The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. It was established in 1902, making it the first large-scale programme of international scholarship; the Rhodes Scholarship was founded by English businessman and politician Cecil John Rhodes, to promote unity between English speaking nations and instill a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders irrespective of their chosen career paths. Although restricted to male applicants from countries which are today within the Commonwealth, as well as Germany and the United States, today the Scholarship is open to applicants from all backgrounds and from across the globe. Since its creation, controversy has surrounded both its former exclusion of women, Rhodes' Anglo-supremacist beliefs and legacy of colonialism. Prominent recipients of the Rhodes Scholarship include former President of Pakistan Wasim Sajjad, former Australian Prime Ministers Tony Abbott, Bob Hawke and Malcolm Turnbull, former President of the United States Bill Clinton, former United States National Security Advisor and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice, as well as several Nobel laureates.
Some people offered this scholarship have not accepted it. The Rhodes trust established the scholarships in 1902 under the terms laid out in the sixth and final will of Cecil John Rhodes, dated 1 July 1899 and appended by several codicils through March 1902; the scholarships were founded for two reasons, to promote unity within the British empire and to strengthen diplomatic ties between Britain and the United States of America. In Rhodes’ own words, “I … desire to encourage and foster an appreciation of the advantages which I implicitly believe will result from the union of the English-speaking peoples throughout the world and to encourage in the students from North America who would benefit from the American Scholarships.” Rhodes bequeathed scholarships to German students in the hope that, "a good understanding between England and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world." Rhodes, who attended Oriel College, believed the university's residential colleges would be the best venue to nurture diplomatic ties between future world leaders.
To this day controversies persist over Rhodes’ Anglo-supremacist beliefs, most of which date back to his 1877 confession of faith. However, such convictions did not play a part in his final vision for the scholarship; the scholarships are based on Rhodes’ final will and testament which states that, “no student shall be qualified or disqualified for election … on account of race or religious opinions”. The Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, located at Rhodes House in Oxford; the trust has been modified by three Acts of Parliament: The Rhodes Estate Act 1916, the Rhodes Trust Act 1929, The Rhodes Trust Act 1946. In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States; the Kennedy Scholarship programme, created in 1966 as a memorial to John F. Kennedy, adopts a comparable selection process to the Rhodes Scholarships to allow ten British post-graduate students per year to study at either Harvard or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
It cooperates with universities in China, BLCC, for example. BLCC offers high-level scholarships for international students who aim to study Chinese in Beijing. In 1953, the Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Marshall Scholarship as a coeducational alternative to the Rhodes Scholarship that would serve as a "living gift" to the United States. Cecil Rhodes wished current scholars and Rhodes alumni to have "opportunities of meeting and discussing their experiences and prospects"; this has been reflected, for example, in the initiation by the first warden, of an annual warden's Christmas letter. In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four former Rhodes Scholars were awarded honorary degrees by the University of Oxford; these were John Brademas, Bob Hawke, Rex Nettleford and David R. Woods. During the centenary celebrations, the foundation of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was marked. In 2013, during the 110th Rhodes anniversary celebrations, John McCall MacBain, Marcy McCall MacBain and the McCall MacBain Foundation donated £75 million towards the fundraising efforts of the Rhodes Trust.
In 2015, Rhodes Scholar R. W. Johnson published a critical account of the decline of the Rhodes Trust under its warden, John Rowett, commended the recovery under wardens Donald Markwell and Charles R. Conn; as of 2018, due to the introduction of the Global Rhodes Scholarships, the Rhodes Scholarship is open to Postgraduate students from anywhere in the world. Many of its greatest scholars have carried out its founder’s ideal of “equal rights for all civilised men” becoming some of the foremost voices in Human Rights and social justice; some have engaged in criticism of Ceci
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which encouraged state repression of Black African and Asian South Africans for the benefit of the nation's minority white population; the economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had emerged in the form of minority rule by White South Africans and the enforced separation of Black South Africans from other races, which extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party at the 1948 general election.
A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late-eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated against Black South Africans began appearing shortly before 1900; the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines; the Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960–1983, 3.5 million Non-White South Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the Black population to ten designated "tribal homelands" known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states; the government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century, it was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending democratic, multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart" "apart-hood", its first recorded use was in 1929. Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.
