Lycoming County, Pennsylvania
Lycoming County is a county located in the U. S. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; as of the 2010 census, the population was 116,111. Its county seat is Williamsport. Lycoming County comprises the Williamsport, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Located about 130 miles northwest of Philadelphia and 165 miles east-northeast of Pittsburgh, Lycoming County is the largest county in Pennsylvania in area. Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County on April 13, 1795; the county was larger. It took up most of the land, now north central Pennsylvania; the following counties have been formed from land, once part of Lycoming County: Armstrong, Centre, Clinton, Jefferson, McKean, Sullivan, Venango, Forest and Cameron. Lycoming County was named Jefferson County in honor of Thomas Jefferson; this name proved to be unsatisfactory. The name change went through several steps. First a change to Lycoming County was rejected, next the name Susquehanna County was struck down as was Muncy County, before the legislature revisited and settled on Lycoming County for Lycoming Creek, the stream, the center of the pre-Revolutionary border dispute.
1615: The first European in Lycoming County was Étienne Brûlé. He was a voyageur for New France. Brule descended the West Branch Susquehanna River and was held captive by a local Indian tribe near what is now Muncy before escaping and returning to Canada.1761: The first permanent homes were built in Muncy. Three log cabins were built by Bowyer Brooks, Robert Roberts and James Alexander.1772: The first gristmill is built on Muncy Creek by John Alward1775: The first public road is built along the West Branch Susquehanna River. The road followed Indian trails from Fort Augusta in what is now Sunbury to Bald Eagle Creek near modern-day Lock Haven.1786: The first church built in the county was Lycoming Presbyterian church in what was known as Jaysburg and is now the Newberry section of Williamsport.1792: The first sawmill was built on Lycoming Creek by Roland Hall.1795: The first elections for Lycoming County government are held soon after the county was formed from Northumberland County. The elected officers were Samuel Stewart, county sheriff and the first county commissioners were John Hanna, Thomas Forster and James Crawford.
Andrew Gregg was elected to represent Lycoming County in the United States Congress, William Hepburn was voted to the Pennsylvania State Senate and Flavel Roan, Hugh White and Robert Martin served as representatives in the Pennsylvania General Assembly.1823: The county government funded the construction of the first bridges over Loyalsock and Lycoming Creeks.1839: The first railroad is built. It connected Williamsport with Ralston in northern Lycoming County; the railroad followed Lycoming Creek. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,244 square miles, of which 1,229 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water. Lycoming County is the largest county in second-largest by total area. Lycoming County is divided between the Appalachian Mountains in the south, the dissected Allegheny Plateau in the north and east, the valley of the West Branch Susquehanna River between these; the West Branch of the Susquehanna enters Lycoming County from Clinton County just west of the borough of Jersey Shore, on the northwest bank of the river.
The river flows east and a little north with some large curves for 15 miles to the city of Williamsport, followed by the borough of Montoursville as well as the boroughs of Duboistown and South Williamsport. The river flows just north of Bald Eagle Mountain through much of its course in Lycoming County, but it passes the end of the mountain and turns south just before the borough of Muncy, it continues south past the borough of Montgomery and leaves Lycoming County, where it forms the border between Union and Northumberland Counties. From there the West Branch merges with the North Branch Susquehanna River at Northumberland and flows south to the Chesapeake Bay; the major creeks of Lycoming County are all tributaries of the West Branch Susquehanna River. On the north or left bank of the river they are: Pine Creek which the river receives just west of Jersey Shore. Loyalsock and Muncy Creeks are the major watersheds of Sullivan County. There is White Deer Hole Creek, the only major creek in Lycoming County on the right bank of the river.
It is south of Bald Eagle Mountain, flows from west to east. The river receives it at the village of Allenwood in Gregg Township in Union County. Other creeks found on the right bank of the West Branch Susquehanna River in Lycoming County are minor, including Antes Creek in the Nippenose valley, Mosquito Creek, Hagermans Run, Black Hole Creek; the entire county is in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The percent of the county drained by each creek's watershed is as follows: Pine Creek, 15.27%.
Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district
Pennsylvania's 6th Congressional District is a congressional district in the state of Pennsylvania. It includes the entirety of Chester County, the city of Reading and its southeastern suburbs in Berks County; the district is represented by Chrissy Houlahan. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew the district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional. Jim Gerlach served as the District's Representative from 2003 to 2014. In 2004 and 2006, Gerlach won re-election against fellow attorney and now Montgomery County Court of Common Pleas Judge Lois Murphy. In 2008, he ran for re-election against businessman and veteran Bob Roggio. In the 2010 and 2012 elections, Gerlach defeated physician and Iraq War veteran Manan Trivedi, the Democratic nominee. In January 2014, Gerlach announced. In the race to succeed Gerlach, Chester County Commissioner Ryan Costello won the Republican nomination and physician and Iraq war veteran Manan Trivedi secured the Democratic party's nomination. In February 2018, following the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania's ordered redrawing of congressional districts, Costello announced he would not stand for reelection and retire at the end of the 115th Congress, leaving businessman Greg McCauley as the sole Republican candidate while the Democrats nominated Air Force veteran Chrissy Houlahan.
Houlahan defeated McCauley in the general election. Prior to the court-ordered redistricting, the 6th district's incarnation dated back to 2002, its strange shape brought charges of gerrymandering by Democrats who argued it "looms like a dragon descending on Philadelphia from the west, splitting up towns and communities throughout Montgomery and Berks Counties." The combination of affluent suburban areas of Philadelphia and sparsely populated rural areas was designed to capture Republican voters, but changes in voting patterns in southeastern Pennsylvania has made the District much more competitive. The District had a Cook Partisan Voting Index score of R+1 after the 2012 redistricting, it was rated D+4 before then. The district included parts of Chester County, Berks County and Lehigh County; the largest cities in the district were Norristown. The redistricting of 2011/2012 changed it to include parts of Chester, Montgomery and Lebanon counties; the following municipalities constituted the sixth district:Berks County Chester County Lebanon County Montgomery County The court-ordered map made the 6th a more compact district in Berks and Chester counties.
District created in 1791 from the at-large district. District redistricted in 1793 to the at-large district. District created in 1795. List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
Gregg Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania
Gregg Township is a township in Centre County, United States. It is part of Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 2,405 at the 2010 census. "Gregg Township was erected in November, 1826, out of portions of Potter and Haines townships and named in honor of Hon. Andrew Gregg, a resident of the township, a member of Congress from 1791 for sixteen years and United States Senator from 1807 to 1813, its earliest settlers were George Woods in 1774, George McCormick who settled at Spring Mills in 1773 and built the first mill there. It is a rich agricultural township. Penn's creek rises in its source a miniature lake in a cave. Penns Cave is now a noted place of resort. Township post-offices are Spring Mills, Farmers Mills, Penn Hall."The William Allison House and Maj. Jared B. Fisher House were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Penn's Cave and Hotel was added in 1978. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 46.8 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.02%, is water.
Gregg Township is bordered by Walker Township to the north and Penn townships to the east, Mifflin County to the south and Potter Township to the west. It is part of the Penns Valley region of Centre County; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,119 people, 785 households, 606 families residing in the township. The population density was 46.6 people per square mile. There were 927 housing units at an average density of 20.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.24% White, 0.14% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 0.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 785 households, out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.5% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.8% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the township the population was spread out, with 26.7% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.5 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,858, the median income for a family was $44,063. Males had a median income of $29,702 versus $23,400 for females; the per capita income for the township was $17,504. About 4.5% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Gregg Township official website Gregg Township Unofficial website
Bellefonte is a borough and the county seat of Centre County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is about twelve miles northeast of State College and is part of the State College, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area; the borough population was 6,187 at the 2010 Census. It houses the Centre County Courthouse located downtown on the square. Bellefonte has been home to five of Pennsylvania's governors as well as two other governors. All seven are commemorated in a monument located at Talleyrand Park; the town features many examples of Victorian architecture. It is home to the natural spring from which the town gets its name. However, the spring, which serves as the town's water supply, has been covered to comply with DEP water purity laws; the early development of Bellefonte had been as a "natural town." It started with one house and a crossroad iron was found and the town grew. William Lamb sold his mill to John Dunlop in 1794; the following year, James Dunlop and his son-in-law James Harris laid out block by block the town that became known as Bellefonte.
As the years went by, Bellefonte boomed and soon became the most influential town between Pittsburgh and Harrisburg. Bellefonte was a frequent stop in the transcontinental airmail route; the route ran from New York to San Francisco and opened August 20, 1920. Bellefonte is home to the Bellefonte School District's mascot; the school colors are white. There is a Catholic school in Historic Bellefonte, Saint John's School; the Bellefonte Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Other buildings on the National Register of Historic Places are: Bellefonte Armory, Brockerhoff Hotel, Centre County Courthouse, Gamble Mill, McAllister-Beaver House, Miles-Humes House, Pennsylvania Match Company, South Ward School, the William Thomas House; the Bellefonte Academy was listed until 2008, after having been destroyed by fire in 2004. The Bush House Hotel was built in 1868-69 by developer Daniel G. Bush, it was one of the first hotels in the country to have electric lights.
