Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description and understanding of natural phenomena, based on observational and empirical evidence. Mechanisms such as review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two branches, life science and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science and these branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches. Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy, usually traced to ancient Greece, Descartes, Francis Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives and presuppositions, often overlooked, systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, minerals, and so on.
Today, natural history suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences, philosophers of science have suggested a number of criteria, including Karl Poppers controversial falsifiability criterion, to help them differentiate scientific endeavors from non-scientific ones. Validity and quality control, such as peer review and this field encompasses a set of disciplines that examines phenomena related to living organisms. The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies, biology is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the environment. The biological fields of botany and medicine date back to periods of civilization. However, it was not until the 19th century that became a unified science. Once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things, it was decided they were best studied as a whole, modern biology is divided into subdisciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied.
Molecular biology is the study of the chemistry of life, while cellular biology is the examination of the cell. At a higher level and physiology looks at the internal structures, constituting the scientific study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale, chemistry deals primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules and metals. The composition, statistical properties and reactions of these materials are studied, chemistry involves understanding the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules for use in larger-scale applications. Most chemical processes can be studied directly in a laboratory, using a series of techniques for manipulating materials, chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in connecting the other natural sciences. Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, the science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, and Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass.
The success of science led to a complementary chemical industry that now plays a significant role in the world economy
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Magdalene College, Cambridge
Magdalene College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded in 1428 as a Benedictine hostel, in coming to be known as Buckingham College. Magdalene College has some of the grandest benefactors including Britains premier noble the Duke of Norfolk, however the refoundation was largely the work of Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellor under Henry VIII. Audley gave the college its motto—garde ta foy, audleys successors in the Mastership and as benefactors of the College were, prone to dire ends, several benefactors were arraigned at various stages on charges of high treason and executed. The colleges most famous alumnus is Samuel Pepys, whose papers and books were donated to the college upon his death, the college boasts a portrait of the famous diarist by Peter Lely, which hangs in the Hall. Magdalene is noted for its style, it boasts a well-regarded candlelit formal hall and was the last all-male college in Oxford or Cambridge to admit women in 1988. This change resulted in protests by some undergraduates, including the wearing of black armbands.
Magdalenes old buildings are representative of the colleges ramshackle growth from a monks foundation into a centre of education and it is distinctive in that most of the old buildings are in brick rather than stone. Magdalene Street divides the most ancient courts from more recent developments, one of the accommodation blocks in the newer part of the college was built by Edwin Lutyens in the early 1930s. Opened in 2005, Cripps Court, on Chesterton Road, features new undergraduate rooms, Magdalene remains, despite this 20th-century expansion, one of the smaller colleges within the University, numbering some 300 undergraduates and an expanding postgraduate community. Magdalene College was first founded in 1428 as Monks Hostel, which hosted Benedictine student monks, the secluded location of the hostel was chosen because it was separated from the town centre by the River Cam and protected by the Cambridge Castle. The main buildings of the college were first constructed in the 1470s under the leadership of John de Wisbech, under the patronage of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, the institution was renamed Buckingham College.
In the 16th century, the Church of England broke away from the Papacy, with the subsequent Dissolution of the Monasteries, the parent abbey of Buckingham College, Crowland Abbey, was dissolved. However, the college remained in operation, walden Abbey, one of the Benedictine abbeys associated with Buckingham College, came into the possession of Thomas Audley after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. In 1542, Audley refounded Buckingham College as the College of Saint Mary Magdalene, derived from Audley were the arms of Magdalene, including the motto Garde Ta Foy, and the wyvern as the crest. Thomas Audley died in 1544 aged 56, only two years after he re-founded the college and he donated to the college seven acres of property at Aldgate in London, which was his reward from Henry VIII for disposing of Anne Boleyn. This property would have brought enormous income had it been retained by the college, under the conspiracy of the Elizabethan banker Benedict Spinola, the property was permanently alienated to the Crown in 1574.
