The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres. Its definition can include the northwestern coast of the island of Sri Lanka; the coast has an average elevation of 80 metres and is backed by the Eastern Ghats, a chain of low, flat-topped hills. Coromondel is the Dutch pronunciation of "Karimanal", a village in the Sriharikota island in the north of Pazhavercadu. Pazhavercadu was an early Dutch settlement along with Masoolipatnam in present-day Andhra Pradesh. There is a Dutch Cemetery belonging to the seventeenth Century at Pulecat, it is said that the first Dutch ship stopped here for fresh drinking water, upon asking the name of the place Karimanal was spelled as Corimondal. The land of the Chola dynasty was called Cholamandalam in Tamil translated as The realm of the Cholas, from which the Portuguese derived the name Coromandel.
The name could be derived from Kurumandalam, meaning The realm of the Kurus. Agriculture is the mainstay of the coastal economy. Rice, sugarcane and peanuts are grown. Bananas and betel nuts are grown together with rice in the low-rainfall region of the interior. There are coconut plantations along the coast. Large-scale industries produce fertilizers, film projectors, amplifiers and automobiles. There is a nuclear power station at Kalpakkam. Roads and railways linking Chennai, Chidambaram and Puducherry run parallel to the coast; the coast is low, punctuated by the deltas of several large rivers, including the Kaveri, Palar and Krishna River, which rise in the highlands of the Western Ghats and flow across the Deccan Plateau to drain into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial plains created by these rivers favour agriculture; the rivers remain dry during most of the year. There is little forest cover, but marshes, scrub woodlands, thorny thickets are common; the coastline forms a part of Andhra Pradesh.
The important ports include Chennai, Nellore and Nagapattinam, which take advantage of their close proximity with regions rich in natural and mineral resources and good transport infrastructure. The Coromandel Coast falls in the rain shadow of the Western Ghats mountain range, receives a good deal less rainfall during the summer southwest monsoons, which contributes heavy rainfall in the rest of India; the region averages 800 mm/year, most of which falls between December. The topography of the Bay of Bengal, the staggered weather pattern prevalent during the season favours northeast monsoons, which have a tendency to cause cyclones and hurricanes rather than a steady precipitation; as a result, the coast is hit by inclement weather every year between October and January. The high variability of rainfall patterns is responsible for water scarcity and famine in most areas not served by the great rivers. For example, the city of Chennai is one of the driest cities in the country in terms of potable water availability, despite high percentage of moisture in the air, due to the unpredictable, seasonal nature of the monsoon.
The Coromandel Coast is home to the East Deccan dry evergreen forests ecoregion, which runs in a narrow strip along the coast. Unlike most of the other tropical dry forest Biome regions of India, where the trees lose their leaves during the dry season, the East Deccan dry evergreen forests retain their leathery leaves year round; the Coromandel Coast is home to extensive mangrove forests along the low-lying coast and river deltas, several important wetlands, notably Kaliveli Lake and Pulicat Lake, that provide habitat to thousands of migrating and resident birds. By late 1530 the Coromandel Coast was home to three Portuguese settlements at Nagapattinam, São Tomé de Meliapore, Pulicat. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade; the British established themselves at Fort St George and Masulipatnam, the Dutch at Pulicat and Covelong, the French at Pondicherry and Nizampatnam, the Danish in Dansborg at Tharangambadi.
The Coromandel Coast supplied Indian Muslim eunuchs to the Thai court of Siam. The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard; the British won out, although France retained the tiny enclaves of Pondichéry and Karaikal until 1954. Chinese lacquer goods, including boxes and chests, became known as "Coromandel" goods in the 18th century, because many Chinese exports were consolidated at the Coromandel ports. Two of the famous books on the economic history of the Coromandel Coast are Merchants and commerce on the Coromandel Coast, 1650–1740 and The World of the Weaver in Northern Coromandel, c.1750-c.1850. On 26 December 2004, one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history, the Indian Ocean earthquake, struck off the western coast of Sumatra; the earthquake and subsequent tsunami killed over 220,000 people around the rim of the Indian Ocean. The tsunami devastated the Coromandel Coast, killing many and sweeping away many coastal communities.
