Nafplio is a seaport town in the Peloponnese in Greece that has expanded up the hillsides near the north end of the Argolic Gulf. The town was an important seaport held under a succession of royal houses in the Middle Ages as part of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia, held by the de la Roche following the Fourth Crusade before coming under the Republic of Venice and, the Ottoman Empire; the town was the capital of the First Hellenic Republic and of the Kingdom of Greece, from the start of the Greek Revolution in 1821 until 1834. Nafplio is now the capital of the regional unit of Argolis; the name of the town changed several times over the centuries. The modern Greek name of the town is Nafplio. In modern English, the most used forms are Nauplia and Navplion. In Classical Antiquity, it was known as Nauplia in Attic Naupliē in Ionian Greek. In Latin, it was called Nauplia. During the Middle Ages, several variants were used in Byzantine Greek, including Náfplion, Anáplion, Anáplia. During the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, under Venetian domination, the town was known in Italian as Napoli di Romania, after the medieval usage of "Romania" to refer to the lands of the Byzantine Empire, to distinguish it from Napoli in Italy.
During the early modern period, but this time under Ottoman rule, the Turkish name of the town was Mora Yenişehir, after Morea, a medieval name for the Peloponnese, "yeni şehir", the Turkish term for "new city". The Ottomans called it Anabolı. In the 19th century and early 20th century, the town was called indiscriminately Náfplion and Nafplio in modern Greek. Both forms were used in official documents and travel guides; this explains why the old form Náfplion still survives up to this day. Nafplio is situated on the Argolic Gulf in the northeast Peloponnese. Most of the old town is on a peninsula jutting into the gulf. Isolated by marshes, deliberate landfill projects since the 1970s, have nearly doubled the land area of the city; the municipality Nafplio was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Asini Midea Nafplio Nea TirynthaThe municipality has an area of 390.241 km2, the municipal unit 33.619 km2. The area surrounding Nafplio has been inhabited since ancient times, but few signs of this, aside from the walls of the Acronauplia, remain visible.
The town has been a stronghold on several occasions during Classical Antiquity. It seems to be mentioned on an Egyptian funerary inscription of Amenophis III as Nuplija. Nauplia was the port of Argos, in ancient Argolis, it was situated upon a rocky peninsula, connected with the mainland by a narrow isthmus. It was a ancient place, is said to have derived its name from Nauplius, the son of Poseidon and Amymone, the father of Palamedes, though it more owed its name, as Strabo has observed, to its harbour. Pausanias tells us that the Nauplians were Egyptians belonging to the colony which Danaus brought to Argos. Nauplia was at first independent of Argos, a member of the maritime confederacy which held its meetings in the island of Calaureia. About the time of the Second Messenian War, it was conquered by the Argives. Argos now took the place of Nauplia in the Calaureian confederacy; as such it is mentioned by Strabo. Pausanias noticed the ruins of the walls of a temple of Poseidon, certain forts, a fountain named Canathus, by washing in which Hera was said to have renewed her virginity every year.
The Acronauplia has walls dating from pre-classical times. Subsequently, Franks and Turks added to the fortifications. In the middle ages Nauplia was called τὸ Ναύπλιον, τὸ Ἀνάπλιον, or τὰ Ἀνάπλια, it became a place of considerable importance in the middle ages, has continued so down to the present day. In the time of the Crusades it first emerges from obscurity. Nafplio was taken in 1212 by French crusaders of the Principality of Achaea, it became part of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia, which in 1388 was sold to the Republic of Venice, who regarded it as one of their most important places in the Levant. During the subsequent 150 years, the lower city was expanded and fortified, new fortifications added to Acronauplia; the city, under Venetian rule twice repelled Ottoman attacks and sieges, first by Mehmed the Conqueror during the Ottoman–Venetian War and by Suleiman the Magnificent. The city surrendered to the Ottomans in 1540, who renamed it Mora Yenişehri and established it as the seat of a sanjak.
At that period, Nafplio looked much like the 16th century image shown below to the right. The Venetians retook Nafplio in 1685 and made it the capital of their "Kingdom of the Morea"; the city was strengthened by building the castle of Palamidi, in fact the last major const
Filiki Eteria or Society of Friends was a secret organization founded in 1814 in Odessa, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece and establish an independent Greek state. Society members were young Phanariot Greeks from Constantinople and the Russian Empire, local political and military leaders from the Greek mainland and islands, as well as several Orthodox Christian leaders from other nations that were under Hellenic influence, such as Karađorđe from Serbia Tudor Vladimirescu from Romania, Arvanite military commanders. One of its leaders was the prominent Phanariote Prince Alexander Ypsilantis; the Society initiated the Greek War of Independence in the spring of 1821. The direct translation of the word "Φιλική" is "Friendly" and the direct translation of "Εταιρεία" is "Society", "Company" or "Association"); the common transliteration "Filiki Eteria" reflects the pronunciation of the name in modern Greek. Other possible transliterations are "Filike Etaireia", which reflects Greek orthography, "Philike Hetaireia", reflects the ancient Greek etymology.
