The Townshend Acts were a series of British Acts of Parliament passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who proposed the program. Historians vary as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five acts are mentioned: The New York Restraining Act 1767 The Revenue Act 1767 The Indemnity Act 1767 The Commissioners of Customs Act 1767 The Vice Admiralty Court Act 1768 The purposes of the Townshend Acts were To raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain To create more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations To punish the Province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act To establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the coloniesThe Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, which resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770.
The Townshend Acts placed an indirect tax on glass, paints and tea. These goods had to be imported from Britain; this form of revenue generation was Townshend's response to the failure of the Stamp Act of 1765, which had provided the first form of direct taxation placed upon the colonies. However, the import duties proved to be controversial. Colonial indignation over the Townshend Acts was predominantly driven by John Dickinson's anonymous publication of Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, as well as the Massachusetts Circular Letter; as a result of widespread protest and non-importation of British goods in colonial ports, Parliament began to repeal the Townshend duties. In March 1770, most of the indirect taxes from the Townshend Acts were repealed by Parliament under Frederick, Lord North. However, the import duty on tea was retained in order to demonstrate to the colonists that Parliament held the sovereign authority to tax its colonies, in accordance with the Declaratory Act of 1766; the British government continued to try to tax the colonists without providing representation in Parliament.
Resentment and corrupt and abusive enforcement spurred colonial attacks on British ships, including the burning of the Gaspee in 1772. Retaining the Townshend Acts' taxation on imported tea, enforced once again by the Tea Act of 1773, subsequently led to the Boston Tea Party in 1773, in which Bostonians destroyed a shipment of taxed tea. Parliament responded with severe punishments in the Intolerable Acts in 1774; the Thirteen Colonies drilled their militia units, tensions escalated into violence in April 1775, launching the American Revolution. Following the Seven Years' War, the British government was deep in debt. To pay a small fraction of the costs of the newly expanded empire, the Parliament of Great Britain decided to levy new taxes on the colonies of British America. Through the Trade and Navigation Acts, Parliament had used taxation to regulate the trade of the empire, but with the Sugar Act of 1764, Parliament sought, for the first time, to tax the colonies for the specific purpose of raising revenue.
American colonists argued. The Americans claimed they were not represented in Parliament, but the British government retorted that they had "virtual representation", a concept the Americans rejected; this issue, only debated following the Sugar Act, became a major point of contention after Parliament's passage of the Stamp Act 1765. The Stamp Act proved to be wildly unpopular in the colonies, contributing to its repeal the following year, along with the failure to raise substantial revenue. Implicit in the Stamp Act dispute was an issue more fundamental than taxation and representation: the question of the extent of Parliament's authority in the colonies. Parliament provided its answer to this question when it repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 by passing the Declaratory Act, which proclaimed that Parliament could legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"; this was the first of the five acts, passed on June 5, 1767. It forbade the New York Assembly and the governor of New York from passing any new bills until they agreed to comply with the Quartering Act 1765, which required them to pay for and provide housing and supplies for British troops in the colony.
New York resisted the Quartering Act because it amounted to taxation without representation, since they had no representatives in Parliament. Further, New York and the other colonies did not believe British soldiers were any longer necessary in the colonies, since the French and Indian War had come to an end. However, New York reluctantly agreed to pay for at least some of the soldiers' needs as they understood they were going to be punished by Parliament unless they acted; the New York Restraining Act was never implemented. This was the second of the five acts, passed on June 26, 1767, it placed taxes on glass, painters' colors, paper. It gave customs officials broad authority to enforce the taxes and punish smugglers through the use of "writs of assistance", general warrants that could be used to search private property for smuggled goods. There was an angry response from colonists, who deemed the taxes a threat to their rights as British subjects; the use of writs of assistance was controversial, since the right to be secure in one's private property was an established right in Britain.
This act was the third act, passed on June 29, 1767, the same day as the Commissioners of Customs Act.'Indemnity' means
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
John Smibert was a Scottish American artist born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 24 March 1688, died in Boston, British America on 2 April 1751. Smibert began drawing while apprenticed as a plasterer in Edinburgh. On moving to London in 1709 he worked as copyist. 1713-1716, he studied under Godfrey Kneller at the Great Queen Street Academy returned to Edinburgh, seeking work as portraitist. Smibert travelled to Italy from 1719 to 1722 to copy old masters and settled in London where he worked as a portrait painter from 1722-1728. Smibert became a member of the Rose and Crown Club and made a sketch for a group portrait of its members, including George Vertue, John Wootton, Thomas Gibson, Bernard Lens, other artists. Among his London portraits is one of Bishop Berkeley who, in 1728, enticed Smibert to accompanied him to America, with the intention of becoming professor of fine arts in the college which Berkeley was planning to found in Bermuda; the college, was never established, Smibert settled in Boston, where he married in 1730.
