Slam is an American basketball magazine in circulation since 1994. Slam was launched in 1994 as a basketball magazine that combined the sport with hip hop culture at a time when the genre was becoming popular, it was founded by publisher Dennis Page at Harris Publications, he hired Cory Johnson to be the first Editor in Chief. Its first issue had a cover story on Larry Johnson of the Charlotte Hornets and a feature on University of California freshman Jason Kidd. Many of the magazine's lasting features, such as In Your Face, Slam-a-da-month, Last Shot all began with that first issue. Slam's ownership has changed several times. Peterson Publishing bought Slam in 1998; the next year, Peterson was acquired by British publisher EMAP. In 2001, EMAP sold its US division to Primedia; when Primedia left the magazine business in 2007, Source Interlink acquired a majority of the company, including Slam. In August 2017. Slam was acquired by an investment group led by David Schnur; the new holding company is Slam Media Inc. based in New York City.
The magazine carries advertising for basketball related products, street-wear clothing and hip hop music, has been credited with helping to market hip hop culture and basketball as one. Slam has published over 200 issues in its history, has featured the biggest names in basketball on its cover, in articles, on its famous SLAMups posters. To date, only two female athletes has appeared on the Slam cover – Chamique Holdsclaw in October 1998 and Maya Moore in the September/October 2018 issue. Kobe Bryant and LeBron James have appeared on a record seventeen covers. "A Basketball On Fire" was the 1st Slam magazine cover without a player in February 2012. The magazine is now available to international NBA fans, with special editions printed in some territories, the addition of Slam to digital stores, such as iTunes. "Trash Talk": readers give their love to Slam or share some beef they had with the last magazine, selected letters are put in this section. "SLAMADAMONTH": a short article describing a slam dunk accompanied by a photograph of the play.
This feature features a dunk performed by an NBA player, but has featured college players in the past. The first SLAMADAMONTH featured Chris Webber dunking on Charles Barkley. "NOYZ": a series of one-line jokes commenting on recent basketball events, written anonymously. The first NOYZ column appeared in the March 1995 issue. "In Your Face": "Last Shot": a former back-page column documenting a game-winning shot during a game. This feature was discontinued after the January 2000 issue. "SLAM Magazine's top 75 NBA players of all time"—released in 2003. "SLAM Magazine Old School"—Released in 2005. "What's My Name?": SLAM fans make nicknames for NBA players and if they win they get a prize from the slam vault. "The SLAM high school diary": In 1994, SLAM began a tradition of choosing a talented high school basketball player to keep a monthly diary recording their accomplishments as they moved toward playing college or professional basketball. Only LeBron James and Sebastian Telfair were not in their final year of high school when they wrote the diary.
The following players have been keepers of the SLAM diary: 1995 – Stephon Marbury and 1996 – Ronnie Fields 1997 – Edmund Saunders 1998 – Ray Young 1999 – Mike Dunleavy, Jr. 2000 – Andre Barrett 2001 – Eddy Curry 2002 – LeBron James 2003 – Sebastian Telfair 2004 – Marvin Williams 2005 – Eric Devendorf 2006 – Thaddeus Young 2007 – Kevin Love 2008 – Tyreke Evans 2009 – Xavier Henry 2010 – Harrison Barnes 2011 – Quincy Miller 2012 – Shabazz Muhammad 2013 – Andrew and Aaron Harrison 2014 – Tyus Jones 2015 – Malik Newman 2016 – Jayson Tatum 2017 – Mohamed Bamba 2018 – Zion Williamson Trash Talk: Readers' letters to the editor are posted here, with occasional comments by the editor. Rookie Diary – The Rookie Diary is held by a new NBA rookie yearly, as they speak about their first experiences in the league: 2002–03 – Drew Gooden 2003–04 – Carmelo Anthony 2004–05 – Andre Iguodala 2005–06 – Ike Diogu 2006–07 – Kyle Lowry 2007–08 – Joakim Noah 2008–09 – Eric Gordon 2009–10 – Jonny Flynn 2010–11 – DeMarcus Cousins 2011–12 – Derrick Williams 2012–13 – Bradley Beal 2013–14 – Victor Oladipo 2014–15 – Aaron Gordon 2015–16 – D'Angelo Russell Issue #1: Cover—Larry Johnson Issue #2: Cover—Shawn Kemp Issue# 3: Cover—Shaquille O'Neal Issue #4: Cover—John Starks Issue #5: Cover—Tim Hardaway & Latrell Sprewell Issue #6: Cover—Michael Jordan Issue #7: Cover—Grant Hill or Hakeem Olajuwon Issue #8: Cover—Penny Hardaway & Michael Jordan Issue #9: Cover—Allen Iverson or Charles O’Bannon Issue #10: Cover—Scottie Pippen Issue #11: Cover—Jerry Stackhouse or Damon Stou
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Lawrence Joseph Ellison is an American businessman and philanthropist, a co-founder and the executive chairman and chief technology officer of Oracle Corporation. As of March 2019, he was listed by Forbes magazine as the fourth-wealthiest person in the United States and as the seventh-wealthiest in the world, with a fortune of $63.5 billion, up from $54.5 billion in 2018. Ellison was born in New York City and grew up in Chicago, he studied at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and the University of Chicago without graduating before moving to California in 1966. While working at Ampex in the early 1970s, he became influenced by Edgar F. Codd's research on relational database design, which led in 1977 to the formation of what became Oracle. Oracle became a successful database vendor to mid- and low-range systems, competing with Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, which led to Ellison being listed by Forbes as one of the richest men in the world. In addition to his work at Oracle, Ellison competes in yachting through Oracle Team USA, is a licensed aircraft pilot who owns two military jets.
