The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, 15 November 1995 in Australia; the console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles; the PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2; the PlayStation 2, backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier.
Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic, to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console; the new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. The inception of what would become the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, work began.
Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, it was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. Sony planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design; this was to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.
The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show. However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.
After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that’s a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware, they don't know. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom; as a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed.
However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were produced. By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and softw
PlayStation 2 technical specifications
The PlayStation 2 technical specifications describe the various components of the PlayStation 2 video game console. The sixth-generation hardware of the PlayStation 2 video game console consists of various components. At the heart of the console's configuration is its central processing unit, a custom RISC processor known as the Emotion Engine which operates at 294 MHz; the CPU relies on its integration with two vector processing units, known as VPU0 and VPU1, the Graphics Synthesizer, a floating-point unit in order to render 3D graphics. Other components, such as the system's DVD-ROM optical drive and DualShock 2 controller, provide the software and user control input. PlayStation 2 software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM. In addition, the console can play audio CDs and DVD movies, is backwards compatible with original PlayStation games; this is accomplished through the inclusion of the original PlayStation's CPU which serves as the PS2's I/O processor. The PS2 supports limited functionality with the original PlayStation memory cards and controllers.
The PS2's DualShock 2 controller is an upgraded version of the PlayStation's DualShock with analog face, shoulder and D-pad buttons replacing the digital buttons of the original. Like its predecessor, the DualShock 2 controller features force feedback technology; the standard PlayStation 2 memory card uses Sony's MagicGate encryption. This requirement prevented the production of memory cards by third parties who did not purchase a MagicGate license. Memory cards without encryption can be used to store PlayStation game saves, but PlayStation games would be unable to read from or write to the card – such a card could only be used as a backup. There are a variety of non-Sony manufactured memory cards available for the PlayStation 2, allowing for a larger memory capacity than the standard 8 MB; however their use is unsupported and compatibility is not guaranteed. These memory cards can have up to 128 MB storage space; the console features USB and IEEE 1394 expansion ports. Compatibility with USB and IEEE 1394 devices is dependent on the software supporting the device.
For example, the PS2 BIOS will not boot an ISO image from a USB flash drive or operate a USB printer, as the machine's operating system does not include this functionality. By contrast, Gran Turismo 4 and Tourist Trophy are programmed to save screenshots to a USB mass storage device and print images on certain USB printers. A PlayStation 2 HDD can be installed via the expansion bay in the back of the console, was required to play certain games, notably the popular Final Fantasy XI. CPU: MIPS III R5900-based "Emotion Engine", clocked at 294.912 MHz, with 128-bit SIMD capabilities 250 nm CMOS manufacturing, 13.5 million transistors, 225 mm² die size, 15 W dissipation CPU core: MIPS R5900, 64-bit, little endian. CPU is a superscalar, in-order 2-issue design with 6-stage long integer pipelines, four 32 bit GPR registers, 32 128-bit SIMD linear scalar registers, two 64-bit integer ALUs, 128-bit load-store unit and a branch execution unit. Instruction set: MIPS III, MIPS IV subset with Sony's proprietary 107 vector SIMD multimedia instructions.
The custom instruction set was implemented by grouping the two 64-bit integer ALUs. 32-bit FPU coprocessor with 6 stage long pipeline. FPU is not IEEE compliant. 32-bit VLIW-SIMD vector units at 147.456 MHz: VPU0 and VPU1 each VPU contains a vector unit, instruction cache, data cache and interface unit. Each vector unit has upper execution unit containing 4xfMAC and lower execution unit containing fDIV, integer ALU, load-store unit, branch logic, 16 16-bit integer registers and 32 128-bit floating point registers. VPU1 has an additional EFU unit. VPU0 is coupled with the main CPU and is used for polygon and geometry transformations and other gameplay related tasks VPU1 operates independently controlled by microcode, parallel to the CPU core, is used for polygon and geometry transformations, culling and other visual based calculations (texture matrix able for 2 coordinates Parallel: results of VU0/FPU sent as another display list via MFIFO Serial: results of VU0/FPU sent to VU1 and can act as an optional geometry pre-processor that does all base work to update the scene every frame Image Processing Unit: MPEG-2 compressed image macroblock layer decoder allowing playback of DVDs and game FMV.
