Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament
The Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament is an annual minor ice hockey event in Quebec City. The event was founded in 1960 to coincide with the Quebec Winter Carnival, give an opportunity to players under 12 years of age to have international competition; the tournament raises funds for the local Patro Roc-Amadour foundation, is run by volunteers and a few staff. The event takes place each year in February at the Videotron Centre, spent 56 seasons at the Quebec Coliseum; as of 2018, the event has showcased the talent of over 1,200 future professionals in the National Hockey League or the World Hockey Association. Gérard Bolduc was inspired to begin a youth ice hockey tournament after travelling with teams to tournaments in Goderich and Duluth, founded the Quebec International Pee Wee Hockey Tournament in 1960 along with Paul Dumont, Jacques Boissinot, Pat Timmons, Edmond de la Bruere. Bolduc served as the original president of the tournament, remained in that role until 1974; the tournament became part of the annual Quebec Winter Carnival festivities in February.
The first tournament had 28 teams participate who were local entries, but included teams from Boston and Newfoundland. The first game was played February 1960, at the Quebec Arena in Parc Victoria. Media in Quebec City were quick to cover the event due to its charitable nature, it being the first time minor ice hockey was played in such a large arena; the event drew 12,500 spectators in its first seven days, Bolduc negotiated to moved the final game to the Quebec Coliseum which drew 7,235 fans. The first grand champion of the tournament in 1960, was the Scarborough Lions team. From 1960 onward, every tournament was hosted at the Quebec Coliseum; the tournament structure from 1960 to 1972 included four divisions, one overall grand champion. In 1962, the tournament grew to 54 teams, including entries from Ontario and the United States. Guy Lafleur played in three consecutive tournaments from 1962 to 1964, scoring a combined total of 64 goals; the addition of the Quebec Beavers team to the tournament grew the attendance, as they became a crowd favourite composed of local boys, with Martin Madden as the coach.
In 1965, the tournament inaugurated the Gérard Bolduc trophy, awarded to the winners of the AA division until 2001. In December 1967, the Quebec Amateur Hockey Association threatened not to sanction to 1968 event, due to the tournament organizers wanting to follow the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association age limits which were under 12 years of age as of May, 31 1967, whereas the QAHA wanted the tournament to follow its age limits of under 12 years of age as of December 31, 1967. For the tournament's 10th anniversary in 1969, Jacques Revelin authored the book The story of a fantastic tournament: which each year makes the Quebec Coliseum vibrate during the Winter Carnival. A team from Princeville, won the grand championship in 1969, the first such winner from the host province; the 1970s began with 102 teams playing at the tournament, including new entries from France and West Germany, Bolduc announced that he was negotiating to get a team from the Soviet Union at the tournament by 1971. The 1971 event had 102 teams, including six Canadian provinces, the Northwest Territories, the United States and Europe.
In the 1974 tournament, a young Wayne Gretzky scored 26 goals playing for Brantford. After the year, Bolduc stepped down as the tournament president, having served in that role since 1960. In 1975, Alex Légaré took over as president of the tournament, served in the role until the conclusion of the 1999 event. In 1976, the tournament began an International Cup division. In 1977, Légaré sought more autonomy for the tournament, moved away from a direct partnership with the Quebec Winter Carnival. Légaré inaugurated the American Cup in 1980, the Quebec Cup in 1981, which were combined into the International Cup; the tournament celebrated its 25th anniversary in 1984, for which a plaque was unveiled in the Quebec Coliseum. That year, Manon Rhéaume became the first female goaltender to play for a boy's team in the tournament. Special considerations were made to allow her to play; the rule for age requirements was changed in 1986 to allow 13-year olds, but it was soon reverted due to the greater size differences in the players.
In 1989, teams from both the Soviet Union and Japan participated in the tournament. The final game in 1990 drew nearly 8,000 spectators; the 1990s saw stronger European teams from the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, which revived the tournament according to Quebec historian Yvon Huard, who had played in the event as a boy. By the 35th anniversary in 1994, the tournament had grown to 115 teams from 12 countries, attracted close to 200,000 spectators. In 1999, a new attendance record was set with 211,178 people spectators during the event; the tournament dates were changed in 2001 to no longer coincide with the Quebec Winter Carnival, with the aim to increase attendance. The 50th anniversary in 2009 was celebrated with a legends game, that featured former participants who had retired from professional hockey. In 2011, the tournament welcomed Australia, its first team from Oceania and its fifth continent to be represented; the 57th annual tournament in 2016 moved into its new home at the Videotron Centre, after playing each previous year at the Quebec Coliseum.