In the context of ardent desire for independence from Turkish occupation, with the explicit influence of similar secret societies elsewhere in Europe, three Greeks came together in 1814 in Odessa to decide the constitution for a secret organization in freemasonic fashion. Its purpose was to unite all Greeks in an armed organization to overthrow Turkish rule; the three founders were Nikolaos Skoufas from the Arta province, Emmanuil Xanthos from Patmos and Athanasios Tsakalov from Ioannina. Soon after they initiated a fourth member, Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos from Andritsaina. Skoufas met with Konstantinos Rados, initiated into Carbonarism. Xanthos was initiated into a Freemasonic Lodge at Lefkada, while Tsakalov was a founding member of the Hellenoglosso Xenodocheio an earlier relative society for the liberation of Greece, founded in Paris and made a progress to the Greek natitonalistic ideas. At the start, between 1814 and 1816, there were twenty members. During 1817, the society initiated members from the diaspora Greeks of Russia and the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The lord of Moldavia Michael Soutzos himself, became a member. Massive initiations began only in 1818 and by early 1821, when the Society had expanded to all regions of Greece and throughout Greek communities abroad, the membership numbered in thousands. Among its members were tradesmen, Russian consuls, Ottoman officials from Phanar and revolutionary Serbs, most notably, the leader of the First Serbian Uprising, father of the modern Serbia and founder of the Karadjordjevic dynasty Karageorge Petrovic. Members included primary instigators of the Greek revolution, notably Theodoros Kolokotronis, Odysseas Androutsos, Dimitris Plapoutas and the metropolitan bishop Germanos of Patras. Filiki Eteria was influenced by Carbonarism and Freemasonry; the team of leaders was making and spreading its decisions, saying that they transmit the commends of the "Invisible Authority", thought, one or more strong persons, so from the start it was shrouded in mystery and glamour. It was believed that a lot of important personalities were members, not only eminent Greeks, but notable foreigners such as the Tsar of Russia Alexander I.
The reality was that the Invisible Authority comprised only the three founders. From 1815 until 1818, five more were added to the Invisible Authority, after the death of Skoufas' another three more. In 1818, the Invisible Authority was renamed to the "Authority of Twelve Apostles" and each Apostle shouldered the responsibility of a separate region; the organisational structure was pyramid-like with the "Invisible Authority" coordinating from the top. No one had the right to ask who created the organisation. Commands were unquestionably carried out and members did not have the right to make decisions. Members of the society came together in what was called a "Temple" with four levels of initiation: a) Brothers or Vlamides, b) the Recommended, c) the Priests and d) the Shepherds; the Priests were charged with the duty of initiation. When the Priest approached a new member, it was first to make sure of his patriotism and catechize him in the aims of society. Much of the essence of it was contained in its conclusion: When the above was administered the Priest uttered the words of acceptance of the novice as a new member: Afterwards the initiated were considered neophyte members of the society, with all the rights and obligations of his rank.
The Priest had the obligation to reveal all the marks of recognition between the Vlamides or Brothers. Vlamides and Recommended were unaware of the revolutionary aims of the organisation, they only knew that there existed a society that tried hard for the general good of the nation, which included in its ranks important personalities. This myth was propagated deliberately, in order to stimulate the morale of members and to make proselytism easier. Members in the secret society divided to three parts: a) Etairoi: Shepherds with important duty, b) Apostles: Priests with important duty, c) all other members. In 1818, the seat of Filiki Eteria had migrated from Odessa to Constantinople, Skoufas' death had been a serious loss; the remaining founders attempted to find a major personality to take over the reins, one who would add prestige and fresh impetus to the society. In
Giorgos or George Seferis, the pen name of Georgios Seferiades, was a Greek poet-diplomat. He was one of the most important Greek poets of the 20th century, a Nobel laureate, he was a career diplomat in the Greek Foreign Service, culminating in his appointment as Ambassador to the UK, a post which he held from 1957 to 1962. Seferis was born in Urla near Smyrna in Ottoman Empire, his father, Stelios Seferiadis, was a lawyer, a professor at the University of Athens, as well as a poet and translator in his own right. He was a staunch Venizelist and a supporter of the demotic Greek language over the formal, official language. Both of these attitudes influenced his son. In 1914 the family moved to Athens, he continued his studies in Paris from 1918 to 1925. While he was there, in September 1922, Smyrna/Izmir was taken by the Turkish Army after a two-year Greek military campaign on Anatolian soil. Many Greeks, including Seferis' family, fled from Asia Minor. Seferis would not visit Smyrna again until 1950.