Four ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Coromandel after the Indian coast. The Coromandel Peninsula in New
Fort St. George, India
Fort St George is the first English fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai. The construction of the fort provided the impetus for further settlements and trading activity, in what was an uninhabited land. Thus, it is a feasible contention to say; the fort houses the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly and other official buildings. The East India Company, which had entered India around 1600 for trading activities, had begun licensed trading at Surat, its initial bastion. However, to secure its trade lines and commercial interests in the spice trade, it felt the necessity of a port closer to the Malaccan Straits, succeeded in purchasing a piece of coastal land called Chennirayarpattinam or Channapatnam, where the Company began the construction of a harbour and a fort; the fort was completed on 23 April 1644 at a cost of £3,000, coinciding with St George's Day, celebrated in honour of the patron saint of England. The fort, hence christened Fort St George, faced the sea and some fishing villages, it soon became the hub of merchant activity.
It gave birth to a new settlement area called George Town, which grew to envelop the villages and led to the formation of the city of Madras. It helped to establish English influence over the Carnatic and to keep the kings of Arcot and Srirangapatna, as well as the French forces based at Pondichéry, at bay. In 1665, after the EIC received word of the formation of the new French East India Company, the fort was strengthened and enlarged while its garrison was increased. According to the 17th century traveller Thomas Bowrey, Fort St. George was: "without all dispute a beneficiall place to the Honourable English India Company, with all the Residence of theire Honourable Agent and Governour all of their Affaires Upon this Coast and the Coast of Gingalee, the Kingdoms of Orixa and Pattana, the said Governour and his Councell here resideigne, for the Honour of our English Nation keepinge and maintainneinge the place in great Splendour and good Government, Entertaineinge nobly all Foraign Embassadors, provideinge great quantities of Muzlinge Callicoes &c. to be yearly transported to England."
The Fort is a stronghold with 6 metres high walls that withstood a number of assaults in the 18th century. It passed into the possession of the French from 1746 to 1749, but was restored to Great Britain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession; the Fort now serves as one of the administrative headquarters for the legislative assembly of Tamil Nadu state and it still houses a garrison of troops in transit to various locations at South India and the Andamans. The Fort Museum contains many relics of the Raj era, including portraits of many of the Governors of Madras; the fort is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, with the administrative support of Indian Army. St Mary's Church is the oldest Anglican church in India, it was built between 1678 and 1680 on the orders of the Agent of Madras Streynsham Master. The tombstones in its graveyard are the oldest British tombstones in India; this ancient prayer house solemnised the marriages of Robert Clive and Governor Elihu Yale, who became the first benefactor of Yale University in the United States.
The Fort Museum, the only ticketed institution of Archaeological Survey of India in the complex, exhibits many items of the period of English and British rule. This building was completed in 1795 and first housed the office of the Madras Bank; the hall upstairs was the Public Exchange Hall and served as a place for public meetings, lottery draws and occasional entertainment. These relics are reminders of British rule in India; the objects on display in the museum are the weapons, medals and other artefacts from England, Scotland and India dating back to the colonial period. Original letters written by Clive and Cornwallis make fascinating reading. One set of quaint period uniforms is displayed for viewing, as well. However, the piece de resistance is a large statue of Lord Cornwallis; the National Flag of India was designed by Pingali Venkayya and adopted in its present form during the meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, a few days before India's independence from the British on 15 August 1947.
The first flag flown after the independence is stored in the third floor of the museum. The public are allowed to see or take photographs; the museum is mentioned by Nobel-laureate Orhan Pamuk. The first floor of the building includes the Banqueting Hall, which holds paintings of the Governor of the Fort and other high officials of the Regime; the canons of Tipu Sultan decorate the ramparts of the museum. The 14.5 ft statue stands at the entrance near a stairway in the museum. This statue was created by Charles Bank in England to be brought to India; the pedestal of the statue is carved with a scene depicting Tipu Sultan's emissary handing over Tipu's two sons as hostage in lieu of a ransom he was unable to pay to the British. It takes its name from Richard Wellesley, Governor General of India, brother of the Duke of Wellington; the flag staff at the fort is one of the tallest in the country. Made of teakwood, it is 150 feet high. Namakkal Kavingyar Maaligai is a 10-storeyed building at the campus and is the power centre of state secretariat.
