Mount Jumbo is an iconic mountain that overlooks the city of Missoula, Montana. The mountain is northeast of the downtown and, in its majority, is publicly owned. In 1996, Jumbo was purchased from private landowners and protected from development, funding for this purchase came from an open space bond and non-profit agencies and thousands of local contributors. Additional land parcels have been purchased since then, increasing the easement to its current 1,800 acres, the dam would periodically burst causing a flood of water to rush across Idaho and Oregon to the Pacific Ocean. This lake contained about 2,100 cubic kilometres of water, david Thompson, an English-Canadian fur trader, ignoring the Salish name already given, renamed the hill Brown Knowl when he climbed in on February 26,1812. Later, eastern settlers thought Mount Jumbo looked like a sleeping elephant, locals saw the landform as a reclining elephant with its rump in the Clark Fork and its trunk pointing north toward the Rattlesnake Mountains, the round grassy mountain became known as Elephant Hill.
Miners christened a nearby copper mine Jumbo Lode in honor of Barnum and Baileys most famous attraction Jumbo, the largest elephant in the world, the feature was renamed Mount Jumbo. In 1995, Missoula citizens approved a $5 million bond to preserve open and this initial portion included 1,465 acres. Since then, additional land purchases have opened a total of 1,800 acres across Mount Jumbo to public access as well as wildlife preservation, the primary reason for protecting Mount Jumbo in 1996 was that a dense subdivision had been approved for the mountain’s saddle. Mount Jumbos saddle is identified as an essential winter-feeding habitat for elk herds, of the elk herds living near Missoula the herd on Jumbo is considered the most restricted in its movements. Most parts of the mountain are closed during the winter to protect the elk that are more stress at this time of year due to harsh weather. The northern portion of Mount Jumbo is closed Dec.1 until May 1, a stabilization in Jumbos herd size has been observed since the winter closures began in 1997.
Invasive weeds such as spotted knapweed, leafy spurge, sulfur cinquefoil, numerous management programs are working to combat the invasive species spread. Community weed-pulls organized by Missoula City as well as student, sheep have been used as a management tool to graze on the unwanted species, although their efficacy is doubtful. Hiking The L – The letter “L” cemented onto the face of Mount Jumbo represents Loyola Sacred Heart Catholic High School, the trail to the “L” gains 500 feet in elevation over 1.5 miles. West Trail – Beginning at Cherry Street, the climbs the southwest face of Mount Jumbo and extends east, paralleling interstate 90. Lincoln Hills Trailhead access to the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area, flora highlights include, service berry, ninebark, bluebunch wheatgrass, Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir. Evidence of pine beetle infestation in conifers has been observed on Mount Jumbo, mountjumbo. org, Mount Jumbo website Mount Jumbos Advisory Committee Missoulas Elk Herds Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation
Timber and Stone Act
The Timber and Stone Act of 1878 in the United States sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre in 160 acre blocks. Land that was deemed unfit for farming was sold to those who want to timber. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared unfit for farming allowing them to increase their holdings at minimal expense. In theory the purchaser was to make an affidavit that he was entering the land exclusively for his own use and this was legal only in that companies complied with the letter of the law while brashly ignoring the spirit of it. Ultimately, said companies were able to obtain title up to 20,000 acres
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Missoula College University of Montana
Missoula College - University of Montana is the two-year college of the University of Montana, located in Missoula, Montana. The college was founded in 1956, and became part of the University of Montana in 1994, the College offers 35 programs, including career and technical programs. During the Fall 2010 semester,2,444 students were enrolled at Missoula College, Missoula College - University of Montana is composed of an east and west campus, both of which are located on South Avenue in Missoula. The colleges east campus is home to the building and health and business building. As a whole, the Missoula College consists of 200.4 acres of land, Missoula College - University of Montana is one of Montanas two-year colleges. In addition to dining options on UMs main, or Mountain Campus, students can eat breakfast and lunch at the colleges West Campus Cafeteria or the East Campus Hunter Dining Room and Cafeteria. The name change was a sign of the schools expanding responsibilities as it became a part of the university while still providing a wide variety of professional and technical programs.