The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes; this was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes; the United Kingdom's Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa, little different from slave
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
The Australian Democrats is a centre to centre-left political party in Australia. Founded in 1977 from a merger of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement, both of which were descended from Liberal Party splinter group, it was Australia's largest minor party from its formation in 1977 through to 2004 and held the balance of power in the Senate during that time; the party's inaugural leader was Don Chipp, a former Liberal cabinet minister, who famously promised to "keep the bastards honest". At the 1977 federal election, the Democrats polled 11.1 percent of the Senate vote and secured two seats. The party would retain a presence in the Senate for the next 30 years, at its peak holding nine out of 76 seats, though never securing a seat in the lower house; the party's share of the vote collapsed at the 2004 election and was further diminished in 2007 with the last senators leaving office in 2008. Due to the party's numbers in the Senate, both Liberal and Labor governments required the assistance of the Democrats to pass contentious legislation, most notably in the case of the Howard Government's goods and services tax.
Ideologically, the Democrats were regarded as centrists, occupying the political middle ground between the Liberal Party and the Labor Party, though preferences favoured Labor. The party was formally deregistered in 2016 for not having the required 500 members. In 2018 the Australian Democrats merged with Country Minded—an Australian political party seeking accountable regional and agricultural representation. On 7 April 2019 the Australian Democrats regained registration as a political party with the Australian Electoral Commission; the party plans to run candidates in the 2019 federal election and campaign on energy and political accountability. The party was founded on principles of honesty, tolerance and direct democracy through postal ballots of all members, so that "there should be no hierarchical structure... by which a engineered elite could make decisions for the members." From the outset, members' participation was fiercely protected in national and divisional constitutions prescribing internal elections, regular meeting protocols, annual conferences—and monthly journals for open discussion and balloting.
Dispute resolution procedures were established, with final recourse to a party ombudsman and membership ballot. Policies determined by the unique participatory method promoted environmental awareness and sustainability, opposition to the primacy of economic rationalism, preventative approaches to human health and welfare, animal rights, rejection of nuclear technology and weapons; the Australian Democrats were the first representatives of green politics at the federal level in Australia. They played a key role in the cause célèbre of the Franklin River Dam; the party's centrist role made it subject to criticism from both the right and left of the political spectrum. In particular, Chipp's former conservative affiliation was recalled by opponents on the left; this problem was to torment leaders and strategists who, by 1991, were proclaiming "the electoral objective" as a higher priority than the rigorous participatory democracy espoused by the party's founders. Because of their numbers on the cross benches during the Hawke and Keating governments, the Democrats were sometimes regarded as exercising a balance of power—which attracted electoral support from a significant sector of the electorate, alienated by both Labor and Coalition policies and practices.
Over three decades, the Australian Democrats achieved representation in the legislatures of the ACT, South Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia and Tasmania as well as Senate seats in all six states. However, at the 2004 and 2007 federal elections, all seven of its Senate seats were lost; the last remaining State parliamentarian, David Winderlich, left the party and was defeated as an independent in 2010. The Australian Democrats were formed in May 1977 from an amalgamation of the Australia Party and the New Liberal Movement; the two groups found a common basis for a new political movement in the widespread discontent with the two major parties. In the former Liberal Government Minister, Don Chipp, the two groups found their leader; the first Australian Democrat to sit in the federal parliamentarian was Senator Janine Haines who in 1977 was nominated by the South Australian Parliament to fill the casual vacancy caused by the resignation of Liberal Senator Steele Hall. The party's broad aim was to achieve a balance of power in one or more parliaments and to exercise it responsibly in line with policies determined by membership.
In 1977 the Australian Democrats secured two seats in the Senate with the election of Colin Mason and Don Chipp. In 1980 this increased to five seats with the election of Michael Macklin and John Siddons and the re-election of Janine Haines. Thereafter they held enough seats to give them the balance of power in the upper chamber. At a Melbourne media conference on 19 September 1980, in the midst of the 1980 election campaign, Chipp described his party's aim as to "keep the bastards honest"—the "bastards" being the major parties and/or politicians in general; this became a long-lived slogan for the Democrats. In South Australia, the New Liberal Movement dissolved and merged with the Democrats, making its sole parliamentary representative, Robin Millhouse, the Democrats' first member of the South Australian parliament. Millhouse held his seat at 1979 state elections. In 1982, Millhouse resigned to take up a senior judicial apppointment, Heather Southcott won the by-election for the Democrats, but lost the seat to the Liberals that year at the 1982 state election.
Mitcham was the
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. The term originated in the United States, but has spread to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Nepal; as the use of the term has been expanded, the exact definition has come to vary among political cultures. The origin of the word caucus is debated, but it is agreed that it first came into use in the British colonies of North America. A February 1763 entry in the diary of John Adams of Braintree, Massachusetts, is one of the earliest appearances of Caucas with its modern connotations of a "smoke-filled room" where candidates for public election are pre-selected in private: This day learned that the Caucas Clubb meets at certain Times in the Garret of Tom Daws, the Adjutant of the Boston Regiment, he has a large House, he has a moveable Partition in his Garrett, which he takes down and the whole Clubb meets in one Room. There they smoke tobacco. There they drink Phlip I suppose, there they choose a Moderator, who puts Questions to the Vote and Selectman, Collectors, Fire Wards, Representatives are Regularly chosen before they are chosen in the Town...
An article in Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896, surveying famous presidential campaigns of the past, begins with an unsourced popular etymology of the origin of the caucus: The Origin of the "Caucus" The presidential nominating convention is a modern institution. In the early days of the Republic a different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people. In the first place, as to the origin of the "caucus." In the early part of the eighteenth century a number of caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the political caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government since its organization. No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian word for "counsel",'cau´-cau-as´u'; the word might derive from the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker, or orator.
This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner. The American Heritage Dictionary suggests that it derived from medieval Latin caucus, meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston. An analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is used; the term caucus is used in mediation and other forms of alternate dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer with counsel and/or with the mediator, or gain "breathing room" after the emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth.
In United States politics and government, caucus has several related meanings. Members of a political party or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices. There is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two presidential elections, the Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention; the term caucus is used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select presidential nominees such as the Iowa caucuses, the first of the modern presidential election cycle, the Texas caucuses. Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process.
Another meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene but not always to advocate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in Congress and many state legislatures and Republican members organize themselves into a caucus. There can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi-partisan or bicameral. Of the many Congressional caucuses, one of the best-known is the Congressional Black Caucus, a group of African-American members of Congress. Another prominent example is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, whose members voice and advance issues affecting Hispanics in the United States, including Puerto Rico. In a different vein, the Congressional Internet Caucus is a bipartisan group of Members who wish to promote the growth and advancement of the Internet. Other congressional caucuses such as the Out of Iraq Caucus, are organized tendencies or political factions, strive to achieve political goals, similar to a European "platform", but organized around a single issue.
The term is used in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, when used in these countries, "caucus" is more a
Jennifer Ann Coate is an Australian jurist. Coate was a Judge of the Family Court of Australia and one of the six Royal Commissioners appointed by the Australian government Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Coate studied law at Monash University, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1979, a Bachelor of Laws in 1984. Coate worked part-time as a teacher. Upon graduating, Coate worked as a solicitor and a barrister, she served as an academic, contributed to a range of social policy groups and committees. In 1992, Coate was appointed a magistrate. By September 1996, she was Deputy Chief Magistrate of Victoria. In June 2000, she was made a judge of the County Court of Victoria, was made the first female President of the Children's Court of Victoria. One of the most significant reforms she oversaw as President of the Children's Court was the establishment of a Children's Koori Court, a specialist court designed to accommodate juvenile Indigenous offenders. In 2001, Coate was made part-time Commissioner of the Victorian Law Reform Commission.
Coate left the Children's Court in April 2006. On 29 November 2007, she formally took up responsibilities as Coroner of Victoria, marking the first time a woman had taken on the role; until 2006, she served as the first female President of the Children's Court of Victoria. Additionally, Coate has been involved in a wide range of charitable and community organizations, she has served as Chair of the Health Services for Abused Victorian Children Advisory Group and Chair of the Anglicare Steering Committee for Group Conferencing Restorative Justice. On 11 January 2013, Judge Coate was named as one of the six Royal Commissioners appointed to investigate child sexual abuse by the Australian government Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. In the 2019 Australia Day Honours Coate was made an Officer of the Order of Australia for "distinguished service to the law, to the judiciary, to legal administration, to child and youth justice". Coate is highly respected in legal circles as an bright, thoughtful lawyer, who acts unconventionally to demonstrate a point.