Registrations requests for the tournament increased to 300 teams, an increase of 20% from 2015. The greater amount of team come from the Province of Quebec, due to the number of requests to play 20% of applications were declined. In
Metallurg Magnitogorsk is a professional ice hockey team based in Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. They are members of the Kharlamov Division of the Kontinental Hockey League, they competed in the Champions Hockey League, losing the 2008–09 season championship round to the ZSC Lions of the Swiss ice hockey league National League A. Metallurg Magnitogorsk won the Gagarin Cup in the 2013–14 KHL season and the 2015–16 KHL season. Metallurg was founded in 1955 by the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works as a Class B team that competed in the Chelyabinsk Oblast and the RSFSR championships. Since the 80s it joined the Second League of the Soviet Class A and won its championships twice, in 1988–89 and 1989–90 seasons. After two more seasons in the second level of the USSR hockey Magnitogorsk club became one of the founders of the International Hockey League, the first Post-Soviet major pro hockey association. During the 1990s, the team worked up a reputation as one of the top Russian teams of the new era.
Magnitogorsk advanced to the Russian Superleague finals six times becoming a three-time champion of Russia. On 1 October 2008, Metallurg Magnitogorsk played against NHL's New York Rangers in the inaugural Victoria Cup at the PostFinance-Arena in Bern with an attendance of 13,794. Metallurg Magnitogorsk led most of the game, 3–0 at one point, but lost 4–3 by the Rangers' Ryan Callahan breakaway goal with 20 seconds remaining in the game. Denis Platonov, Vladimir Malenkikh and Nikolai Zavarukhin scored for Metallurg, Dan Fritsche scored and Chris Drury scored twice for the Rangers; as a sign of respect, Russian Dmitri Kalinin and Ukrainian Nikolay Zherdev accepted the Victoria Cup trophy on behalf of the New York Rangers. American analysts and broadcasters reported a rumor that team management was to reward all 22 the Metallurg Magnitogorsk players $100,000 USD for victory. For the full season-by-season history, see List of Metallurg Magnitogorsk seasons. Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, OTW = Overtime/Shootout Wins, OTL = Overtime/Shootout Losses, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against Updated March 13, 2019.
Gagarin Cup Winners: 2014, 2016 Runners-up: 2017Opening Cup Winners: 2014-15, 2016-17Russian Superleague Winners: 1998–99, 2000–01, 2006–07 Runners-up: 1997–98, 2003–04 3rd place: 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08Silver Stone Trophy Winners: 1999, 2000, 2008Champions Hockey League Runners-up: 2008–09Spengler Cup Winners: 2005Victoria Cup Runners-up: 2008Tampere Cup Winners: 2005, 2006, 2008Hockeyades Winners: 2009Davos Hockey Summit Runners-up: 2018 Scoring leadersThese are the top-ten point-scorers in franchise history. Figures are updated. Note: Pos = Position.
Adrian Mark Aucoin is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenceman. He played over 1100 games in the National Hockey League. Aucoin was born in Ottawa, but grew up in Gloucester, Ontario; as a youth, Aucoin played in the 1987 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from Gloucester. Aucoin was drafted 117th overall by the Vancouver Canucks in the 1992 NHL Entry Draft, making his NHL debut in 1994-95, playing one game with Vancouver. With the Canucks, Aucoin established himself as a significant offensive threat on the power-play. However, it was not until his fourth full season with the team that this became evident, as he rose from just 3 goals in 1997–98 to 23 the next season, 18 of which came on the power-play, tying Denis Potvin for the NHL single-season record. In addition to leading all league defencemen in goals and power-play goals in the 1998–99 NHL season, Aucoin led all defencemen in shorthanded goals and game-winning goals. However, after one and half seasons, Aucoin's offensive production dropped to the point where he had only 3 goals through 47 games in 2000–01.
On February 7, 2001, Aucoin was traded to the Tampa Bay Lightning for goaltender Dan Cloutier. He only played 26 regular-season games for the Lightning before being traded in the off-season with Alexander Kharitonov to the New York Islanders for Mathieu Biron and a second-round pick in the 2002 NHL Entry Draft. With the Islanders, Aucoin put up the most consistent offensive numbers of his career, including a career-high 33 assists and 44 points in 2003–04, resulting in him being chosen to play in the 2004 NHL All-Star Game for the Eastern Conference, he shared a victory in the hardest shot competition with Sheldon Souray of the Montreal Canadiens with a 102.2 mph blast and scored the first goal of the game in a 6–4 win over the Western Conference. In 2004–05, he represented Modo Hockey of the Swedish Elitserien during the NHL lockout. Once NHL play resumed, Aucoin signed with the Chicago Blackhawks on August 2, 2005 for four years, became the team captain. However, the first two seasons of his contract were hampered by injuries, in the off-season prior to the 2007–08 campaign, Aucoin waived his no-trade clause and was sent with a seventh-round draft pick to the Calgary Flames for defencemen Andrei Zyuzin and Steve Marr.