It houses offices of the departments. Between 2012 and 2014, the building was renovated at a cost of ₹ 28 crore, with additional facilities like centralised ai
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Pondicherry known as Puducherry, is the capital and the most populous city of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, with a population of 657,209 and an area of 492 sq km. The city is in the Puducherry district of the union territory and is surrounded by the state of Tamil Nadu to which it shares most of its culture, it is affectionately called Pondy and short code as "Pdy," and has been known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil since 2006. Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1–10 are north of the city. Wards 11–19 are in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are southwest of the city centre; the history of Pondicherry is recorded only after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese and French colonialists. By contrast, nearby places such as Arikamedu, Kakayanthoppe and Bahur, which were colonised by the French East India Company over a period of time and became the union territory of Pondicherry, have recorded histories that predate the colonial period; the marketplace Poduke or Poduca is as a Roman trading destination from the mid 1st century.
The area was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram in the 4th century. The Cholas of Thanjavur held it from the 10th to 13th centuries until it was replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century; the Vijayanagar Empire took control of all of the South of India in the 14th century and maintained control until 1638 when they were supplanted by the Sultan of Bijapur. The French East India Company established this city as their headquarters in 1674. Five trading posts were established along the south Indian coast between 1668 and 1674; the city was separated by a canal into the Indian Quarter. During the Anglo-French wars, Puducherry changed hands frequently. On 16 January 1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War returned it; the British took control of the area again in 1793 at the Siege of Pondicherry amid the Wars of the French Revolution, returned it to France in 1814. When the British gained control of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country.
Pondicherry, Mahé, Yanam and Chandernagor remained a part of French India until 1954 when it was incorporated into the Indian Union with the rest of French India. On 18 October 1954 in a general election involving 178 people in Pondicherry Municipal and Commune Panchayat, 170 people were in favour of independence and eight people voted against; the de facto transfer of the French Indian territories from French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France and India was signed on 16 August 1962; the topography of Pondicherry is the same as that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Pondicherry's average elevation is at sea level, a number of sea inlets, referred to as "backwaters" can be found. Puducherry experiences extreme coastal erosion as a result of a breakwater constructed in 1989, just to the south of the city. Where there was once a broad, sandy beach, now the city is protected against the sea by a 2-km-long seawall.
While there was an early seawall made by the French government in 1735, this was not "hard structure coastal defense" so much as an adjunct to the old shipping pier and a transition from the beach to the city, which sits at a height of 8.5 m above sea level. Today, the seawall consists of rows of granite boulders which are reinforced every year in an attempt to stop erosion; as a consequence of the seawall, Pondicherry experiences severe seabed erosion and turbulence at the coastal margin, resulting in an extreme loss of biodiversity within the critical intertidal zone. Whenever gaps appear as the stones fall into the continually eroding seabed, the government of Puducherry adds more boulders. Pondicherry's seawall has caused beach erosion to migrate further up the coast, to the fishing villages in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu to the north of the city. In 2012, the Ministry of Power inaugurated the Smart Grid project in Puducherry. Farming around Pondicherry include crops such as rice, sugarcane and cotton.
In 2016, the Pondicherry State Government Employees Central Federation presented a status paper on the fiscal and social crisis in Puducherry to Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh. The report stated that a "combination of a staggering debt, stagnant tax revenues and rampant misappropriation of funds has throttled the economy of the Union Territory" and called for measures on a war footing to "deliver good governance and end corruption." The climate of Pondicherry is classified by the Köppen climate classification as tropical wet and dry, similar to that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Summer lasts from April to early June, when maximum temperatures reach 41 °C; the average maximum temperature is 36 °C. Minimum temperatures are in the order of 28–32 °C; this is followed by a period of high humidity and occasional thundershowers from June till September. The northeast monsoon sets in during the middle of October, Pondicherry gets the bulk of its annual rainfall during the period from October to December.
The annual average rainfall is 1,240 mm. Winters are warm, with highs of 30 °C and lows dipping to around 18–20 °C. According to the 2011 census of India, Pondicherry had a population of 244,377, with 124,947 females and 119,430 males. Pondicherry had an average literacy rate of 80.6% with male literacy at 84.6% and female literacy at 76.7%. In Pondicherry, 10% of the population was under six years of age; the majority speaks Tamil in Pondicherry, while there is a community of French pe
Peda Venkata Raya
Venkata III, the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632–1642. But his paternal uncle, Timma Raja, another brother of Sriranga II, thought himself to have a better claim, seized the government at Vellore Fort, compelling Venkata III to remaining in his native place Anekonda; the Nayaks of Gingee and Madurai declared support for Venkata III, while Timma Raja got support from no-one and was looked upon as a usurper. Timma Raja made a lot of trouble and civil strife continued until his death in 1635, he was winning, until the King Peda Venkata ’s nephew, Sriranga III took to the field and defeated Timma Raja with help from the Dutch in Pulicat, compelling him to accept Venkata III’s claim. Timma Raja was allowed some territories under his control, but stirred up trouble for a second time, only to be slain by the Nayak of Gingee in 1635. Peace was restored and Peda Venkata Raya or Venkata III returned to Vellore to take charge. On 22 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company obtained a small strip of Land in the Coromandel Coast from Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities.
