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Andrew Fastow

Andrew Stuart "Andy" Fastow is a convicted felon and former financier, the chief financial officer of Enron Corporation, an energy trading company based in Houston, until he was fired shortly before the company declared bankruptcy. Fastow was one of the key figures behind the complex web of off-balance-sheet special purpose entities used to conceal Enron's massive losses in their quarterly balance sheets. By unlawfully maintaining personal stakes in these ostensibly independent ghost-entities, he was able to defraud Enron out of tens of millions of dollars; the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission subsequently opened an investigation into his and the company's conduct in 2001. Fastow was sentenced to a six-year prison sentence and served five years for convictions related to these acts, his wife, Lea Weingarten worked at Enron, where she was an assistant treasurer. Fastow was born in Washington, D. C, he grew up in New Providence, New Jersey, the son of middle class Jewish parents and Joan Fastow, who worked in retail and merchandising.

Fastow graduated from New Providence High School, where he took part in student government, played on the tennis team, played in the school band. He was the sole student representative on the New Jersey State Board of Education. Fastow graduated from Tufts University in 1983 with a B. A. in Economics and Chinese. While there, he met his future wife, Lea Weingarten, daughter of Miriam Hadar Weingarten, whom he married in 1984. Fastow and Weingarten both earned MBAs at Northwestern University and worked for Continental Illinois bank in Chicago. Both he and his wife attended Congregation Or Ami, a conservative synagogue in Houston where he taught Hebrew School. While at Continental, Fastow worked on the newly emerging "asset-backed securities"; the practice spread across the industry "because it provides an obvious advantage for a bank", noted the Chicago Tribune. "It moves assets off the bank's balance sheet while creating revenue." In 1984, Continental became the largest U. S. bank to fail in American history until the seizure of Washington Mutual in 2008.

Due to his work at Continental, Fastow was hired in 1990 by Jeffrey Skilling at the Enron Finance Corp. Fastow was named the chief financial officer at Enron in 1998. Deregulation in the US energy markets in the late 1990s provided Enron with trade opportunities, including buying energy from cheap producers and selling it at markets with floating prices. Andrew Fastow was knowledgeable in how to play it in Enron's favor; this drew the attention of chief executive officer of Enron Finance Corp Jeffrey Skilling. Skilling, together with Enron founder Kenneth Lay, was concerned with various ways in which he could keep company stock price up, in spite of the true financial condition of the company. Fastow designed a complex web of companies that did business with Enron, with the dual purpose of raising money for the company, hiding its massive losses in their quarterly balance sheets; this allowed Enron's audited balance sheet to appear debt free, while in reality it owed more than 30 billion dollars at the height of its debt.

While presented to the outside world as being independent entities, the funds Fastow created were to take write-downs off Enron's books and guaranteed not to lose money. Yet, Fastow himself had a personal financial stake in these funds, either directly or through partners amongst them Michael Kopper. Kopper, Fastow's chief lieutenant, pleaded guilty to taking part in a scam with Fastow that defrauded Enron shareholders of many millions. While defrauding Enron in this way, Fastow was neglecting basic financial practices such as reporting the "cash on hand" and total liabilities. Fastow pressured some of the largest investment banks in the United States, such as Merrill Lynch and others to invest in his funds, threatening to cause them to lose Enron's future business if they did not. Fastow reportedly got these firms to fire their analysts who dared to report Enron with negative ratings. In August, promoted to CEO of the entire company in February 2001, abruptly resigned after only six months, citing personal reasons.

When reporters for The Wall Street Journal discovered an Enron "senior officer" had sold his interest in several partnerships that had done business with Enron, they thought that officer was Skilling. However, Enron spokesman Mark Palmer revealed that the "senior officer" was Fastow. After a former Enron executive leaked a copy of the offering memorandum for one of Fastow's partnerships, LJM–named for Fastow's wife and two sons–to the Journal, reporters bombarded Enron with further questions about the partnerships; the scrutiny died down after the September 11 attacks, but ramped up anew two weeks with pointed questions about how much Fastow had earned from LJM. This culminated in a series of stories that appeared in the Journal in mid-October detailing the "vexing conflict-of-interest questions" about the partnerships, as well as the huge windfall he had reaped from them. On October 23, during a conference call with two directors delegated by the board, Fastow revealed that he had made a total of $45 million from his work with LJM–a staggering total, since he claimed to spend no more than three hours a week on LJM work.

On October 24, several banks told Enron that they would not issue loans to the company as long as Fastow remained CFO. The combined weight of these revelations led the board to accep

Paris–Lille railway

The railway from Paris to Lille is an important French 251-kilometre long railway line, that connects Paris to the northern French city Lille. Branch lines offer connections to Great Britain; as one of the first railway lines in France, it was opened on 20 June 1846. The opening of the LGV Nord high speed line from Paris to Lille in 1993 has decreased its importance for passenger traffic; the Paris–Lille railway begins at the Gare du Nord in Paris, running north for 6 km until Saint-Denis. From here, it climbs in northeastern direction at a constant 5 mm/km incline. Near Marly-la-Ville, it turns north and northwest, descends towards the river Oise. At Creil, the Oise is crossed; the line to Saint-Quentin and Brussels branches off at Creil. The line continues north to the river Somme at Longueau near Amiens. Here the Longueau–Boulogne railway to the Gare d'Amiens and Boulogne-sur-Mer branches off to the west, a line to Laon to the east; the line to Lille continues in northeastern direction, following the valley of the Somme until Corbie, the river Ancre until Miraumont, where the line turns north until it reaches Arras.

From Arras it follows the river Scarpe in eastern direction until Douai. After Ostricourt it turns north again. After a total length of 251 km, it reaches its terminus Gare de Lille-Flandres; the main stations on the Paris–Lille railway are: Gare du Nord Gare de Creil Gare de Longueau Gare d'Arras Gare de Douai Gare de Lille-Flandres The idea of linking France to Belgium and Great Britain was studied by the French Government as early as 1833. By November 1842, the northern French cities Lille and Valenciennes were connected to the Belgian railway network. In July 1844 a law was passed. Exploitation of the line from Paris to Lille and several branch lines was granted to the Compagnie des chemins de fer du Nord. Owners of the CF du Nord were Hottinger, Laffitte and Baron de Rothschild as president; the railway line as well as the Parisian station was inaugurated in June 1846. The line passed through the Oise valley, along Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône and Persan; this way a steep descent between Saint-Denis and Creil could be avoided.

The arrival of stronger engines prompted the CF du Nord to construct a 19 km shorter line between Saint-Denis and Creil over the plateau, passing along Chantilly. This new section was opened on 10 May 1859. Since the opening of the LGV Nord high speed line between Paris and Lille in 1993, most long-distance passenger traffic has shifted away from the classical Paris–Lille line, it remains an important railway for regional passenger traffic. The Paris–Lille railway is used by the following passenger services: TGV, Thalys and Eurostar on the section between Paris and Villiers-le-Bel - Gonesse, on short stretches near Arras and Lille TGV additionally on the section between Arras and Lille Intercités from Paris to Boulogne on the section between Paris and Longueau, Intercités from Paris to Cambrai and Maubeuge on the section between Paris and Creil TER Hauts-de-France regional services on the whole line Transilien regional services on the section between Paris and Saint-Denis RER D Paris rapid transit on the section between Paris and Creil Transilien railway map TER Picardie railway map TER Nord-Pas-de-Calais railway map

Artem Anisimov

Artem Alekseevich Anisimov is a Russian professional ice hockey centre playing for the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League. Anisimov has played in the NHL for the New York Rangers, Columbus Blue Jackets and Chicago Blackhawks; the Rangers selected him in the second round, 54th overall, of the 2006 NHL Entry Draft. Anisimov is a product of the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl hockey school, he made his semi-professional debut for the organization's junior farm club, Lokomotiv-2, during the 2004–05 season before joining the senior team in the 2005–06 season. At the end of the campaign, Anisimov was drafted in the second round, 54th overall, in the 2006 NHL Entry Draft by the New York Rangers. On 2 August 2007, Anisimov signed his first contract with the Rangers joining the team's American Hockey League affiliate, the Hartford Wolf Pack, for the 2008–09 season. On 23 January 2009, Anisimov was selected to participate in the 2009 AHL All-Star Classic in Worcester, representing the PlanetUSA team, he scored one goal and assisted on two others, including the game-winner, in a 14–11 PlanetUSA victory over the Canadian All-Stars.

On 1 February, Anisimov was called up to the Rangers for the first time in his career after scoring 21 goals and 29 assists for 50 points with the Wolf Pack. He made his NHL debut on 3 February against the Atlanta Thrashers at Madison Square Garden. Anisimov scored his first career NHL goal on 11 October 2009, during the 2009–10 season against goaltender Jean-Sébastien Giguère of the Anaheim Ducks in a 3–0 Rangers victory. On 8 July 2011, Anisimov, a restricted free agent, re-signed with the Rangers on a two-year, $3.75 million contract. Just one season into his contract, along with Brandon Dubinsky, Tim Erixon and a first-round draft pick in 2013, were traded to the Columbus Blue Jackets in exchange for Rick Nash, Steven Delisle and a 2013 conditional third-round pick. On 26 June 2013, Anisimov signed a three-year contract extension with the Blue Jackets at an annual average value of $3.28 million. On 30 June 2015, along with Jeremy Morin, Marko Daňo and Corey Tropp, were traded to the Chicago Blackhawks in exchange for Brandon Saad, Alex Broadhurst and Michael Paliotta.

The next day, on 1 July, Anisimov agreed to a five-year, $22.75 million contract extension with Chicago. His existing contract was set to expire after the 2015–16 season. On 9 October 2015, Anisimov scored the first goal in the first regular season game at Barclays Center against Thomas Greiss of the New York Islanders; the Blackhawks would win 3–2 in overtime. In his first year with the Blackhawks, he produced 20 goals and 22 assists as the Blackhawks lost in Game 7 of the first round of the 2016 Stanley Cup playoffs to the St. Louis Blues. On 15 November 2017, Anisimov scored his first NHL hat-trick in a 6–3 win over the New York Rangers. After four seasons with the Blackhawks, Anisimov was traded to the Ottawa Senators in exchange for Zack Smith on 16 July 2019. Anisimov and his ex-wife Ksenia have two children: Adriana and a son, Artemiy. Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Reverse compensation

Reverse compensation, in United States broadcasting, is the practice of a commercial television station paying a television network in exchange for being permitted to affiliate with that network. The word "reverse" refers to the historical practice of networks paying stations to compensate them for the airtime networks use to run network advertisements during their programming. Reverse compensation first appeared in the 1990s, with The WB Television Network receiving reverse compensation from several stations. In 2001, San Jose, California station KNTV agreed to pay $362 million over ten years to become the NBC affiliate for the Bay Area market, the largest such agreement to date. Shortly after, NBC bought KNTV; the practice played a role in the 2006 affiliation drives of two newly announced networks, The CW Television Network and My Network TV. The CW demanded reverse compensation from affiliates for an arguably proven, but still low-rated, primetime schedule; as a result, several stations that seemed to be good candidates to become CW affiliates, including most WB- and UPN-affiliated Sinclair Broadcast Group stations, announced affiliations with My Network instead, though in cases where Sinclair had market duopolies relented and affiliated the second stations with The CW before their launch.

Pappas Telecasting and Tribune Company, the two major station groups which did carry The CW, both filed for bankruptcy protection in 2008. Tribune, which operated the largest group of CW affiliates at the time of the network's launch, removed the network name from its stations' branding for a few years, until management changes returned the network branding to most of their affiliates. In Canada, CTV attempted to move from a traditional network affiliation contract to a reverse compensation model in the early 2000s, which played a role in the disaffiliation of CHAN-TV in Vancouver, British Columbia and CJON-TV in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador from the network

Order of Trujillo

The Order of Trujillo was the second principal order of the Dominican Republic, after the Order of Merit of Duarte and Mella. It was established on 13 June 1938 in honour of the then-President Generalissimo Rafael Trujillo; the Head of State conferred the order both to civilians and members of the military for distinguished services, regardless of Dominican Republic citizenship. The order was divided in seven grades: Collar was awarded to President Trujillo. Grand Cross with Gold Breast Star was awarded to the current president, foreign chiefs of state and Hereditary Princes. Grand Cross with Silver Breast Star was awarded to former presidents, vice presidents or former vice presidents, members of legislatures and supreme court, ministers of state and the metropolitan archbishop. Grand Officer was awarded to service chiefs and high officials of government and church, the Dean of the University, Chief of the Army, Chief of the Navy. Commander was awarded to governors of provinces, directors general of instruction, directors of academies, dean of universities and others of similar importance.

Officer was awarded to professors and heads of schools, officers of the rank of colonel and above and civilians of equal importance. Knight was awarded to others not in any of the above category. Law 1517 of the 13 June 1938, G. O. 22 June 1938

New Brunswick East Coast Railway

The New Brunswick East Coast Railway was a historic railway that operated in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. It included 311 mi of track of which 196 miles were mainline between Campbellton and Pacific Junction near Moncton. Important spurs connected Dalhousie Junction and Dalhousie, Nepisiguit Junction and Brunswick Mines, Nelson with Chatham; the mainline was Canadian National Railway's second mainline between Montreal and Moncton. Its entire route was built as the Intercolonial Railway of Canada. Established 19 January 1998, NBEC started operations in December 1997 and was a wholly owned subsidiary of the Société des chemins de fer du Québec. Via Rail's Montreal-Halifax passenger train, the Ocean, operates along the entire length of the NBEC's Newcastle Subdivision. On 3 November 2008 CN announced that it was purchasing the NBEC and its sister companies Chemin de fer de la Matapédia et du Golfe, Compagnie de gestion de Matane, the Ottawa Central Railway for $49.8 million from the Quebec Railway Corporation.

The CN announcement indicates that the reacquired rail lines will be integrated back into the CN network with no significant changes, other than introducing CN locomotives and rolling stock to train operations. CN mentioned investing significant capital upgrades in the rail network for outstanding maintenance. Quebec Railway Corporation NBEC in CN's list of shortlines Shortlines owned by Quebec Railway Corporation Unofficial New Brunswick East Coast Railway site