In his first season with Calgary, Aucoin recorded the fifth 30-point season of his career in 2007–08 with 35 points, recorded his sixth 30-point season in the 2008–09 season with 34 points. In the summer of 2009, Aucoin signed a free agent deal with the Phoenix Coyotes. There he helped the Coyotes win the Pacific Division in 2012, where the team got to the Western Conference finals. After three seasons with the Coyotes, Aucoin left as a free agent to sign a one-year contract with the Columbus Blue Jackets on July 1, 2012. During the lockout shortened 2012–13 season, Aucoin served as an alternate captain with the Blue Jackets. In 36 games, he totalled. In the summer of 2013 he became an Unrestricted Free Agent. On November 19, 2013, he announced his retirement, he will begin working with the Chicago Blackhawks' young defensive prospects. Babe Pratt Trophy: 1999 Selected to one NHL All-Star Game: 2004 June 20, 1992 - Drafted 117th overall in the 1992 NHL Entry Draft by the Vancouver Canucks February 7, 2001 - Traded to the Tampa Bay Lightning with a 2nd round draft pick for Dan Cloutier June 22, 2001 - Traded to the New York Islanders with Alexander Kharitonov for Mathieu Biron and a 2nd round draft pick August 2, 2005 - Signed a four-year deal with the Chicago Blackhawks June 22, 2007 - Traded to the Calgary Flames with a 7th round draft pick for Andrei Zyuzin and Steve Marr July 1, 2009 - Signed with the Phoenix Coyotes July 1, 2012 - Signed with the Columbus Blue Jackets List of NHL players with 1000 games played Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database Adrian Aucoin at the Canadian Olympic Committee Adrian Aucoin at the International Olympic Committee Adrian Aucoin at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League, they have won six Stanley Cup championships since their founding in 1926. The Blackhawks are one of the "Original Six" NHL teams along with the Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs, Boston Bruins and New York Rangers. Since 1994, the club's home rink is the United Center, which they share with the National Basketball Association's Chicago Bulls; the club had played for 65 years at Chicago Stadium. The club's original owner was Frederic McLaughlin, who owned the club until his death in 1944. Under McLaughlin, a "hands-on" owner who fired many coaches during his ownership, the club won two Stanley Cup titles; the club was owned by the Norris family, who as owners of the Chicago Stadium were the club's landlord, owned stakes in several of the NHL teams. At first, the Norris ownership was as part of a syndicate fronted by long-time executive Bill Tobin, the team languished in favor of the Norris-owned Detroit Red Wings.
After the senior James E. Norris died in 1952, the Norris assets were spread among family members and James D. Norris became owner. Norris Jr. took an active interest in the team and under his ownership, the club won one Stanley Cup title in 1961. After James D. Norris died in 1966, the Wirtz family became owners of the franchise. In 2007, the club came under the control of Rocky Wirtz, credited with turning around the organization, which had lost fan interest and competitiveness. Under Rocky Wirtz, the Blackhawks won the Stanley Cup three times between 2010 and 2015. On May 1, 1926, the NHL awarded an expansion franchise for Chicago to a syndicate headed by former football star Huntington Hardwick of Boston. At the same meeting, Hardwick arranged the purchase of the players of the Portland Rosebuds of the Western Hockey League for $100,000 from WHL president Frank Patrick in a deal brokered by Boston Bruins' owner Charles Adams. However, only one month Hardwick's group sold out to Chicago coffee tycoon Frederic McLaughlin.
McLaughlin had been a commander with the 333rd Machine Gun Battalion of the 86th Infantry Division during World War I. This division was nicknamed the "Blackhawk Division" after a Native American of the Sauk nation, Black Hawk, a prominent figure in the history of Illinois. McLaughlin named the new hockey team in honor of the military unit, making it one of many sports team names using Native Americans as icons. However, unlike the military division, the team's name was spelled in two words as the "Black Hawks" until 1986, when the club became the "Blackhawks," based on the spelling found in the original franchise documents; the Black Hawks began play in the 1926–27 season, along with fellow expansion franchises the Detroit Cougars and New York Rangers. The team had to face immediate competition in Chicago from Eddie Livingstone's rival Chicago Cardinals, which played in the same building. McLaughlin took a active role in running the team despite having no background in the sport, he was very interested in promoting American hockey players very rare in professional hockey.