The school was governed by Missoula County High Schools until July 1989 and this department focuses on instruction in communication, writing and social science, and oversees the Associate of Arts Degree. A Bachelor of Applied Science Degree is available to students who have completed an Associate of Applied Science Degree, each respective program offers an Associate of Applied Science Degree or certificate upon completion. The department offers Associate of Applied Science Degrees in Medical Assisting, Practical Nursing, Radiologic Technology, Respiratory Care, the department offers an Associate of Science Degree in Registered Nursing and a certificate in Pharmacy Technology. The Medical Assisting program is currently under review, and is not accepting new students at this time, the Department of Industrial Technology is located on the colleges West campus. The department encompasses six programs, Building Maintenance Engineering, Diesel Equipment Technology, Heavy Equipment Operation, Recreational Power Equipment, the Building Maintenance Engineering, Heavy Equipment Operation, and Recreational Power Equipment programs are one-year programs that offer a Certificate of Applied Science upon completion.
Online courses and weekend classes, short courses, summer programs, in a recent Missoula Independent article, the Hunter Dining Room at Missoula Colleges East Campus was called Missoulas best-kept dining secret. Culinary Arts/Foods Services Management graduate Carol Chandler earned the 2007 Student Culinarian of the Year award, in 2008, Culinary Program Director Thomas Campbell received a Certificate of Appreciation during the American Culinary Federation Western Regional Conference. COT satellite campuses and programs were described as a programming model by the Accreditation Review Committee for Surgical Technologists. Official website University of Montana website
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Frank H. Woody
Frank Hargrave Woody was, among many occupations, the first mayor of Missoula, Montana. He was born in Chatham County, North Carolina and attended New Garden Boarding School in Greensboro, Woody accompanied Christopher P. Higgins and Frank Worden in the establishment of Hellgate Village and Missoula, Montana. He became Missoulas first attorney in 1877 after passing the Montana Bar and he would serve in this capacity until May 22,1884. Woody was elected to the office of District Judge after receiving the Democratic Nomination in 1892 and he would be re-elected in 1896. Woody was the chairman of the University Committee in charge of lobbying the Montana State Legislature for allowing Missoula to be the location of the University of Montana. It is said that an amount of money was spent on whiskey
Missoula /mᵻˈzuːlə/ is a city in the U. S. state of Montana and is the county seat of Missoula County. In 2015, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population at 71,022. In the 1990s, Missoula overtook Great Falls as Montana’s second‑largest city, Missoula is home to the University of Montana, a public research university. Missoula was founded in 1860 as Hellgate Trading Post while still part of Washington Territory, by 1866, the settlement had moved east,5 miles upstream, and renamed Missoula Mills, shortened to Missoula. The mills provided supplies to settlers traveling along the Mullan Road. The establishment of Fort Missoula in 1877 to protect settlers further stabilized the economy, the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883 brought rapid growth and the maturation of the local lumber industry. In 1893, the Montana Legislature chose the city as the site for the states first university, along with the U. S. Forest Service headquarters founded in 1908, lumber and the university remained staples of the local economy for the next hundred years.
The city is governed by a government with twelve city council members. Notable residents include the first woman in the U. S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, archaeological artifacts date the Missoula Valleys earliest inhabitants to the end of the last ice age 12,000 years ago with settlements as early as 3500 BCE. From the 1700s until European settlements began a years later, it was primarily the Salish, Pend dOreille, Blackfeet. Hell Gate would remain the name of the area until it was renamed Missoula in 1866, the Lewis and Clark Expedition brought the first U. S. citizens to the area. They twice stopped just south of Missoula at Travelers Rest and they camped there the first time on their westbound trip in September 1805. When they stayed there again on their return in June–July 1806, Clark left heading south along the Bitterroot River and Lewis traveled north, through Hellgate Canyon. The desire for a more convenient water supply to power a lumber, the Missoula Mills replaced Hell Gate Village as the economic power of the valley and replaced it as the county seat in 1866.
The name Missoula came from the Salish name for the Clark Fork River, Fort Missoula was established in 1877 to help protect further arriving settlers. Growth accelerated with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, in 1893, Missoula was chosen as the location of the states first university, the University of Montana. The continued economic windfall from railroad construction and lumber mills led to a boom in Missoulas population. A. B. Hammond and Copper Kings Marcus Daly and William A. Clark competed fiercely in the region over lumber share, the United States Forest Service work in Missoula began in 1905
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Culture in Missoula, Montana
Missoula has a thriving arts scene. The Big Sky Documentary Film Festival, the largest film event in Montana, takes place each February, the International Wildlife Film Festival, is held annually at the historic Wilma Theatre. The Missoula Childrens Theatre is a touring program that visits nearly 1,000 communities per year. The Childrens Theatre routinely has residencies in all fifty states, Japan, Italy, the Missoula Art Museum, exhibits a variety of contemporary art. The museum was founded in 1975, and in 2005 the facilities were renovated and expanded, the museum offers art classes, gallery talks, and has free admission. The city is mentioned in novels of Ernest Hemingway, Stephen Frey, Chuck Palahniuk, James Lee Burke, James Crumley. In his novel, A River Runs Through It, Maclean wrote that The world is full of bastards, Missoula is home to a diverse and influential music scene. The city is featured in Apology Song by Oregon indie-band The Decemberists. Prior to moving to Portland, The Decemberists frontman Colin Meloy studied at the University of Montana, wantage Record hosts Totalfest, a yearly diy music festival featuring local and touring acts, in Missoula that ended in 2015 after 14 years.