Ellison is a non-executive director of Tesla, Inc. Larry Ellison was born in New York City, to an unwed Jewish mother, his biological father was an Italian American United States Army Air Corps pilot. After Ellison contracted pneumonia at the age of nine months, his mother gave him to her aunt and uncle for adoption, he did not meet his biological mother again until he was 48. Ellison moved to Chicago's South Shore a middle-class neighborhood, he remembers his adoptive mother as warm and loving, in contrast to his austere and distant adoptive father, who adopted the name Ellison to honor his point of entry into the United States, Ellis Island. Louis Ellison was a government employee who had made a small fortune in Chicago real estate, only to lose it during the Great Depression. Although Ellison was raised in a Reform Jewish home by his adoptive parents, who attended synagogue he remained a religious skeptic. Ellison states: "While I think I am religious in one sense, the particular dogmas of Judaism are not dogmas I subscribe to.
I don't believe that they are real. They're interesting stories. They're interesting mythology, I respect people who believe these are true, but I don't. I see no evidence for this stuff." At age thirteen, Ellison refused to have a bar mitzvah celebration. Ellison says that his love affair with Israel is not connected to religious sentiments, but rather due to the innovative spirit of Israelis in the technology sector. Ellison left the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign after his second year, not taking his final exams, because his adoptive mother had just died. After spending a summer in Northern California, he attended the University of Chicago for one term, where he first encountered computer design. In 1966, aged 22, he moved to Northern California. During the 1970s, after a brief stint at Amdahl Corporation, Ellison began working for Ampex Corporation, his projects included a database for the CIA, which he named "Oracle". Ellison was inspired by a paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database systems called "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks".
In 1977, he founded Software Development Laboratories with two partners and an investment of $2,000. In 1979, the company renamed itself Relational Software Inc. and in 1982 became Oracle Systems Corporation after its flagship product, the Oracle Database. Ellison had heard about the IBM System R database based on Codd's theories, wanted Oracle to achieve compatibility with it, but IBM made this impossible by refusing to share System R's code; the initial release of Oracle in 1979 was called Oracle 2. In 1990, Oracle laid off 10% of its workforce because it was losing money; this crisis, which resulted in the company's bankruptcy, came about because of Oracle's "up-front" marketing strategy, in which sales people urged potential customers to buy the largest possible amount of software all at once. The sales people booked the value of future license sales in the current quarter, thereby increasing their bonuses; this became a problem when the future sales subsequently failed to materialize. Oracle had to restate its earnings twice, had to settle class-action lawsuits arising from its having overstated its earnings.
Ellison would say that Oracle had made "an incredible business mistake". Although IBM dominated the mainframe relational database market with its DB2 and SQL/DS database products, it delayed entering the market for a relational database on Unix and Windows operating systems; this left the door open for Sybase, Oracle and Microsoft to dominate mid-range systems and microcomputers. Around this time, Oracle fell behind Sybase. From 1990 to 1993, Sybase was the fastest-growing database company and the database industry's darling vendor, but soon it fell victim to merger mania. Sybase's 1996 merger with Powersoft resulted in a loss of focus on its core database technology. In 1993, Sybase sold the rights to its database software running under the Windows operating system to Microsoft Corporation, which now markets it under the name "SQL Server". In his early years at Oracle, Larry Ellison was named an Award Recipient in the High Technology Category for the EY Entrepreneur of the Year Program. In 1994, Informix overtook Sybase and became Oracle's most important rival.