He lived at the corner of Brattle Queen-Street. He belonged to the Scots Charitable Society of Boston. In 1728 he began painting "Dean George Berkeley and His Family," called "The Bermuda group", now in the Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University, a group of eight figures, he painted portraits of Jonathan Edwards and Judge Edmund Quincy, Mrs Smibert, Peter Faneuil and Governor John Endecott, John Lovell, one of Sir William Pepperrell. In 1734, Smibert opened a shop where he sold paint, other artist's supplies, prints. In his studio above the shop, he displayed casts and copies of Old Masters that he had painted in Europe; this collection, which Richard Saunders has termed "America's first art gallery", provided much of the early artistic education for Charles Willson Peale, Gilbert Stuart, John Trumbull. Between 1740 and 1742, he served as architect for the original Faneuil Hall, which he designed in the style of an English country market; the hall burned down in 1761 but was restored, in 1806 expanded and modified by Charles Bulfinch.
His son Nathaniel was a painter. Smibert lies in an unmarked grave in the Granary Burying Ground in Boston; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Smybert, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. A. T. Perkins. Notes on portraits by Blackburn and Smibert. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 17, May 1879. Richard H. Saunders, John Smibert: colonial America's first portrait painter. Yale University Press, 1995. Works by John Smibert at Faded Page John Singleton Copley in America, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on John Smibert
John Singleton Copley
John Singleton Copley was an Anglo-American painter, active in both colonial America and England. He was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Richard and Mary Singleton Copley, both Anglo-Irish, he is famous for his portrait paintings of wealthy and influential figures in colonial New England, depicting in particular middle-class subjects. His portraits were innovative in their tendency to depict artifacts relating to these individuals' lives. Copley's mother owned a tobacco shop on Long Wharf; the parents, according to the artist's granddaughter Martha Babcock Amory, had come to Boston in 1736, were "engaged in trade, like all the inhabitants of the North American colonies at that time". His father was from Limerick. Letters from John Singleton, Mrs. Copley's father, are in the Copley-Pelham collection. Richard Copley, described as a tobacconist, is said by several biographers to have arrived in Boston in ill health and to have gone, about the time of John's birth, to the West Indies, where he died.
William H. Whitmore gives his death the year of Mrs. Copley's remarriage. James Bernard Cullen says: "Richard Copley was in poor health on his arrival in America and went to the West Indies to improve his failing strength, he died there in 1737." No contemporary evidence has been located for either year. Except for a family tradition that speaks of his precocity in drawing, nothing is known of Copley's schooling or of the other activities of his boyhood, his letters, the earliest of, dated September 30, 1762, reveal a well-educated man. He may have been taught various subjects, it is reasonably conjectured, by his future stepfather, besides painting portraits and cutting engravings, eked out a living in Boston by teaching dancing and, beginning September 12, 1743, by conducting an "Evening Writing and Arithmetic School", duly advertised, it is certain that the widow Copley was married to Peter Pelham on May 22, 1748, that at about that time she transferred her tobacco business to his house in Lindall Street, at which the evening school continued its sessions.
In such a household young Copley may have learned to use the engraver's tools. Whitmore says plausibly: "Copley at the age of fifteen was able to engrave in mezzotint; the family lived next to the house occupied by japanner Thomas Johnston and his family, Copley became friends with Thomas's son William to become a painter himself. The artistic opportunities of the home and town in which Copley grew to manhood should be emphasized because he himself, as well as some of his biographers taking him too have made much of the bleakness of his early surroundings, his son, Lord Lyndhurst, wrote that "he was self taught, never saw a decent picture, with the exception of his own, until he was nearly thirty years of age." Copley himself complained, in a letter to Benjamin West, written November 12, 1766: "In this Country as You rightly observe there is no examples of Art, except what is to met with in a few prints indifferently exicuted, from which it is not possable to learn much." Variants of this thesis are found everywhere in his earlier letters.