The transaction involved Spinola luring the master and fellows of the time to accept an increase in the rental from £9 to £15 a year in exchange for the property
It was founded and is chaired by Lord Green of Deddington, a former British ambassador to Saudi Arabia. David Coleman, Professor of Demography at Oxford University, is an honorary consultant, MigrationWatch UK was founded in December 2001 by Sir Andrew Green, a retired diplomat who served as British ambassador in Syria and Saudi Arabia. Companies House documents indicate that the company was incorporated on 15 August 2002. The companys objectives as described in its articles of association are to conduct research into migration issues, Coleman is now a consultant to MigrationWatch but does not speak on its behalf and Companies House records indicate that Coleman has no formal involvement in the companys legal entity. Companies House documentation lists two registered directors, Sir Andrew Green and his wife Lady Catherine Jane Green, no other Directors are recorded in Companies House documentation. The company secretary is David Lewis of Minehead, the organisation has an advisory council, which is chaired by Green and whose members include David Coleman and Caroline Cox, Baroness Cox, Alp Mehmet and Roger Williams.
The companys abbreviated accounts for 2010 indicate that, at that time, a regular commentator on immigration and asylum matters in the British media. He has written for The Times and for guardian. co. uk, a 2005 Demos publication states that Andrew Green was quoted on the topic of asylum at least once a week in the Daily Express and Daily Star, starting from early 2003. Green featured prominently in the BBCs asylum day coverage of the topic in 2003 and this explains why one television editor told us that perhaps the Mail and the Express had got it right. The whole idea of balance in these contexts needs to be re-thought, there are never just two sides to any story and two negative sides do not add up to ‘balance’. Journalists do not seem at present to know where else to go with this issue, when the petition closed on 20 October 2012, it had attracted 145,536 signatures. MigrationWatch first came to attention in August,2002 when it claimed that immigration. The governments latest population projections, published in October 2011, have annual net immigration of 200,000 in their principal projection scenario, Office for National Statistics figures estimate that total net migration to the UK between 2002 and 2011 was 2.01 million.
Since this was four more than occurred in the previous decade. Moreover, the people behind the group, Migrationwatch UK, were denounced as closet racists for even raising the subject, yet everything that Migrationwatch foresaw came true, indeed, as the figures published this week from the 2011 census show, they were overly cautious. The group has strongly critical of what it sees as the governments failure to remove many of those whose claims are rejected. For the most part these claimants are properly described as economic migrants, publicity given to the pronouncements of such bodies seriously misleads many members of the public. The briefing argues that, The consequence of this decision will be to increase by many thousands the numbers of persons who may be eligible for asylum in the United Kingdom and it may well generate a large number of claims that will be difficult to determine
Haileybury and Imperial Service College
See here for the building in London Charing Cross called Kipling House Haileybury and Imperial Service College is an independent school near Hertford in England. Originally a boys school, it is now co-educational, enrolling pupils at 11+, 13+. Over 750 pupils attend Haileybury, of more than 500 board. Haileybury currently partners with/owns 3 different schools, Haileybury Turnford in the UK, the previous institution at Haileybury was the East India College, the training establishment founded in 1806 for administrators of the Honourable East India Company. The EIC was initially based in Hertford Castle, but substantial grounds on Hertford Heath were acquired for future development, William Wilkins, the architect of Downing College and the National Gallery in London, was appointed principal architect. The buildings were completed and occupied in 1809 and they comprise four ranges which enclose an area known as Quad, the largest academic quadrangle in the UK and one of the largest in the world.
In the wake of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company was wound up, in 1862, a public school that retained close links with the EIC opened on the site. The Chapel dome was added by Arthur Blomfield and completed in 1877, further Victorian additions were designed by John William Simpson. The Memorial Dining Hall was opened by the future King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, during the past 40 years, its use has been extended to commemorate deaths of OHs in all military conflicts. The dining hall contains one of the largest unsupported domes in Europe, a gilded plaster boss in the centre of this dome represents an oak tree being struck by lightning. Known as Little Lightning Oak this decoration represents the massive oak tree stands on the lawn in front of Terrace. This tree was struck by lightning and all but destroyed but re-sprouted, as well as the wooden tablets surrounding the exterior of the dining hall, there are other memorials to the schools 1,436 war casualties. The memorial on Terrace, originally built to commemorate those lost in World War I, was unveiled by General Sir Alexander Godley, KCB and it was designed by former pupil Sir Reginald Blomfield.