The intense war between Informix CEO Phil White and Ellison was front-page Silicon Valley news for three years. In April 1997, Informix announced a major revenue shortfall and earnings restatements. Phil White landed in jail, IBM absorbed Informix in 2
William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it
John T. Chambers
John Thomas Chambers is the former executive chairman and CEO of Cisco Systems. Chambers was born on August 1949 in Cleveland, Ohio to John Tuner "Jack" and June Chambers, his mother was a psychiatrist and his father was an obstetrician. The family resided in West Virginia; when Chambers was nine years old, he was diagnosed with dyslexia. Aided by a therapist, Chambers learned to cope with his disability, he holds a bachelor of science / bachelor of arts degree in business and a J. D. degree from West Virginia University and a master of business administration degree in finance and management from Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. He attended the School of Engineering at Duke University from 1967 to 1968, where he was a brother of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. After obtaining his MBA, Chambers began his career in technology sales at IBM 1976–1983 when he was 27 years old. At 34 years old, in 1983, Chambers joined Wang Laboratories, latterly becoming Vice President of US Operations in 1987.
During Chambers's time at the company, Wang's profits had declined from $2 billion 1989 to a $700 million loss in 1990. Chambers left Wang in 1991 aged 42. Cisco had gone public on February 16, 1990. Chambers joined a startup Cisco founded in 1983 as senior vice president, worldwide sales and operations. 1990–1994, senior vice president of worldwide operations,1994–1995, executive vice president. Since January 1995, when he was 46 years old he assumed the role of CEO, the company grew from $70 million in annual revenues to a run-rate of $40 billion in 2007. In November 2006, he was named chairman in addition to his CEO role. In October 2016, he was reported to own over 1.7 million Cisco shares worth US$54 million. On July 27, 2015, Chuck Robbins replaced Chambers as CEO of Cisco Systems. Chambers served on the board of directors of myCFO. Chambers and his wife Elaine have two children and John. Chambers has made political donations totaling over $180,000 to the Democratic Party and over $1,000,000 to the Republican Party.
He served as a co-chair in Republican John McCain's 2008 presidential bid. Since 2010, Chambers has served as a commissioner for the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, which leverages broadband technologies as a key enabler for social and economic development. On November 9, 2018 the College of Business and Economics at West Virginia University was renamed the John Chambers College of Business and Economics. Chambers has received various honors for corporate philanthropy. Padma Bhushan, the third highest Indian civilian award honoured by the Government of India in 2019CNN's Top 25 Most Powerful People Time Magazine's "100 Most Influential People" Clinton Global Citizen Award U. S. State Department Top Corporate Social Responsibility Award Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship 2009 Silicon Valley Education Foundation Pioneer Business Leader Award 2012 Franklin Institute's Bower Award for Business Leadership 2015 Harvard Business Review: The 100 Best-Performing CEOs in the World 2014 – Total compensation of $16,488,184, which included a base salary of $1,100,000, a cash bonus of $2,500,000, stocks granted of $12,876,709, other compensation worth $11,475.
2013 – Total compensation of $21,049,501, which included a base salary of $1,100,000, a cash bonus of $4,700,080, stocks granted of $15,237,652, other compensation worth $11,769. 2012 – Total compensation of $11,687,666, which included a base salary of $375,000, a cash bonus of $3,953,376, stocks granted of $7,348,265, other compensation worth $11,025. 2011 – Total compensation of $12,890,829 which included a base salary of $375,000, no cash bonus, stocks granted of $12,500,100, other compensation worth $11,025. 2009 – Total compensation of $12,788,498, which included a base salary of $375,000, a cash bonus of $2,031,000, stocks granted of $10,372,500, other compensation worth $9,998. 2008 – Total compensation of $18,767,149, which included a base salary of $375,000, a cash bonus of $3,002,802, stocks granted of $6,442,000, options granted of $8,938,260. 2007 – Total compensation of $12,801,773, which included a base salary of $350,096, a cash bonus of $3,500,000 and options granted of $8,944,000.
Chambers is mentioned in books about his leadership style. John Chambers and The Cisco Way ISBN 978-0-471-00833-0 The Eye of the Storm: How John Chambers Steered Cisco Through the Technology Collapse ISBN 978-0-06-018887-0He is the author of one book. Connecting the Dots: Lessons for Leadership in a Startup World ISBN 978-0-31-648654-5 Appearances on C-SPAN
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe