Dolcoath mine (Cornish: Bal Dorkoth} was a copper and tin mine in Camborne, England, United Kingdom. Its name derives from the Cornish for'Old Ground', it was affectionately known as The Queen of Cornish Mines; the site is north-west of Carn Brea. Dolcoath Road runs between Chapel Hill; the site is south of this road. The mineral rights were owned by the Basset family of Tehidy who are recorded on a deed in 1588 as leasing the ground to a family called Crane. By 1720 the mine was being worked for copper, it was 300 feet deep in 1746, when William Borlase called it a "very considerable mine". In 1778 it was nearly 600 feet deep, according to William Price; the mine closed in 1787 because the large amount of copper ore, being cheaply mined from Parys Mountain on Anglesey had depressed the price. However the price of copper recovered and the mine reopened in 1799. Of around 470 copper-producing mines in Cornwall and Devon, Dolcoath became the fifth largest, but as depth increased the copper died out, by 1832 the mine was in danger of closing.
However the mine captain, Charles Thomas, was convinced that tin ore would be found deeper down and after disagreements with the shareholders his faith was repaid and the first tin dividend was paid in 1853. By 1882 the mine had reached a depth of 2,160 feet and had 12 miles of tunnels passable by men and a further 40 miles of old workings which had become unused and impassable. In 1893 there was a major accident at the 412-fathom level. In 1895 it took men employed in the lower levels between 2–3 hours to go down and return to the surface, so they could not work more than 4–5 hours a day. Dolcoath became the largest and deepest mine in Cornwall, with its principal shaft, known as New Sump Shaft reaching a depth of 3,300 feet below the surface; the pumping engine that worked this shaft dated from 1815. This engine had a 76-inch-diameter cylinder, but this had to be replaced with an 85-inch cylinder when it was not powerful enough to cope with the deepening shaft; the rebuilt engine was so large that there was not enough room in the engine house for the stairs, so a unique wooden extension was built on the back to house them.
In 1895 it was decided to reconstruct the company as a limited company, replacing the old cost book system under which most Cornish mines had traditionally been run. A new shaft, named the Williams Shaft after the first chairman of the new company, was started in October 1895, intended to be the first 3,000-foot vertical shaft in Cornwall, it came into use the next year. In 1920 when the mine had become worked out and following the tin price collapse Dolcoath closed; the company was reconstructed in 1923 when fresh capital was raised and a new 2,000-foot circular shaft was sited north of the old mine at Roskear. The New Dolcoath Mine was an amalgamation of several smaller mines including Stray Park and Roskear. In 1936 Dolcoath's sett was purchased by South Crofty. On 20 September 1893 a party of miners was strengthening a large stull at the 412 level; the stull consisted of about 22 pieces of 18-inch-square by 33-foot-long timbers of Pitch Pine set about 2 ft apart. It was holding up some 600 feet in height of waste rock.
The day before, the mine captain, Josiah Thomas, Captain James Johns, the chief underground agent, had visited the level and expressed concern at the safety of the stull because one of the pieces was bending. Men were instructed to strengthen it. Repair work proceeded through the morning until at 1 pm after a small fall of rock, the whole stull gave way, killing seven of the men working underneath. One man, Richard Davies, was rescued unhurt after 37 hours. In around 1898 the mine captain, Arthur Thomas, reported that Davies went to America some time after, worked in South Africa. At the subsequent inquest, Captain Josiah Thomas said that the working party must have removed some of the old props before putting in the new ones, but this was contradicted by one of the survivors who reported that the men were doing nothing at the time to cause the fall. Before its first closure in 1788, Dolcoath was estimated to have produced tin and copper valued at least £1,250,000. Of this, £450,000 was due to copper production between 1740 and 1777.
From 1799 to its final closure in 1920 its total production of minerals was valued at over £9 million - this included arsenic and other minerals. From 1853, when the first dividend on tin was paid, the mine produced over 100,000 tons of black tin; this was far in excess of the production of any other mine in Cornwall. In 1896 the mine was yielding 80 pounds of black tin per ton of rock lifted, but this declined to 30 pounds by 1915 which level was maintained until the mine closed; because of its success, the mine paid frequent dividends to its shareholders, its shares, which were nicknamed'Dollies', were among the most sought-after of the industry. Workers suffered "Dolcoath" or "miner's anemia". Boycott and Haldane established in 1903 that this was not due to poor ventilation or bad air, but that the mine provided the right conditions for the condition Ankylostomiasis, they found 94% of the workforce was infected, along with telltale low haemoglobin levels, skin eruptions called "bunches". Workers on long underground shifts defecated in the mine shafts in humid conditions, expelling hookworm that entered the skin of other miners through th
Cambourne is a new settlement and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England, in the district of South Cambridgeshire. It lies on the A428 road between Cambridge, 9 miles to the east, St Neots and Bedford to the west, it comprises the three villages of Lower Cambourne and Upper Cambourne. The area is close to Bourn Airfield. Cambourne has been used by government departments and in school geography lessons, as it provides a useful case study of designing and building a settlement from scratch. Cambourne is the largest settlement in South Cambridgeshire, with a population of 8,186 in the 2011 UK census. Continued housebuilding and a high birthrate contribute to continued population increase, estimated at 10,076 in 2017; as part of plans to build thousands of new homes in the south-east of England, a new settlement on 400 hectares of former agricultural land, nine miles west of Cambridge, was considered in the late 1980s. In 1994, the S106 agreement from the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 was completed by the developers, the local authority, Cambridgeshire County Council and the developers together with the landholders.
The new settlement was to be constructed by three of Britain's leading housebuilders, Bovis Homes, Bryant Homes and Taylor Wimpey. Planning permission for the development at Monkfield Park was given in November 1996, construction began in June 1998, on what was farmland. In 2008, work began on building Upper Cambourne, with an original estimated completion date of 2012; the existing planning permission allowed 3,300 homes in the development. On 3 October 2011, planning permission was granted for a further 950 homes; this was set to take building work up to 2016, complete Upper Cambourne. In January 2017 outline planning consent was granted for a further 2,350 homes to the west of Lower Cambourne. Cambourne was going to be named Monkfield after the name of the original farm, commemorated by a Monkfield Lane in Great Cambourne and the village pub, The Monkfield Arms. However, the name of the community was created from the names of Cambridge, the nearest city, Bourn, a nearby village; the South Cambridgeshire Order 2004 created the new civil parish of Cambourne from 1 April 2004 and changed the boundaries of the Bourn parish.
Some facilities were built in Cambourne as part of the initial development. These included a Morrisons supermarket and petrol station, a medical practice, a dentist, a veterinary practice, allotments, a pub, The Monkfield Arms, owned by Pathfinder Pubs and a hotel, The Cambridge Belfry, run by QHotels; the High Street in Cambourne has been developed further with a fish and chip shop, Domino's pizza shop, several estate agents, a Ladbrokes bookmaker, a Cambridge Building Society branch, a dry cleaner, a coffee shop, a Chinese takeaway, an Indian restaurant and a Lloyds Pharmacy. An initial summary of future plans for the High Street development was presented by Newcrest Developments at a Parish Council planning meeting on 24 January 2012; this suggested that a three-stage process could begin at the end of 2014, with a couple of larger retail units being built beside the Morrisons roundabout. Stage 2 could see a row of smaller shops and a larger convenience store located on land opposite The Monkfield Arms.
The final stage could see a couple of medium-sized stores positioned on the barren land beside the medical practice. In April 2014, a planning application was submitted for a new 60-bedroom hotel and small shop unit on open land at the entrance to Great Cambourne. In 2008, the local Police force Cambridgeshire Constabulary announced the building of a new police station in the village, complementing the two other rural stations in Histon and Sawston, two outposts at Melbourn and Linton, in South Cambridgeshire, it was planned to be ready by December 2009 but, due to various delays, it opened in July 2010. Cambourne Police Station opened in September 2010. In May 2011, Cambourne Fire Station was completed on Back Lane, adjacent to the police station. There will however be no serving firefighters or fire engine until the Papworth Everard fire station is deemed no longer necessary. In June 2011, Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service district staff for Cambridge City and South Cambridgeshire moved into Cambourne Fire Station while the Parkside Fire Station in Cambridge is being redeveloped.