They suggest that, while Copley was industrious and an able executant, he was physically unadventurous and temperamentally inclined toward brooding and self-pity. He could have seen many good prints in the Boston of his youth; the excellence of his own portraits was not miraculous. A book of Copley's studies of the figure, now at the British Museum, proves that before he was twenty, whether with or without help from a teacher, he was making anatomical drawings with much care and precision, it is that through the fortunate associations of a home and workshop in a town which had many craftsmen, he had learned his trade at an age when the average art student of a era was only beginning to draw. Copley was about fourteen and his stepfather had died, when he made the earliest of his portraits now preserved, a likeness of his half-brother Charles Pelham, good in color and characterization though it has in its background accessories which are somewhat out of drawing, it is a remarkable work to have come from so young a hand.
The artist was only fifteen when he painted the portrait of the Rev. William Welsteed, minister of the Brick Church in Long Lane, a work which, following Peter Pelham's practise, Copley engraved to get the benefit from the sale of prints. No other engraving has been attributed to Copley. A self-portrait, depicting a boy of about seventeen in broken straw hat, a painting of Mars and Vulcan, signed and dated 1754, disclose crudities of execution which do not obscure the decorative intent and documentary value of the works; such painting would advertise itself anywhere. Without going after business, for his letters do not indicate that he was aggressive or pushy, Copley was started as a professional portrait-painter long before he was of age. In October 1757, Capt. Thomas Ainslie, collector of the Port of Quebec, acknowledged from Halifax the receipt of his portrait, which "gives me great Satisfaction", advised the artist to visit Nova Scotia "where there are several people who would be glad to employ You."
This request to paint in Canada was repeated from Quebec, Copley replying: "I should receive a singular pleasure in excepting, if my Business was anyways slack, but it is so far otherwise that I have a large Room full
Stamp Act 1765
The Stamp Act of 1765 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the British colonies and plantations in America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp. Printed materials included legal documents, playing cards and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. Like previous taxes, the stamp tax had to be paid in valid British currency, not in colonial paper money; the purpose of the tax was to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War, the North American theater of the Seven Years' War. However, the colonists had never feared a French invasion to begin with, they contended that they had paid their share of the war expenses, they suggested that it was a matter of British patronage to surplus British officers and career soldiers who should be paid by London. The Stamp Act was unpopular among colonists.
A majority considered it a violation of their rights as Englishmen to be taxed without their consent—consent that only the colonial legislatures could grant. Their slogan was "No taxation without representation." Colonial assemblies sent petitions and protests, the Stamp Act Congress held in New York City was the first significant joint colonial response to any British measure when it petitioned Parliament and the King. One member of the British Parliament argued that the colonials were no different from the 90% residents of Great Britain who did not own property and thus could not vote, but who were "virtually" represented by land-owning electors and representatives who had common interests with them. An American attorney refuted this by pointing out that the relations between the Americans and the English electors were "a knot too infirm to be relied on" for proper representation, "virtual" or otherwise. Local protest groups established Committees of Correspondence which created a loose coalition from New England to Maryland.
Protests and demonstrations increased initiated by the Sons of Liberty and involving hanging of effigies. Soon, all stamp tax distributors were intimidated into resigning their commissions, the tax was never collected. Opposition to the Stamp Act was not limited to the colonies. British merchants and manufacturers pressured Parliament because their exports to the colonies were threatened by boycotts; the Act was repealed on 18 March 1766 as a matter of expedience, but Parliament affirmed its power to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever" by passing the Declaratory Act. A series of new taxes and regulations ensued—likewise opposed by the colonists; the episode played a major role in defining the 27 colonial grievances that were stated within the text of the Indictment of George III section of the United States Declaration of Independence, enabling the organized colonial resistance that led to the American Revolution in 1775. The British victory in the Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War, had been won only at a great financial cost.
During the war, the British national debt nearly doubled, rising from £72,289,673 in 1755 to £129,586,789 by 1764. Post-war expenses were expected to remain high because the Bute ministry decided in early 1763 to keep ten thousand British regular soldiers in the American colonies, which would cost about £225,000 per year, equal to £32 million today; the primary reason for retaining such a large force was that demobilizing the army would put 1,500 officers out of work, many of whom were well-connected in Parliament. This made it politically prudent to retain a large peacetime establishment, but Britons were averse to maintaining a standing army at home so it was necessary to garrison most of the troops elsewhere. Stationing 10,000 troops to separate American Indians and frontiersmen was one role; the outbreak of Pontiac's Rebellion in May 1763 reinforced the logic of this decision, as it was an American Indian uprising against the British expansion. The main reason to send 10,000 troops deep into the wilderness was to provide billets for the officers who were part of the British patronage system.