A man would stand at the train station and call out to the passengers, "Walk ya' to the Bush House." The Brockerhoff House, the Haag House, other area hotels were competitors. Many notable guests stayed at the Bush House including Thomas Edison; the Bush House burned down on February 8, 2006. Another fire damaged one of the borough's other landmark buildings less than four years later; the Cadillac Building, so named because it was built as a Cadillac dealership in 1916, was a mix use commercial and residential property hit by a devastating fire on December 22, 2009. Christmas tree lights in one of the apartment units were determined to be the cause. Cadillac Building is now home to 11 two and three bedroom apartment units, it remains a part of the Bellefonte Historic District. The Garman Opera House was built in 1890 and hosted many notable stars of the day including George Burns and Gracie Allen, Western performer Tom Mix, illusionist/escape artist Harry Houdini; the popular song "After the Ball" was said to have been first sung in public here.
It was also used as a movie theater, first showing silent films and "talkies." By the early 1960s, the property was converted to commercial/warehouse use. In the 1990s, the building was restored and returned to its roots as a live performance venue and cinema; the opera house was damaged by a fire on September 9, 2012 that destroyed the Garman House Hotel. The cause of the fire has been ruled as arson. Preservationist groups' attempts to save the Garman were unsuccessful and the building was razed in January 2014. Garman House is now home to 21 one and two bedroom apartment units. First-time visitors who walk along the Victorian streets of Bellefonte see Victorian houses. One of many examples is the Hastings Mansion, owned by Mrs. John Lane and was bought and remodeled by Governor Daniel H. Hastings. In the 1800s, the first jail was built, it had an 8-foot underground dungeon, located on the rear of the lot of the present YMCA. A second jail was on East High Street. One of the town's historic sections experienced a renaissance in 2004.
The Match Factory, after standing vacant since 1947, was being renovated by the American Philatelic Society as their new home, one building at a time. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. Bellefonte is located in the Nittany Valley of the Valley Appalachians, it lies 12 miles northeast of Pennsylvania. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. Bellefonte is surrounded by Spring Township; as of the 2010 census, the borough had 6,187 people, 2,837 households, 1,496 families. The borough was 96.3% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% other, 1.3% were two or more races. 1.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. The population density was 3,510.1 people per square mile. There were 3,038 housing units at an average density of 1,669.2 per square mile. Of the 2,837 households, 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.2% were non-families.
38.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 1
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Joseph Hiester was the fifth Governor of Pennsylvania from 1820 to 1823. He was a member of the Hiester family political dynasty. Hiester was the son of Maria Barbara Epler, he received a common-school education when he was not working on the farm, became a clerk in a store in Reading run by Adam Whitman. He became a partner in the store in 1771 when he married Whitman's daughter. At the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, he raised and equipped in that town a company with which he took part in the battles of Long Island and Germantown, he was promoted to colonel. He was captured and confined in the prison ship "Jersey," where he did much to alleviate the sufferings of his fellow prisoners, he was transferred to New York City where he was exchanged. He was a member of the convention of 1776 that drafted the Articles of Confederation, of the Pennsylvania state constitutional convention which ratified the United States Constitution, of the state constitutional convention of 1790, he served in the senate of Pennsylvania.
In 1807, he was appointed one of the two major generals to command the quota of Pennsylvania militia, called for by the president. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1797 until 1805, again from 1815 until 1820, 14 years altogether. In 1817, he ran for governor, was defeated by William Findlay. Hiester narrowly won a single term in office. Refusing on principle to stand for reelection in 1823, he served until 1824 when he retired from public life. During his term, he presided over the dedication of the first state capitol building in the new capital of Harrisburg, he surprised partisans and opponents by making appointments on merit rather than party affiliation. Buried at Reading's Reformed Church cemetery after his death in 1823, his remains were exhumed and reinterred at the Charles Evans Cemetery during the mid-19th century. A residence hall on the Penn State University Park campus was named after him. United States Congress. "Joseph Hiester". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Wilson, J. G.. "Hiester, Daniel". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; the Political Graveyard Joseph Hiester at Find a Grave
Andrew Gregg Homestead
Andrew Gregg Homestead known as the Bernard P. Taylor Residence, is a historic home located at Potter Township, Centre County, Pennsylvania, it was built about 1825, is a two-story, "L"-shaped, limestone dwelling with a gable roof. At the rear is a one-story frame summer kitchen with a loft and dining room; the interior has a traditional Georgian center hall plan. The house was built by Jr. son of Congressman Andrew Gregg. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977