Several of them, including Doc Romnes, Taffy Abel, Alex Levinsky, Mike Karakas, Cully Dahlstrom, become staples with the club, under McLaughlin, the Black Hawks were the first NHL team with an all-American-born lineup. The Black Hawks played their first game on November 17, 1926, against the Toronto St. Patricks in the Chicago Coliseum; the Black Hawks won their first game 4–1, in front of a crowd of over 7,000. The Hawks' first season was a moderate success. However, they lost the 1927 first-round playoff series to the Boston Bruins. Following the series, McLaughlin fired head coach Pete Muldoon. According to Jim Coleman, sportswriter for the Toronto-based The Globe and Mail, McLaughlin felt the Hawks were good enough to finish first. Muldoon disagreed, in a fit of pique, McLaughlin fired him. According to Coleman, Muldoon responded by yelling, "Fire me, you'll never finish first. I'll put a curse on this team that will hoodoo it until the end of time." The Curse of Muldoon was born – although Coleman admitted years after the fact that he had fabricated the whole incident – and became one of the first widely-known sports "curses."
While the team would go on to win three Stanley Cups in its first 39 years of existence, it did so without having finished in first place, either in a single- or multi-division format. The Black Hawks proceeded to have the worst record in the league in 1927–28, winning only seven of 44 games. For the 1928–29 season, the Black Hawks were slated to play in the new Chicago Stadium, but due to construction delays and a dispute between McLaughlin and Chicago Stadium promoter Paddy Harmon, they instead divided their time between the Coliseum, the Detroit Olympia, the Peace Bridge Arena in Fort Erie, Ontario, they moved to Chicago Stadium the following season. By 1931, with goal-scorer Johnny Gottselig, Cy Wentworth on defense, Charlie Gardiner in goal, the Hawks reached their first Stanley Cup Final, but fizzled in the final two games against the Montreal Canadiens. Chicago had another stellar season in 1932. However, two years Gardiner led his team to victory by shutting out the Detroit Red Wings in the final game of the Stanley Cup Finals.
Austrian Hockey League
The Austrian Hockey League is the top-tier ice hockey league in Austria, although it features additional teams from Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy. Until 2005–06, the league consisted of Austrian teams. Since the league has added teams from Slovenia, Croatia, the Czech Republic and Italy; the non-Austrian teams are competing for the "EBEL Champion" title. Only Austrian teams in this league are additionally eligible for the "Austrian Champion" title; the league has had different sponsors, the current naming rights have been held by "Sparkasse Bank" and its Erste Bank brand since the 2003–04 season. The roots of the EBEL league go back to 1923 and various Championships, whose winner is recognized as the Austrian Champion. There was no Austrian competition between 1939 and 1945. During World War II, a number of Austrian teams competed in the German Ice Hockey Championship, why the EK Engelmann Wien and Vienna EV list German Championships in their history; the Bundesliga, as it was called, was incepted for the 1965-66 season by EC KAC from Klagenfurt, IEV from Innsbruck, WEVg from Vienna, KEC from Kitzbühl.
EC KAC won the championship 8 times in the 1970s. When the Austrian national hockey team earned promotion into the Group B of the IIHF, it led to a boom in spectators. 3 foreign players were allowed and first signs of financial hickups came. SV Kapfenberg went bankrupt, WAT Stadlau abstained from participating in the Bundesliga for financial reasons. A first step in internationalization was undertaken as the clubs, additionally to the national championship, participated in the Alpenliga. Alpenliga was formed with clubs from Slovenia. After making Ralph Krueger their manager in 1991 VEU Feldkirch won 5 Championships from 1994-1998. Rising budgets caused more clubs to abstain from participation. In 1997 SV Kapfenberg went bankrupt during the season, the championship had only four clubs. 2000 VEU Feldkirch went bankrupt. The league was named after Uniqua. In 2003 Erste Bank became spnsor and the league was named EBEL. In 2013–14, Italy's Bozen Foxes became the first non-Austrian team to win the EBEL title when they beat the Salzburg Red Bulls 3 games to 2 in their best-of-five final series.