The region was under the control of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakudu, a Recherla Velama Nayak of Kalahasti and Vandavasi. Venkatadri Nayakudu was son of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu; this is regarded at the founding event of the formation of the Chennai Metropolis and is to the day celebrated as Madras Day. In 1637 the Nayaks of Tanjore and Madurai, out of some complications attempted to seize Venkata III and attacked Vellore but were defeated and peace was established; the Kings loyal nephew, Sriranga III for some reasons turned against the King in 1638 and engineered an invasion from Bijapur. The Bijapur – Sriranga III combine attacked Bangalore making the King Venkata III buy peace after an expensive deal. In 1641 the same combine launched another attack and were just 12 miles from Vellore Fort, but their camp was attacked with backing by Southern Nayaks. In the following year, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda watching the disorder, sent a huge force along the East Coast; the Golkonda army, after facing a stiff resistance near Madras by Venkata III’s army backed by Damerla Venkatadri Nayak of Kalahasti and the Gingee Nayak, marched towards the Vellore Fort.
But Venkata III, now badly under threat from all sides retreated to the Jungles of Chittoor and died October 1642. Venkata III had no son and was succeeded by his treacherous nephew Sriranga III, who came to Vellore Fort after deserting the Bijapur camp. Rao, Velcheru Narayana, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance: court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu. Maps. Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar. K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, ISBN 0-19-560686-8
St. Thomas Cathedral Basilica, Chennai
San Thome Basilica is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Santhome, in the city of Chennai, India. It was built in the 16th century by Portuguese explorers, over the tomb of Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. In 1893, it was rebuilt as a church with the status of a cathedral by the British; the British version still stands today. It was designed in Neo-Gothic style, favoured by British architects in the late 19th century; this church is one of the only three known churches in the world built over the tomb of an apostle of Jesus, the other two being St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City and Santiago de Compostela Cathedral in Galicia, Spain. St Thomas, one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, arrived at Muziris in present-day Kerala state in India from Judea in A. D. 52 and preached between A. D. 52 and A. D 72, when he was martyred on St. Thomas Mount. A vast majority of early writings point to St. Thomas’s apostolic ministry in India Cranganore along the Malabar coast from 52 A. D to 68 A.
D. His journey through Kerala resulted in numerous conversions. After spending 10 years on the Malabar coast he is said to have traveled Eastwards across the Deccan Plateau, Arriving in Mylapore in 68 A. D; the cave at little mount used to be his favourite preaching spot. A 2000 years old never drying, miraculous stream of water on rock face is said to be a shining example of the apostle’s divine exploits; the church atop St. Thomas mount was built by Portuguese in 1547 to mark the spot here, it was on this St. Thomas Mount that the apostle was killed by a lance which pierced through his backside, his mortal remains were believed to be buried in the location over which the present day Santhome Cathedral Basilica stands. Sometime in the 10th century A. D a group of Nestorian Christians from Persia founded the Christian village of San Thome and proceeded to build a church over the burial site of St. Thomas; this structure fell to ruins between 15th century. In 1522 the Portuguese moved the apostle’s remains to a new tomb and church which attained the status of Cathedral in 1606.
Pope Pius XII honored the Cathedral Church of the Archdiocese of Madras - Mylapore raising it to the and rank of Minor Basilica by apostolic brief dated 16th March 1956. Massive following and immense devotion of people to a ancient image of the Blessed Virgin known as “Our Lady of Mylapore” was among the motives that prompted the Pope to bestow this honor. There was 118 years of insecurity and uncertainty from the time the Golconda’s occupied San Thome in 1662 to 1780. No considerable changes happened to the original structure of the church built in 1523, it was only in 1893 that his Excellency Dom Henrique Jose Reed da Silva, Bishop of Mylapore resolved to build a new church with the tomb of the apostle in the centre. The second small tower in the centre of the existing cathedral points to the exact place where the apostle was buried; the present Gothic style church was duly consecrated by Rt.. Rev. Dom Henrique Jose Reed da Silva, the first Bishop of the diocese. In 1956 the church was elevated to the status of a Minor Basilica.
