonic Europe: A Political History of Poland and Russia from 1447 to 1796, Cambridge University Press, 1908 The last King of Poland and his contemporaries. London: Methuen, 1909 Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire 1682-1719, NA Kessinger Pub. Co. 2006, ISBN 1-4326-1903-9 Russian Fairy Tales, 1892 Cossack Fairy Tales and Folk Tales, London: Lawrence and Bullen 1894 Turkish Fairy Tales and Folk Tales, 1896 Tales from Tolstoi, 1901 Tales from Gorky, 1902Translations Mór Jókai: Egy Magyar Nábob, 1850. A Hungarian Nabob, New York: DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 1899 The Day of Wrath The Poor Plutocrats Jonas Lauritz Idemil Lie: Weird Tales from Northern Seas Elias Bredsdorff: Danish Literature in English Translation.
L. C. Wharton: Transcription of Foreign Tongues. Media related to Robert Nisbet Bain at Wikimedia Commons Works by Robert Nisbet Bain at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Robert Nisbet Bain at Internet Archive Works by Robert Nisbet Bain at LibriVox
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published