Missoula is home to a variety of museums and galleries with most located in the Downtown, MMAC officially became a state museum in 2001 with its mission to acquire and preserves art that expresses the spirit of the American West and its relationship to the larger world. Both founded in 1975, the Missoula Art Museum and The Historical Museum at Fort Missoula are Missoulas only two museums accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, MAM s contemporary art collection is housed in a former Carnegie library built by A. J. Gibson in 1903 with a modern-style 2006 addition, Historic Fort Missoula is home to the Historic Museum which collects and preserves artifacts related to the history of Missoula County, Fort Missoula, and timber industry in western Montana. The fort holds the Rocky Mountain Museum of Military History, and the Northern Rockies Heritage Center The SpectrUM Discovery Area is a hands-on science discovery center operated by the University of Montana. The Montana Natural History Center is a center and museum that features exhibits.
It is located next to McCormick Park, the Museum of Mountain Flying, located near the Missoula International Airport, features historic aircraft used in mountain flying and smokejumping, as well as photos and historic memorabilia. Also related to the timber history, in 2009 it was announced that the National Museum of Forest Service History plans to build a National Conservation Legacy. In addition to the MAM and MMAC, Missoula is home to an array of art galleries located downtown. This includes the Monte Dolack Gallery featuring works from Montana artists Monte Dolack, both attended the University of Montana and celebrate the regions natural beauty
Northern Pacific Railway
The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States from Minnesota to the Pacific Coast. It was approved by Congress in 1864 and given nearly 40 million acres of land grants, which it used to raise money in Europe for construction. The railroad had about 6800 miles of track and served an area, including extensive trackage in the states of Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Washington. In addition the company had a branch to Winnipeg, Manitoba. The main activities were shipping wheat and other products, cattle and minerals, bringing in consumer goods, transporting passengers. The company was headquartered first in Brainerd, Minnesota, in Saint Paul and it had a tumultuous financial history, and in 1970 it merged with other lines to form the Burlington Northern Railroad. Congress granted the railroad a potential 60 million acres of land in exchange for building rail transportation to an undeveloped territory, Josiah Perham was elected its first president on December 7,1864.
It could not use all the land and in the end took just under 40 million acres, for the next six years, backers of the road struggled to find financing. Though John Gregory Smith succeeded Perham as president on January 5,1865, groundbreaking did not take place until February 15,1870, at Carlton, Minnesota,25 miles west of Duluth, Minnesota. The backing and promotions of famed financier Jay Cooke in the summer of 1870 brought the first real momentum to the company, over the course of 1871, the Northern Pacific pushed westward from Minnesota into present-day North Dakota. Surveyors and construction crews had to maneuver through swamps, the difficult terrain and insufficient funding delayed by six months the construction phase in Minnesota. The NP began building its line north from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River outside of Portland, towards Puget Sound. Four small construction engines were purchased, the Minnetonka, Ottertail and St. Cloud, in Minnesota, the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad completed construction of its 155-mile line stretching from Saint Paul to Lake Superior at Duluth in 1875.
It was leased to the Northern Pacific the following year, and was absorbed by the Northern Pacific. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached Fargo, Dakota Territory, early in June 1872, the following year, in June 1873, the N. P. reached the shores of the Missouri River, at Edwinton D. T. In the west, the track extended 25 miles north from Kalama, surveys were carried out in North Dakota protected by 600 troops under General Winfield Scott Hancock. Headquarters and shops were established in Brainerd, Minnesota, a named for the President John Gregory Smiths wife Anna Elizabeth Brainerd. A severe stock market crash and financial collapse after 1873, led by the Credit Mobilier Scandal, in 1886, the company put down 164 miles of main line across North Dakota, with an additional 45 miles in Washington