San Thome Basilica is the principal church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mylapore. In 1956, Pope Pius XII raised the church to the status of a Basilica Minor, on 11 February 2006, it was declared a national shrine by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India; the San Thome Basilica is a pilgrimage centre for Christians in India. The church has an attached museum. Roman Catholicism in India Saint Thomas of Mylapur Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health Poondi Matha Basilica Our Lady of Snows Basilica Christianity in India Christianity in Tamil Nadu List of churches in Chennai Official website of San Thome Church San Thome Church Youth Group
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though villages are located in rural areas, the term urban village is applied to certain urban neighborhoods. Villages are permanent, with fixed dwellings. Further, the dwellings of a village are close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement. In the past, villages were a usual form of community for societies that practice subsistence agriculture, for some non-agricultural societies. In Great Britain, a hamlet earned the right to be called a village. In many cultures and cities were few, with only a small proportion of the population living in them; the Industrial Revolution attracted people in larger numbers to work in factories. This enabled specialization of labor and crafts, development of many trades; the trend of urbanization continues, though not always in connection with industrialization.
Although many patterns of village life have existed, the typical village is small, consisting of 5 to 30 families. Homes were situated together for sociability and defence, land surrounding the living quarters was farmed. Traditional fishing villages were located adjacent to fishing grounds. "The soul of India lives in its villages," declared M. K. Gandhi at the beginning of 20th century. According to the 2011 census of India, 68.84% of Indians live in 640,867 different villages. The size of these villages varies considerably. 236,004 Indian villages have a population of fewer than 500, while 3,976 villages have a population of 10,000+. Most of the villages have their own temple, mosque, or church, depending on the local religious following. In Afghanistan, the village, or deh is the mid-size settlement type in Afghan society, trumping the hamlet or qala, though smaller than the town, or shār. In contrast to the qala, the deh is a bigger settlement which includes a commercial area, while the yet larger shār includes governmental buildings and services such as schools of higher education, basic health care, police stations etc.
Auyl is a Kazakh word meaning "village" in Kazakhstan. According to the 2009 census of Kazakhstan, 42.7% of Kazakhs live in 8172 different villages. To refer to this concept along with the word "auyl" used the Slavic word "selo" in Northern Kazakhstan. People's Republic of China In mainland China, villages 村 are divisions under township Zh:乡 or town Zh:镇. Republic of China In the Republic of China, villages are divisions under townships or county-controlled cities; the village is called a tsuen or cūn under a rural township and a li under an urban township or a county-controlled city. See Li. Japan South Korea In Brunei, villages are the third- and lowest-level subdivisions of Brunei below districts and mukims. A village is locally known by the Malay word kampung, they may be villages in the traditional or anthropological sense but may comprise delineated residential settlements, both rural and urban. The community of a village is headed by a village head. Communal infrastructure for the villagers may include a primary school, a religious school providing ugama or Islamic religious primary education, compulsory for the Muslim pupils in the country, a mosque, a community centre.
In Indonesia, depending on the principles they are administered, villages are called Kampung or Desa. A "Desa" is administered according to traditions and customary law, while a kelurahan is administered along more "modern" principles. Desa are located in rural areas while kelurahan are urban subdivisions. A village head is called kepala desa or lurah. Both are elected by the local community. A desa or kelurahan is the subdivision of a kecamatan, in turn the subdivision of a kabupaten or kota; the same general concept applies all over Indonesia. However, there is some variation among the vast numbers of Austronesian ethnic groups. For instance, in Bali villages have been created by grouping traditional hamlets or banjar, which constitute the basis of Balinese social life. In the Minangkabau area in West Sumatra province, traditional villages are called nagari. In some areas such as Tanah Toraja, elders take; as a general rule and kelurahan are groupings of hamlets. A kampung is defined today as a village in Indonesia.
Kampung is a term used in Malaysia, for "a Malay hamlet or village in a Malay-speaking country". In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu, who has the power to hear civil matters in his village. A Malay village contains a "masjid" or "surau", paddy fields and Malay houses on st