Seferis was greatly influenced by Kavafis, T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, he returned to Athens in 1925 and was admitted to the Royal Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the following year. This was the beginning of a long and successful diplomatic career, during which he held posts in England and Albania, he married Maria Zannou on April 1941 on the eve of the German invasion of Greece. During the Second World War, Seferis accompanied the Free Greek Government in exile to Crete, South Africa, Italy, returned to liberated Athens in 1944, he continued to serve in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and held diplomatic posts in Ankara and London. He was appointed minister to Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, was Royal Greek Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1961, the last post before his retirement in Athens. Seferis received many honours and prizes, among them honorary doctoral degrees from the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Princeton. In 1936, Seferis published a translation of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land.
Seferis first visited Cyprus in November 1953. He fell in love with the island because of its resemblance, in its landscape, the mixture of populations, in its traditions, to his childhood summer home in Skala, his book of poems Imerologio Katastromatos III was inspired by the island, written there–bringing to an end a period of six or seven years in which Seferis had not produced any poetry. Its original title Cyprus, where it was ordained for me… made clear the optimistic sense of homecoming Seferis felt on discovering the island. Seferis changed the title in the 1959 edition of his poems. Politically, Cyprus was entangled in the dispute between the UK, Greece and Turkey over its international status. Over the next few years, Seferis made use of his position in the diplomatic service to strive towards a resolution of the Cyprus dispute, investing a great deal of personal effort and emotion; this was one of the few areas in his life in which he allowed the political to mix. In 1963, Seferis was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture."
Seferis was the first Greek to receive the prize. But in his acceptance speech, Seferis chose rather to emphasise his own humanist philosophy, concluding: "When on his way to Thebes Oedipus encountered the Sphinx, his answer to its riddle was:'Man'; that simple word destroyed the monster. We have many monsters to destroy. Let us think of the answer of Oedipus." While Seferis has sometimes been considered a nationalist poet, his'Hellenism' had more to do with his identifying a unifying strand of humanism in the continuity of Greek culture and literature. The other five finalists for the prize that year were W. H. Auden, Pablo Neruda, Samuel Beckett, Mishima Yukio and Aksel Sandemose. In 1967 the repressive nationalist, right-wing Regime of the Colonels took power in Greece after a coup d'état. After two years marked by widespread censorship, political detentions and torture, Seferis took a stand against the regime. On March 28, 1969, he made a statement on the BBC World Service, with copies distributed to every newspaper in Athens.
In authoritative and absolute terms, he stated "This anomaly must end". Seferis did not live to see the end of the junta in 1974 as a direct result of Turkey’s invasion of Cyprus, which had itself been prompted by the junta’s attempt to overthrow Cyprus' President, Archbishop Makarios, he died in Athens, on September 20, 1971. The cause of death was reported to be pneumonia, aggravated by a stroke he had suffered after undergoing surgery for a bleeding ulcer about two months earlier. At his funeral, huge crowds followed his coffin through the streets of Athens, singing Mikis Theodorakis’ setting of Seferis’ poem'Denial', he is buried at First Cemetery of Athens. His house at Pangrati district of central Athens, just next to the Panathinaiko Stadium of Athens, still
Athanasios Christopoulos was a Greek poet. Christopoulos was born at Kastoria in Macedonia, he studied at Buda and Padua, became tutor to the children of Alexander Mourousis, Prince of Wallachia. After the fall of that prince in 1811, Christopoulos was employed by John Caradja, appointed hospodar of Walachia, in drawing up a code of laws for that country. On the removal of Caradja, Christopoulos retired into private life and devoted himself to literature, he wrote drinking songs and love ditties which are popular among the Greeks. He is the author of a tragedy, of Politika Parallela, of translations of Homer and Heraclitus, of some philological works on the connection between ancient and modern Greek, his Hellenika Archaiologemata contains an account of his life. Thomas K. Papathomas, a poet from Kastoria himself, published Christopoulos's "Complete Works" in 1931-1932 in Thessaloniki, he died at Bucharest. ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΛΟΥ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΙΚΕ. ΤΗΣ ΑΙΟΛΟΔΟΡΙΚΕΣ ΗΤΟΙ ΤΗΣ ΟΜΙΛΟΥΜΕΝΗΣ ΤΩΡΙΝΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ ΓΛΟΣΣΑΣ.