John Adams said, "Revenue is still demanded from America, appropriated to the maintenance of swarms of officers and pensioners in idleness and luxury." George Grenville became prime minister in April 1763 after the failure of the short-lived Bute Ministry, he had to find a way to pay for this large peacetime army. Raising taxes in Britain was out of the question, since there had been virulent protests in England against the Bute ministry's 1763 cider tax, with Bute being hanged in effigy; the Grenville ministry therefore decided that Parliament would raise this revenue by taxing the American colonists without their consent. This was something new. Politicians in London had always expected American colonists to contribute to the cost of their own defense. So long as a French threat existed, there was little trouble convincing colonial legislatures to provide assistance; such help was provided through the raising of colonial militias, which were funded by taxes raised by colonial legislatures. The legislatures were sometimes willing to help maintain regular British units defending the colonies.
So long as this sort of help was forthcoming, there was little reason for the British Parliament to impose its own taxes on the colonists. But after the peace of 1763, colonial militias were stood down. Militia of
Long Wharf (Boston)
Long Wharf is a historic pier in Boston, Massachusetts which once extended from State Street nearly a half-mile into Boston Harbor. Today, the much-shortened wharf functions as a dock for passenger ferries and sightseeing boats. Construction of the wharf began around 1710; as built the wharf extended from the shoreline adjacent to Faneuil Hall and was one-third of a mile long, thrusting farther than other wharves into deep water and thus allowing larger ships to tie up and unload directly to new warehouses and stores. "Constructed by Captain Oliver Noyes, it was lined with warehouses and served as the focus of Boston's great harbor." Over time the water areas surrounding the landward end of the wharf were reclaimed, including the areas now occupied by Quincy Market and the Customs House."At the wharf's head in the 18th century was the Bunch-of-Grapes Tavern. The painter John Singleton Copley spent his childhood on the wharf, where his mother had a tobacco shop." The 1760s Gardiner Building, once home to John Hancock's counting house and now a Chart House restaurant, is the wharf's oldest surviving structure.
Among several similar structures, a grand granite warehouse known as the Custom House Block was built in 1848 atop the wharf. The mid-19th century was the height of Boston's importance as a shipping center, lasting until the American Civil War. Long Wharf was the central focus of much of this economic activity. In the late 1860s, as the city's port began to decline in importance as an international shipping destination, Atlantic Avenue was cut through this and other wharves, changing the face of the waterfront; the construction of the elevated Central Artery along Atlantic Avenue in the 1950s separated Long Wharf from Boston's business district. The wharf and the 19th-century Custom House Block were recognized as a National Historic Landmark in recognition for the role they played in the history of Boston and its importance as a major 19th-century shipping center; the Big Dig put the Central Artery below ground level, which restored the original close relationship between Long Wharf and downtown.
Since ca.1990, Long Wharf has been transformed from a failing commercial waterfront area into a recreational and cultural center. Today, Long Wharf is adjacent to the New England Aquarium, is served by the Aquarium station on MBTA's Blue Line subway. MBTA boat services link the wharf to the Boston Navy Yard in Charlestown, Logan International Airport and Quincy. Other passenger ferry services operate to the islands of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, to the cities of Salem and Provincetown. Cruise boats operate various cruises around the harbour; the wharf itself is occupied by several restaurants and shops. At the seaward end, there is a large plaza with extensive views of the harbor. Now much shortened by land reclamation at its landward end, today it serves as the principal terminus for cruise boats and harbor ferries operating on Boston Harbor; the following marine services operate from the Long Wharf: MBTA Boat Ferries to the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area Ferry to Salem, Massachusetts Ferry to Provincetown, Massachusetts Water taxi New England Aquarium harbor tours – Aquarium itself is on Central Wharf to the immediate south Various harbor cruises Docks for private vessels Custom House District, area near Long Wharf Boston Custom House, built 1849 on State Street State Street Block, built 1857 on State Street National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Boston, Massachusetts List of National Historic Landmarks in Boston Google news archive.
Articles about Long Wharf. Harvard Business School. Proprietors of the Boston Pier, or Long Wharf records, 1762-1903