Known as the Cross of Sacrifice this simple structure serves as a prototype for war memorials found in every Commonwealth War Cemetery. Seventeen former pupils of Haileybury and its antecedents have received the Victoria Cross, in 1942, Haileybury and the Imperial Service College merged to become Haileybury and Imperial Service College, now known as Haileybury. In the late century, reforming headmaster David Jewell took charge of Haileybury. Stuart Westley, Master of Haileybury until July 2009, was responsible for making the school fully co-educational, Haileybury serves as a co-educational school for 11- to 18-year-olds. Girls houses comprise Colvin, Allenby and Hailey, the seven boys houses consist of Edmonstone, Bartle Frere, Batten and Trevelyan
House of Lords
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, the full name of the house is, The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords are appointed, the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England, of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Very few of these are female since most hereditary peerages can only be inherited by men, while the House of Commons has a defined 650-seat membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed.
There are currently 805 sitting Lords, the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament to be larger than its respective lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills that have approved by the House of Commons. It regularly reviews and amends Bills from the Commons, while it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons that is independent from the electoral process, Bills can be introduced into either the House of Lords or the House of Commons. Members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queens Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, the House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual.
This new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland, the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium, the Great Council that advised the King during medieval times. This royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics, the first English Parliament is often considered to be the Model Parliament, which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it. The power of Parliament grew slowly, fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined, for example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, and the shire and borough representatives entirely powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not simply by custom or royal charter, further developments occurred during the reign of Edward IIs successor, Edward III. It was during this Kings reign that Parliament clearly separated into two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the fifteenth century
Royal Green Jackets
The Royal Green Jackets was an infantry regiment of the British Army, one of two large regiments within the Light Division. 5th Battalion, Royal Green Jackets – formed from the 4th Battalion and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, during the 1980s, the battalions were deployed to various parts of Northern Ireland. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd battalions were based in West Germany, Osnabrück, Minden. In 1992 1/RGJ was disbanded and 2/RGJ and 3/RGJ renumbered 1/RGJ and 2/RGJ respectively, both battalions returned to the United Kingdom by 2002 and in 2003 the 1st Battalion served on Operation Telic 2 in Iraq. The 1st Battalion The Royal Green Jackets final operation was in Basra, in Iraq and their motto was Celer et Audax. The regiment was classed as a regiment, having its lineage in the regiments of foot that were equipped with the first Baker rifles. Traditionally, rifle regiments wore green tunics, an early form of camouflage, instead of the red jackets worn by line infantry. The cap badge was a Maltese Cross, which was drawn from the badges of the Kings Royal Rifle Corps and The Rifle Brigade, the Savage Wars of Peace, Soldiers Voices, 1945-1989.
Swift and Bold - A Portrait of The Royal Green Jackets 1966-2007, a Register of the Regiments and Corps of the British Army. Royal Green Jackets Association RGJ Museum
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Order of St Michael and St George
It is named in honour of two military saints, St Michael and St George. People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it, British Ambassadors to foreign nations are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. It is the award for members of the FCO. The Orders motto is Auspicium melioris ævi and its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, and St. George, patron saint of England. One of its symbols is that of St Michael trampling over. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer fully a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse, the last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that countrys independence in 1947. In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became a part of Greece, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order. In 1965, the order was open for women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first CMG, the British Sovereign is the Sovereign of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order.
The next-most senior member is the Grand Master, the office was formerly filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands, however, Grand Masters are chosen by the Sovereign. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, the Orders King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers. The Usher of the Order is known as the Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod, he not, unlike his Order of the Garter equivalent. On the left side is a representation of the star, the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold and it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, and the cyphers SM and SG, all alternately. In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows, at less important occasions, simpler insignia are used, The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders. It is worn pinned to the left breast, the Knight and Dame Grand Cross star includes seven-armed, silver-rayed Maltese Asterisk, with a gold ray in between each pair of arms.