It allowed vector quantization for 2D graphics data. Memory management unit, RDRAM controller and DMA controller: handle memory access within the system Cache memory: 16 KB instruction cache, 8 KB + 16 KB scratchpad data cache Scratchpad is extended area of memory visible to the EE CPU; this extended memory provides 16 kilobytes of fast RAM available to be used by the application. Scratchpad memory can be used to store temporary data, waiting to be sent via DMA or for any other temporary storage that the programmer can define. I/O processor interconnection: remote procedure call over a serial link, DMA controller for bulk transfer Main RDRAM memory bus. Bandwidth: 3.2 GB/s Graphics interface, DMA channel that conne
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles, it was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles; the console was first announced at E3 2005, was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium; the console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released, it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software.
A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price, a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential"; the reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover after the introduction of the Slim model, its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.
The PlayStation 3 began development in 2001 when Ken Kutaragi the President of Sony Computer Entertainment, announced that Sony, IBM would collaborate on developing the Cell microprocessor. At the time, Shuhei Yoshida led a group of programmers within this hardware team to explore next-generation game creation. By early 2005, focus within Sony shifted towards developing PS3 launch titles. Sony unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16, 2005, at E3 2005, along with a boomerang-shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was shown; the initial prototype shown in May 2005 featured two HDMI ports, three Ethernet ports and six USB ports. Two hardware configurations were announced for the console: a 20 GB model and a 60 GB model, priced at US$499 and US$599, respectively.
The 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a simultaneous worldwide release: November 11, 2006, for Japan and November 17, 2006, for North America and Europe. On September 6, 2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. At the Tokyo Game Show on September 22, 2006, Sony announced that it would include an HDMI port on the 20 GB system, but a chrome trim, flash card readers, silver logo and Wi-Fi would not be included; the launch price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%, the 60 GB model was announced for an open pricing scheme in Japan. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware. PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11, 2006, at 07:00. According to Media Create, 81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan.
Soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17, 2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3. A customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, 60 campers fought over 10 systems; the console was planned for a global release through November, but at the start of September the release in Europe and the rest of the world was delayed until March. With it being a somewhat last-minute delay, some companies had taken deposits for pre-orders, at which Sony informed customers that they were eligible for full refunds or could continue the pre-order. On January 24, 2007, Sony announced that PlayStation 3 would go on sale on March 23, 2007, in Europe, the Middle East and New Zealand; the system sold about 600,000 units in its first two days. On March 7, 2007, the 60 GB PlayStation 3 launched in Singapore with a price of S$799; the console was launched in South Korea on June 16, 2007, as a single version equipped with an 80 GB hard drive and IPTV.
Following speculation that Sony was working on a'slim' model, Sony announced the PS3 CECH-2000 model on August 18, 2009, at the Sony Gamescom press conference
The PlayStation Classic is a dedicated video game console by Sony Interactive Entertainment that emulates games released on its 1994 PlayStation console. It was announced in September 2018 at the Tokyo Game Show, released on December 3, 2018, the 24th anniversary of the release of the original; the console has been compared to competitor Nintendo's prior releases of the NES and Super NES Classic Edition mini consoles. The PlayStation Classic ships with two replica PlayStation Controllers, an HDMI cable, a USB Micro-A to standard USB-A cable. An AC adapter for the console is sold separately; the console weighs about 170 grams and is about 149 mm × 33 mm × 105 mm in size 80% smaller in volume than the original PlayStation and 45% smaller in width and length. It includes ports for both controllers, HDMI output, power via USB; the controller's cords measure 1.5 metres long. It cannot use PlayStation memory cards. Internally, the console uses a MediaTek MT8167a Quad A35 system on a chip with four central processing cores clocked at @ 1.5 GHz and a Power VR GE8300 graphics processing unit.
It includes 1 GB of DDR3 memory. The Classic uses the ReARMed branch of the open source emulator PCSX to play its games; the PlayStation Classic comes preloaded with 20 games, running off the open source emulator, PCSX ReARMed. Five games were revealed when the console was announced, the full roster was revealed a month later; some games vary between regions. The device does not interface with the PlayStation Network, games will not be added post-launch; each game can be suspended in a save state by pressing the console's "reset" button. Nine games use the PAL release regardless of the console's release platform, which means they run at a slower framerate of 50 Hz as opposed to the NTSC standard of 60 Hz, may respond slower than players from NTSC regions would expect; the North American version of the dedicated console received a Mature rating from the ESRB due to the inclusion of Grand Theft Auto, Metal Gear Solid and Resident Evil: Director's Cut. The European version received an 18 rating from the PEGI group.
The system box recommends the system for ages 6 and up, some individual titles such as Rayman have suitable ratings for that age group, but the console provides access to all 20 games, with no parental controls or settings to restrict available games. These five games were first announced on September 18, 2018, ahead of the full game list reveal on October 29, 2018. ^ PAL. These games use the PAL releases; the PlayStation Classic received mixed reviews overall. Tristan Ogilive of IGN criticised the console's lack of popular titles like Tomb Raider and Crash Bandicoot, the basic user-interface and pointing out that "almost half of the games included in the PlayStation Classic's library are the PAL versions" which caused consistency problems in NTSC regions. Sam Loveridge of GamesRadar+ praised the look of the console, but criticized the selection of games, the weak presentation of the games due to the black bars on the side of the screen, the short length of the controller cables. John Linneman of Eurogamer's Digital Foundry gave it a mixed review, noting the console's subpar emulation, poor image quality, lack of enhancements and use of PAL game releases on North American units, though he did praise the user interface.
Chris Carter of Destructoid shares a similar opinion, citing that the emulation on the classic console is at times, "worse than the original", but praised the instant-state recovery and the size of the internal storage. Joe Juba of Game Informer lamented on the lack of analog sticks on the controller, along with the lacking selection of titles and a barebones menu, which makes the system a good fit only for an "extremely specific audience"; the PlayStation Classic had sold 120,000 units during its first week in Japan. Its sales were noticeably low in the U. S. with many retailers and websites, such as Amazon, giving discounts for the console as low as US$60 in several major U. S. retailers. Reasons for the price drop at this time suggested a combination of overproduction of the unit, over-pricing on the original cost of the unit, or disinterest in the unit, critically panned by journalists. Just over two months after its release, the console was further discounted by Walmart to US$40. Official website
The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens; the language, which falls within the Insular Celtic family, has been spoken throughout Wales, with its predecessor Common Brittonic once spoken throughout most of the island of Great Britain. Prior to the 20th century, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only Welsh, with little or no fluent knowledge of English. Welsh remains the predominant language in parts of Wales in North Wales and West Wales. English is the predominant language in South Wales. Many Welsh people in predominately English-speaking areas of Wales, are fluent or semi-fluent in Welsh or, to varying degrees, capable of speaking or understanding Welsh at limited or conversational proficiency levels. Although the Welsh language and its ancestors have been spoken in what is now Wales since well before the Roman incursions into Britain, historian John Davies argues that the origin of the "Welsh nation" can be traced to the late 4th and early 5th centuries, following the Roman departure.
The term "Welsh people" applies to people from Wales and people of Welsh ancestry perceiving themselves or being perceived as sharing a cultural heritage and shared ancestral origins. In 2016, an analysis of the geography of Welsh surnames commissioned by the Welsh Government found that 718,000 people have a family name of Welsh origin, compared with 5.3% in the rest of the United Kingdom, 4.7% in New Zealand, 4.1% in Australia, 3.8% in the United States, with an estimated 16.3 million people in the countries studied having at least partial Welsh ancestry. Over 300,000 Welsh people live in London alone; the names "Wales" and "Welsh" are traced to the Proto-Germanic word "Walhaz" meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker", used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Roman Empire, who were romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The same etymological origin is shared by the names of various other Celtic or Latin peoples such as the Walloons and the Vlachs, as well as of the Swiss canton of Valais.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen". Thus, they carry a sense of "land of fellow-countrymen", "our country", notions of fraternity; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the post-Roman Era relationship of the Welsh with the Brythonic-speaking peoples of northern England and southern Scotland, the peoples of "Yr Hen Ogledd". The word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century, it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1100. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh; until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland.
During their time in Britain, the ancient Romans encountered tribes in present-day Wales that they called the Ordovices, the Demetae, the Silures and the Deceangli. The people of what is now Wales were not distinguished from the rest of the peoples of southern Britain. Celtic language and culture seems to have arrived in Britain during the Iron Age, though some archaeologists argue that there is no evidence for large-scale Iron Age migrations into Great Britain; the claim has been made that Indo-European languages may have been introduced to the British Isles as early as the early Neolithic, with Goidelic and Brythonic languages developing indigenously. Others hold that the close similarity between the Goidelic and Brythonic branches, their sharing of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age terminology with their continental relatives, point to a more recent introduction of Indo-European languages, with Proto-Celtic itself unlikely to have existed before the end of the 2nd millennium BC at the earliest.
The genetic evidence in this case would show that the change to Celtic languages in Britain may have occurred as a cultural shift rather than through migration as was supposed. Some current genetic research supports the idea that people living in the British Isles are mainly descended from the indigenous European Paleolithic population, with a smaller Neolithic input. Paleolithic Europeans seem to have been a homogeneous population due to a population bottleneck on the Iberian peninsula, where a small human population is thought to have survived the glaciation, expanded into Europe during the Mesolithic; the assumed genetic imprint of Neolithic incomers is seen as a cline, with stronger Neolithic representation in the east of Europe and stronger Paleolithic representation in the west of Europe. Most in Wales today regard themselves as modern Celts, claiming a heritage back to the Iron Age tribes, which themselves, based on modern genetic analysis, would appear to have had a predominantly Paleolithic and Neolithic indigenous ancestry.
When the Roman legions departed Britain around
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Kazuo "Kaz" Hirai is a Japanese businessman who serves as chairman of Sony Corporation. He serves as a board member of Sony Interactive Entertainment and chairman and co-CEO of Sony Entertainment, he was noted by Entertainment Weekly as one of the most powerful executives in the entertainment industry. Hirai became president and CEO of Sony on April 1, 2012. On April 1, 2018, Hirai stepped down as CEO, becoming chairman of Sony Corporation. Hirai announced his plan to retire from Sony on June 18, 2019, though will still remain an advisor to the company following this date. Kazuo Hirai was born in 1960 in Tokyo, where he attended the American School in Japan. Between 1973 and 1976, Hirai attended Valley Park Middle School in Toronto, Canada; the son of a wealthy banker, Hirai traveled with his father across the world to California, New York, Canada and around Japan — a trait which Hirai noted to be a major factor in his multi-continental business success. It was his interest in games that brought him into the entertainment business.
After graduating from the International Christian University in August 1984 with a Bachelor of Liberal Arts degree, Hirai was hired at CBS/Sony Inc. where he was involved in marketing international music within Japan. He became head of Sony Computer Entertainment Japan's international business affairs office in New York. Kazuo Hirai began his career with Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1984, starting out in CBS/Sony Inc.'s marketing department. Afterwards, becoming the head of Sony's international business affairs department, he moved to Sony Music Japan’s New York office, leading the marketing of Sony Music Japan artists in the U. S. In August 1995, Hirai joined Sony's computer and video game division, Sony Computer Entertainment America, he was promoted to executive vice president-chief operations officer in July 1996. One year in 1997, Hirai was credited on his first completed video game. With the release of the PlayStation 2 in 2000, Kazuo continued his success, utilizing second-party video game franchises such as Jak and Daxter, Ratchet & Clank, Sly Cooper, SOCOM: U.
S. Navy SEALs series of games. Under his leadership, SCEA continually managed to retain high profits throughout the sixth generation era. On July 3, 2006, Sony Computer Entertainment announced that Hirai had been made a vice president of its corporate executive group. On November 30, 2006, just under two weeks after the launch of PlayStation 3, Hirai replaced Ken Kutaragi as president of Sony Computer Entertainment. While maintaining his positions at SCEA, Hirai became chief operating officer of SCEI. Kutaragi himself was promoted to chairman of SCEI, remained chief executive officer of the group. On April 26, 2007, it was announced that Hirai will be promoted to president and group CEO of SCEI, replacing Ken Kutaragi who would retire and instead take up the role of honorary chairman. On April 1, 2009, Sony’s electronics and game businesses were merged and reconfigured as two major groups: the Consumer Products & Devices Group and the Networked Products & Services Group. Hirai was appointed as corporate executive officer and executive vice president of Sony Corporation, concurrently serving as president of the NPSG.
He has overseen all development and marketing activities at the NPSG, comprising Sony's game, personal computer, mobile devices and network service businesses and new business incubation projects. Hirai became chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment on September 1, 2011 and was replaced by Andrew House as president and group CEO, he remains on the board of directors. On April 1, 2011, Hirai was promoted to representative corporate executive officer and executive deputy president of Sony Corporation, he oversaw the Consumer Products & Services Group. Hirai was speculated to become the successor to Howard Stringer, the current sitting president and CEO of Sony Corporation, expected to step down in 2013. On February 1, 2012, Sony announced that Hirai has been appointed as president and chief executive officer, effective April 1, 2012, he was appointed to the board at the annual shareholders meeting on June 27, 2012. On February 2, 2018, Sony announced that Hirai will be stepping down as president and CEO, effective April 1, 2018, to be replaced by CFO Kenichiro Yoshida.
Hirai remained as the company's chairman and served on the board of directors to help the company transition to leadership under Yoshida. Hirai announced on March 28, 2019 that he would be retiring from his role as chairman at Sony on June 18, 2019, though he will continue to act as a senior advisor at Sony's request. Hirai stated he was confident that Yoshida would be able to continue the leadership of Sony on his own. Official website Kaz Hirai's profile at MobyGames