Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Aspen Institute is an international nonprofit think tank founded in 1949 as the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. The organization is the exchange of ideas; the Institute and its international partners promote the pursuit of common ground and deeper understanding in a nonpartisan and nonideological setting through regular seminars, policy programs and leadership development initiatives. The institute is headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, has campuses in Aspen and near the shores of the Chesapeake Bay at the Wye River in Maryland, it has partner Aspen Institutes in Berlin, Madrid, Lyon, New Delhi, Bucharest, Mexico City, Kiev, as well as leadership initiatives in the United States and on the African continent and Central America. The Aspen Institute is funded by foundations such as the Carnegie Corporation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, the Gates Foundation, the Lumina Foundation, the Ford Foundation, by seminar fees, by individual donations, its board of trustees includes leaders from politics, government and academia who contribute to its support.
The Institute was the creation of Walter Paepcke, a Chicago businessman who had become inspired by the Great Books program of Mortimer Adler at the University of Chicago. In 1945, Paepcke visited Bauhaus artist and architect Herbert Bayer, AIA, who had designed and built a Bauhaus-inspired minimalist home outside the decaying former mining town of Aspen, in the Roaring Fork Valley. Paepcke and Bayer envisioned a place where artists, leaders and musicians could gather. Shortly thereafter, while passing through Aspen on a hunting expedition, oil industry maverick Robert O. Anderson met with Bayer and shared in Paepcke's and Bayer's vision. In 1949, Paepcke organized a 20-day international celebration for the 200th birthday of German poet and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; the celebration attracted over 2,000 attendees, including Albert Schweitzer, José Ortega y Gasset, Thornton Wilder, Arthur Rubinstein. In 1949, Paepcke founded the Aspen Institute. Paepcke sought a forum "where the human spirit can flourish" amid the whirlwind and chaos of modernization.
He hoped that the Institute could help business leaders recapture what he called "eternal verities": the values that guided them intellectually and spiritually as they led their companies. Inspired by philosopher Mortimer Adler's Great Books seminar at the University of Chicago, Paepcke worked with Anderson to create the Aspen Institute Executive Seminar. In 1951, the Institute sponsored a national photography conference attended by Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Berenice Abbott, other notables. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Institute added organizations and conferences, including the Aspen Center for Physics, the Aspen Strategy Group and Society Program and other programs that concentrated on education, justice, Asian thought, technology, the environment, international affairs. In 1979, through a donation by Corning Glass industrialist and philanthropist Arthur A. Houghton Jr. the Institute acquired a 1,000-acre campus on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland, known today as the Wye River Conference Centers.
In 2005, it held the first Aspen Ideas Festival, featuring leading minds from around the world sharing and speaking on global issues. The Institute, along with The Atlantic, hosts the festival annually, it has trained philanthropists such as Carrie Morgridge. Since 2013, the Aspen Institute together with U. S. magazine The Atlantic and Bloomberg Philanthropies has participated in organizing the annual CityLab event, a summit dedicated to develop strategies for the challenges of urbanization in today's cities. Walter Isaacson was the president and CEO of Aspen Institute from 2003 to June 2018. Isaacson announced in March 2017 that he would step down as president and CEO at the end of the year. On November 30, 2017, Daniel Porterfield was announced as his successor. Porterfield succeeded Isaacson on June 1, 2018. Official website
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or occurring contaminants. Pollution is classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world. Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot" found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution, associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires." Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home.
Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek and Chinese metal production. The burning of coal and wood, the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution; the Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem, it was the industrial revolution. London recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1870s: "Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a fearsome smell.
There were no public toilets in the squares. Visitors women became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive.... As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870."The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, the Imperial German government brought in its scientists and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most organized city that there is."The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881.
Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness.". By the 1940s, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England later during the industrial revolution, extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.
Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. A non-nuclear event – the Great Smog of 1952 in London – killed at least 4000 people; this prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation: the Clean Air Act of 1956. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the National Environmental Policy Act. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. National news stories in the late 1970s – the long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 and uncontrolled dumping in Valley of the Drums – led to the Superfund legislation of 1980; the pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Ross School of Business
The Stephen M. Ross School of Business is the business school of the University of Michigan. Numerous publications have ranked the Ross School of Business' Bachelor of Business Administration, Master of Business Administration and Executive Education programs among the top in the country and the world; the school offers bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, as well as an executive education program. Ross offers dual degrees with other University of Michigan colleges and schools. In 1924, Ross School of Business was founded; the school's BBA program is regarded as one of the best in the United States, having ranked within the top three of U. S. News & World Report rankings every year since the ranking's inception. In 1980, the BBA program was ranked #2 in the US by Parade. In 1990, B. Joseph White began a transformation of the school's character and image, he led a major MBA curriculum overhaul, which aimed to intensify the development of students' professional and practical skills, teamwork and overall ability to turn knowledge and ideas into action.
The signature innovation, called MAP, put students into "live cases" inside companies for seven weeks. MAP's "action learning" or "experiential learning" approach was the first curriculum innovation in management education since the introduction of the case method in the 1940s, it has continued to be a hallmark of Michigan's MBA program. Other initiatives, such as research on how to supplement the GMAT with a test of "practical intelligence", helped cement the school's reputation for innovations that produce business leaders who are not only smart, but effective. White's approach built on a historical strength of the school, known for producing hard-working, practically-oriented graduates. In addition, White added a focus on corporate citizenship to the school's MBA training program, moving aggressively to globalize the school. Most notably, he founded the William Davidson Institute to position Michigan as a leader on economies transitioning from communism to free markets. Following White's changes, Michigan was ranked "most innovative" in Business Week's surveys of corporate executives and was recognized for turning out "can-do" graduates.
In 1996, Michigan was ranked second in Business Week's prestigious business school rankings, the highest ranking the School has achieved, which the magazine attributed to the School's growing reputation for innovation. As a corporate hunting ground, Michigan attracted a broader set of recruiters beyond the auto manufacturers and packaged goods companies, its core customers. Under White, several of the school's hallmark programs and centers were created, including The Erb Institute for Sustainable Global Enterprise, The Joel D. Tauber Institute for Global Operations, The Zell-Lurie Institute for Entrepreneurship, the Wolverine Venture Fund, the William Davidson Institute. In 2001, Robert J. Dolan was named dean, he oversaw a dramatic re-building and facilities modernization initiative and worked to build the school's identity and reputation in the management education marketplace. Under Dolan, the school received one of the two-largest donations made to a business school. In the Master of Business Administration program, Dolan pressed the school's distinction for turning out leaders with a practical, "can-do" orientation.
This leveraged and accelerated a re-definition of the school's curriculum and image made by his predecessor. Dolan made profound changes to the school's image through his ambitious rebuilding of the dated facilities he inherited, creating a showcase property, the Stephen M. Ross School of Business designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox. On Dolan's watch, the school earned the #1 ranking in the Wall Street Journal's 2006 and 2004 list of MBA programs, #8 in The Economist, #5 in the BusinessWeek, #11 in the U. S. News & World Report rankings in 2006; the rankings in these three publications are based on a variety of criteria, one of, reputation among academics. In 2005, the school introduced a 3-year version of the 2-year undergraduate program. During the Dolan administration, the school transformed itself further. In 2004, it was named for alumnus Stephen M. Ross. At the time of the donation, this had been the largest gift to a U. S. business school, the largest to the University of Michigan. The Ross gift funded a campus overhaul.
The school demolished 180,000 square feet of existing building space and renovated or added 270,000 square feet. On 14 February 2011, it was announced that Alison Davis-Blake would become the new Dean of the Ross School of Business, succeeding Robert J. Dolan; the first female dean at Ross, Davis-Blake introduced a new mission statement for the school: "At Ross, we develop leaders who make a positive difference in the world." During her term as dean, the school created new degree programs, including a minor in business for undergraduates and a one-year master’s in management. In late 2013, the school launched a major fundraising campaign, part of the broader Victors For Michigan campaign. In 2014, the school began sponsoring the annual Positive Business Conference. During Davis-Blake's tenure, the school broadened its global presence, increasing the number of overseas experiences for students and beginning a partnership with Shanghai