The Knight and Dame Commanders star is a slightly smaller eight-pointed silver figure formed by two Maltese Crosses, it does not include any gold rays, in each case, the star bears a red cross of St George. In the centre of the star is a blue ring bearing the motto of the Order. Within the ring is a representation of St Michael trampling on Satan, the badge is the only insignia used by all members of the Order, it is suspended on a blue-crimson-blue ribbon
David William Donald Cameron is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He served as the Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016 and was Member of Parliament for Witney from 2001 to 2016, Cameron identifies as a One-Nation Conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies. Born in London to wealthy upper middle-class parents, Cameron was educated at Heatherdown School, Eton College, from 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research Department, assisting the Conservative Prime Minister John Major, before leaving politics to work for Carlton Communications in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the shadow cabinet under Conservative leader Michael Howard. Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an increasingly liberal position. The 2010 general election led to Cameron becoming Prime Minister as the head of a government with the Liberal Democrats. His administration introduced large-scale changes to welfare, immigration policy, education and it privatised the Royal Mail and some other state assets, and legalised same-sex marriage.
When the Conservatives secured a majority in the 2015 general election he remained as Prime Minister. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he introduced a referendum on the UKs continuing membership of the EU, Cameron supported continued membership, following the success of the Leave vote, he resigned to make way for a new Prime Minister and was succeeded by Theresa May. Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and for decreasing the United Kingdoms national deficit, conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, and has been accused of political opportunism and elitism. Cameron is the son of Ian Donald Cameron a stockbroker, and his wife Mary Fleur, a retired Justice of the Peace. Camerons parents were married on 20 October 1962, the journalist Toby Young has described Camerons background as being upper-upper-middle class. Cameron was born in Marylebone and raised in Peasemore, Berkshire and he has a brother, Alexander Cameron, QC, a barrister, and two sisters, Tania Rachel and Clare Louise.
Blairmore was built by Camerons great-great-grandfather, Alexander Geddes, who had made a fortune in the trade in Chicago, Illinois. Blairmore was sold soon after Ians birth, Cameron has said, On my mothers side of the family, her mother was a Llewellyn, so Welsh. Im a real mixture of Scottish and English and he has referenced the German Jewish ancestry of one of his great-grandfathers, Arthur Levita, a descendant of the Yiddish author Elia Levita. From the age of seven, Cameron was educated at two independent schools, at Heatherdown School in Winkfield in Berkshire, which counts Prince Andrew, owing to good grades, Cameron entered its top academic class almost two years early. At the age of thirteen, he went on to Eton College in Berkshire and his early interest was in art
Economics is a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production and consumption of goods and services according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work, consistent with this focus, textbooks often distinguish between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behaviour of elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, firms, macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues. Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, as in business, health care, Economic analyses may be applied to such diverse subjects as crime, the family, politics, social institutions, war and the environment. At the turn of the 21st century, the domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The ultimate goal of economics is to improve the conditions of people in their everyday life. There are a variety of definitions of economics. Some of the differences may reflect evolving views of the subject or different views among economists, to supply the state or commonwealth with a revenue for the publick services. Say, distinguishing the subject from its uses, defines it as the science of production, distribution. On the satirical side, Thomas Carlyle coined the dismal science as an epithet for classical economics, in this context and it enquires how he gets his income and how he uses it. Thus, it is on the one side, the study of wealth and on the other and more important side, a part of the study of man. He affirmed that previous economists have usually centred their studies on the analysis of wealth, how wealth is created and consumed, but he said that economics can be used to study other things, such as war, that are outside its usual focus. This is because war has as the goal winning it, generates both cost and benefits, resources are used to attain the goal.
If the war is not winnable or if the costs outweigh the benefits. Some subsequent comments criticized the definition as overly broad in failing to limit its subject matter to analysis of markets, there are other criticisms as well, such as in scarcity not accounting for the macroeconomics of high unemployment. The same source reviews a range of included in principles of economics textbooks. Among economists more generally, it argues that a particular definition presented may reflect the direction toward which the author believes economics is evolving, microeconomics examines how entities, forming a market structure, interact within a market to create a market system