Such success is not unheard of for an Italian outfit, but previous similar results took place in the Alpenliga and the Cup of the European Leagues, standalone competitions whose postseason tournaments were distinct from the Austrian playoffs. 2019 Ori Znojmo did not sign for the next season citing financial inequalities With their victory in the finals of the 2013/2014 season, HC Bozen became the first non-Austrian team to claim the league title. The best non-Austrian team result was when HDD Olimpija Ljubljana managed to get into the finals in the 2007/2008 season, losing the EBEL championship to EC Red Bull Salzburg. Bolded teams denote winners bold – seasons in which league had teams outside Austria – seasons in which the Austrian Champion didn't win the EBEL title Austrian champions Austrian National League, 2nd league in Austria Inter-National League Alps Hockey League Players in the Austrian Hockey League Erste Bank Eishockey Liga Playoffs Hockey Europe Erste Bank Eishockey Liga Austrian Hockey Association Information about Ice-hockey in Austria
Hockey Club Bilyi Bars Bila Tserkva is a Ukrainian team based in Bila Tserkva, Ukraine. They were a founding member of the Professional Hockey League of Ukraine and are now playing in the Ukrainian Hockey League; the Bilyi Bars were founded in 2008. They began play in Brovary. Twice that team won the silver of the Ukrainian Hockey Championship In 2012, the club found a new sponsor; the team moved permanently to Bila Tserkva on October 28, 2012 from Brovary, the city where they were founded. Following this, the team changed its name from HSK Bilyi Bars to HC Bilyi Bars Bila Tserkva; the home arena was opened on December 7, 2012. During the 2013–14 season, the club were acting as a farm team to HC Donbass, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League at that time. In 2014 the club won the third silver at the Ukrainian Championship; the hockey club participates in the Ukrainian hockey Movement. 25 July 2011 White Leopards were at a meeting of the ice hockey teams that created The Professional Hockey League.
In the 2011–12 season, the white leopards took the 7th place out of eight participants. In the 2014–15 season, the team did not participate in the Ukrainian Hockey Championship. 3 June 2016 "Bilyi Bars" co-founded Ukrainian Hockey League that reorganized the Ukrainian Hockey Championship. The White Leopards pay much attention to young pupils; the young hockey players graduated from the sports school of the team, who played for the national team of Ukraine. For example, in 2011 three White Leopards became champions in the second division. In 2012, two Leopards became champions; the HC "Bilyi Bars" owns the affiliate junior teams: U20, U17, U16, U15. The hockey club takes younger children to his school. In April 2018, club juniors Mikhail Vasilyev, Bogdan Gritsyuk, Dmytro Danylenko, Sergei Logach, Feliks Morozov played for the Ukraine men's national under-18 ice hockey team. Danilenko showed better result. Morozov has 4 goals and 3 assists, Logach has 1 assist, Vasiliev has 1 assist. Danilenko has taken 2nd position, Morozov has taken 4th position in the overall rating of Division I B.
Logach and Vasiliev took the 13th position in the ranking of defencemans. Now White Leopards recruit children in a sports school that were born in 2002—2003, 2005—2006, 2007—2008 and 2009—2011. Children's teams from Bila Tserkva go to specialized tournaments. Mr. Butsenko is the sport master of the international class, it is permanent head coach of team. He played for Dynamo Kharkov, Sokil Kiev, Avangard Omsk, Spartak Moscow, Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk, SKA Saint Petersburg etc, he played in the Ukrainian national team in 1993, 1994, 1998, 1999. At the world championships he got the result: 23 games played, 14 goals, 20 assists. Olexander Bobkin is assistant coach since 2015, he is the sport master of ex player of the Ukrainian national team. Mr. Bobkin played for Lokomotiv Yaroslavl, Berkut-Kiev, Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk, Sibir Novosibirsk, Neftyanik Almetyevsk, Sokil Kiev, Donbass, ATEK etc, he played in the Ukrainian national team: 9 goals, 12 assists. Mr. Bobkin is champion of Ukraine. Vitali Litvinenkoy is assistant coach since 2017.
He is played for Dynamo Kharkov, Sokil Kiev, Bilyi Bars, Lokomotiv Yaroslavl, Lada Togliatti, Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod, Gomel etc. Mr. Litvinenko played in the Ukrainian national team: 43 goals, 61 assists, he played at the 2002 Winter Olympics etc. Sources:Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, OTW = Overtime wins, OTL = Overtime Losses, L = Losses, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against, Pts = Points Updated March 5, 2018 IHFU Federation Cup: 2008 — the play off of the UHL. Official team website Official team website
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t