In 1993, when Coate had only been appointed a magistrate, a controversy broke out in a Victorian court, when a female solicitor was criticized by a judge for coming to court in polka-dot stockings and a suit with a skirt that finished above the knee. The incident sparked extensive debate. In a silent protest against her colleague's comments, Coate spent the remainder of the week dressed in outlandishly coloured and patterned stockings, ensuring that she was seen and publicly in Melbourne's legal precinct
Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It is one of four universities in the province. Established in 1904, Rhodes University is the province's oldest university, it is the fifth or sixth oldest South African university in continuous operation, being preceded by the University of the Free State, University of Witwatersrand, Stellenbosch University and the University of Cape Town. Rhodes was founded in 1904 as Rhodes University College, named after Cecil Rhodes, through a grant from the Rhodes Trust, it became a constituent college of the University of South Africa in 1918 before becoming an independent university in 1951. The university had an enrolment of over 8,000 students in the 2015 academic year, of whom just over 3,600 lived in 51 residences on campus, with the rest taking residence in digs or in their own homes in the town. Although a proposal to found a university in Grahamstown had been made as early as 1902, financial problems caused by the Frontier Wars in the Eastern Cape prevented the proposal from being implemented.
In 1904 Leander Starr Jameson issued £50 000 preferred stock to the university from the Rhodes Trust. With this funding Rhodes University College was founded by an act of parliament on 31 May 1904. University education in the Eastern Cape began in the college departments of four schools: St. Andrew's College; the four St Andrew's College professors, Arthur Matthews, George Cory, Stanley Kidd and G. F Dingemans became founding professors of Rhodes University College. At the beginning of 1905, Rhodes moved from cramped quarters at St Andrew's to the Drostdy building, which it bought from the British Government. Rhodes became a constituent college of the new University of South Africa in 1918 and it continued to expand in size; when the future of the University of South Africa came under review in 1947, Rhodes opted to become an independent university. Rhodes University was inaugurated on 10 March 1951. Sir Basil Schonland, son of Selmar Schonland, became the first Chancellor of his alma mater, Dr. Thomas Alty the first Vice-Chancellor.
In terms of the Rhodes University Private Act, the University College of Fort Hare was affiliated to Rhodes University. This mutually beneficial arrangement continued until the apartheid government decided to disaffiliate Fort Hare from Rhodes; the Rhodes Senate and Council objected to this, to the Separate University Education Bill, which they condemned as interference with academic freedom. However, the two bills were passed, Fort Hare's affiliation to Rhodes came to an end in 1959. In 1962 an honorary doctorate was conferred on the State President C. R. Swart, responsible for the repression of opposition political organisations; the award caused the resignation of the Chancellor, Sir Basil Schonland, although his reasons were not made public at the time. James Hyslop succeeded Alty in 1963. In 1971, Rhodes negotiated to purchase the closed teacher training college run by the sisters of the Community of the Resurrection of our Lord including the buildings and grounds and a number of adjacent buildings, facilitating further expansion.
During 2008 work began on construction of a new library building at a cost of R85 million, one of the largest infrastructure projects undertaken by the university, was completed in 2010. Rhodes has six faculties, listed below: Humanities Commerce Law Science Education PharmacyThe six faculties are further subdivided into 30 academic departments, of which 11 form part of the humanities faculty; the humanities faculty, being the largest in the university, consists of 40% of the student intake of undergraduate and postgraduate studies, enrolling 2669 students as of 2009. Rhodes University operates a Law Clinic, which operates as a firm of attorneys providing training to law students and free legal services for indigent people; the Law Clinic operates from one in Grahamstown and one in Queenstown. The Law Clinic came to national attention in July 2013 when it represented 15 members of Nelson Mandela's family in their litigation against Mandla Mandela concerning the location of family grave sites.
Rhodes is a small residential university. For most undergraduates and second years of study are done while living in campus residences. Rhodes' academic program operates on a semester calendar, beginning in early-February to early-June, the second semester beginning in late-July and ending late-November. Undergraduate tuition for the first year of study in 2011 towards a bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degree was R26,590 and R27,720 and the cost of board was between R35,700 and R37,600. Rhodes admitted 1592 students in 2012; the tables below show the gender composition of the university for that year. Rhodes holds fourteen of the national research chairs appointed under the South African Research Chairs Initiative; this accounts for 7% of the total awarded nationally in South Africa, a significant proportion given the University's small size. Critical Studies in Sexualities and Reproduction: Human and Social Dynamics Marine Ecosystems Radio Astronomy Techniques and Technologies Medicinal Chemistry and Nanotechnology Mathematics Education Numeracy Intellectualisation of African Languages and Education Insects in Sustainable Agricultural Ecosystems Interdisciplinary Science in Land and Natural Resource Use for Su