Vienna, 1805 ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΛΟΥ ΛΥΡΙΚΑ ΕΡΩΤΙΚΑ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΚΧΙΚΑ. Β' Ἔχδοσις τοῦ Ἐθνικοῦ Ἡμερολογίου. Paris, 1864 Collection de monuments pour servir a l'étude de la lengue néo-hellénique. N° 11. Le premier chant de l'Iliade traduit en vers grecs vulgaires par Ath. Khristopoulos. – IΛIΑΔΟΣ ΡΑΨΩΔΙΑ Α. Μεταφρασθεῖσα εἰς δημοτικοὺς στίχους ὙΠΟ ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΠΟΥΛΟΥ ΕΚΔΙΔΟΝΤΟΣ ΑΙΜΥΛΙΟΥ ΛΕΓΡΑΝΔΙΟΥ. Paris, 1870 Poésies lyriques de l'Anacréon moderne, Athanase Christopoulos, publiées et corrigées par G. Théocharopoulos, de patras. Avec la traduction française en regard. Strasbourg List of Macedonians Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Αθανάσιος Χριστόπουλος Works by Athanasios Christopoulos at Project Gutenberg
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Anthimos Gazis or Gazes was a Greek scholar and politician. He was born in Milies in Ottoman Greece in 1758 into a family of modest means. In 1774 he became a deacon, he left for Vienna in 1789, where he preached at the Church of Saint George, while pursuing his academic interests. His efforts to promote education in Greece through the Filomousos Eteria, translation work and contributions to the first Greek philological periodical, Hermes o Logios, played a significant role in the development of the Greek Enlightenment. In 1817, he joined the Filiki Eteria secret society and returned to his homeland, recruiting others in preparation for an anti–Ottoman revolt. In 1821, with the start of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire he led the Greek insurgents in Magnesia. After the suppression of the revolt there, he went to Central Greece, he represented Magnesia in National Assemblies of Epidaurus and Astros and worked in commissions regarding military affairs and education. In 1827, he fell ill and his condition deteriorated until his death on 24 June 1828 in Ermoupoli, Syros.
Gazis died in poverty. Anastasios Gazalis was born in Milies in 1758, his father Panagiotis Gazalis and his mother Maria Argyriou Philippidi had four sons and four daughters. His family was poor, with the situation worsening when his father died in 1761. In 1770 he joined his village's school, he continued his education in the Hellenic Museum School in Zagora, where he studied logic, philosophy, Greek philology, natural sciences and mathematics. Zagora was well developed economically owing to its booming silk industry, it was during this time. In 1774, he became a deacon upon his uncle's request. Accordingly he assumed the clerical name Anthimos; the treaties of Küçük Kaynarca and Constantinople guaranteed the freedom of religion for Ottoman subjects, while safeguarding church property and granting the right to erect new churches. A year he was promoted to presbyter and sent to the village of Vizitsa, where he worked as a teacher. At the conclusion of his one year contract he departed for Constantinople, where he served as a secretary for the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Sofronios II.
Sofronios remarked upon Gazis' dedication and hard work rewarding him with the rank of archimandrite. Gazis soon befriended a merchant named Aggelis Mammaras of Makrinitsa who urged him to leave for Vienna after covering his expenses. Gazis left for Vienna in 1789; the peace treaties of Passarowitz and Belgrade had restored commercial activity between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. Vienna became an important center of the Greek diaspora, where both goods and ideas were exchanged freely; the religious life of the Greek community revolved around the Church of Saint George and the Holy Trinity Church. In May 1796, a twelve man commission voted Gazis as the new rector of the former. During this time frame he devoted time to the study of physics and mathematics while translating Benjamin Martin’s “Philosophical Grammar” from French which he published in 1799. Gazis supplemented the translation with extensive notes of his own on the subjects of electricity, chemical reactions and the propagation of light.
In 1800, Gazis reissued an edited version of Rigas Feraios' Charta of Greece. The second edition was dedicated to the Greek nation and showed an allegorical figure representing the Greek civilization as being armed, with the motto "I shall follow your lead" appearing beneath her. In 1802, he published. In the same year his health deteriorated due to an illness, he left Vienna. His stay would be brief as he soon left for Venice where he published Greek Lexicon and Greek Library, works based on Gesner's Bibliotheca universalis and Fabricius' Bibliotheca Graeca, he resumed his duties as rector in early 1808. In 1811, he received an honorary diploma from the “Graeco–Dacian Philological Institute of Bucharest” for his contribution to the advancement of science. In the same year he founded the first philological periodical in Greek, Hermes o Logios, published in Vienna, it is regarded as the most significant and longest running periodical of the period prior to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, containing contributions by key scholars and intellectuals.
Hermes o Logios aimed at creating intellectual contacts between the Greek communities of the Ottoman Empire and the Greek Diaspora in Western Europe, as well as the preparing national awakening of the Greek people. On 1 September 1813, the Filomousos Eteria was founded in Athens, with Gazis among its four curators, its goals were the propagation of education is Greece, providing funds for poor students, publishing works of classical literature and the preservation of antiquities. The organization influenced the spread of the ideas of the Modern Greek Enlightenment, indirectly promoting nationali