In March 2012, Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service relocated their High Volume Pump and Hose Layer Unit from Huntingdon to the Cambourne Fire Station. Retained firefighters from the nearby Papworth and Gamlingay stations are trained to use these vehicles as part of the UK's New Dimension programme. Cambourne Business Park is located to the north east of Great Cambourne and is the home of South Cambridgeshire District Council, which relocated there in 2004. Environmental facilities include an educational eco park, home to a variety of plant and mammal life, a Country Park covering 80 acres opened in 2001, situated between Lower Cambourne and Great Cambourne. Various sports clubs are located in the villages, including football, tennis and cricket clubs with their own pitches. Cambourne Cricket Club was formed in 2003 by Jason Clatworthy and Paul Cooke, but did not begin playing competitive cricket until 2006 due to delays to the delivery and maturity of playing facilities; the club has enjoyed a sustained period of growth since its inception, culminating in the award of ECB Clubmark status in 2008, which demonstrates proven higher levels of organisation, management and safety.
The club has three adult teams playing in the Saturday CCA leagues and three Colts teams playing in the CY
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Richard Trevithick was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England. The son of a mining captain, born in the mining heartland of Cornwall, Trevithick was immersed in mining and engineering from an early age, he performed poorly in school, but went on to be an early pioneer of steam-powered road and rail transport. His most significant contribution was the development of the first high-pressure steam engine, he built the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive. The world's first locomotive-hauled railway journey took place on 21 February 1804, when Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren Ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. Turning his interests abroad, Trevithick worked as a mining consultant in Peru and explored parts of Costa Rica. Throughout his professional career, he went through many ups and downs, at one point faced financial ruin suffering from the strong rivalry of many mining and steam engineers of the day.
During the prime of his career, he was a well-respected and known figure in mining and engineering, but near the end of his life he fell out of the public eye. Richard Trevithick was born at Tregajorran, between Camborne and Redruth, in the heart of one of the rich mineral-mining areas of Cornwall, he was the only boy in a family of six children. He was tall for the era at 6 ft 2in, as well as athletic and concentrated more on sport than schoolwork. Sent to the village school at Camborne, he did not take much advantage of the education provided. An exception was arithmetic, for which he had an aptitude, though arriving at the correct answers by unconventional means. Trevithick was the son of mine "captain" Richard Trevithick and of miner's daughter Ann Teague; as a child he would watch steam engines pump water from the deep copper mines in Cornwall. For a time he was a neighbour of William Murdoch, the steam carriage pioneer, would have been influenced by his experiments with steam-powered road locomotion.
Trevithick first went to work at the age of 19 at the East Stray Park Mine. He was enthusiastic and gained the status of a consultant, unusual for such a young person, he was popular with the miners. In 1797, Trevithick married Jane Harvey of Hayle, they raised six children: Richard Trevithick Anne Ellis Elizabeth Banfield John Harvey Trevithick Francis Trevithick Frederick Henry Trevithick Jane's father, John Harvey a blacksmith from Carnhell Green, formed the local foundry, Harveys of Hayle. His company became famous worldwide for building huge stationary "beam" engines for pumping water from mines. Up to this time such steam engines were of the condensing or atmospheric type invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, which became known as low-pressure engines. James Watt, on behalf of his partnership with Matthew Boulton, held a number of patents for improving the efficiency of Newcomen's engine—including the "separate condenser patent", which proved the most contentious. Trevithick became engineer at the Ding Dong Mine in 1797, there he pioneered the use of high-pressure steam.
He worked on building and modifying steam engines to avoid the royalties due to Watt on the separate condenser patent. Boulton & Watt served an injunction on him at Ding Dong, posted it "on the minestuffs" and "most on the door" of the Count House which, although now a ruin, is the only surviving building from Trevithick's time there, he experimented with the plunger-pole pump, a type of pump—with a beam engine—used in Cornwall's tin mines, in which he reversed the plunger to change it into a water-power engine. As his experience grew, he realised that improvements in boiler technology now permitted the safe production of high-pressure steam, which could move a piston in a steam engine on its own account, instead of using pressure near to atmospheric, in a condensing engine, he was not the first to think of steam of about 30 psi. William Murdoch had developed and demonstrated a model steam carriage in 1784, demonstrated it to Trevithick at his request in 1794. In fact, Trevithick lived next door to Murdoch in Redruth in 1797 and 1798.
Oliver Evans in the U. S. had concerned himself with the concept, but there is no indication that his ideas had come to Trevithick's attention. Independently of this, Arthur Woolf was experimenting with higher pressures whilst working as the Chief Engineer of the Griffin Brewery; this was an Engine designed by Hornblower and Maberly, the proprietors were keen to have the best steam engine in London. Around 1796, Woolf believed. According to his son Francis, Trevithick was the first to make high-pressure steam work in England in 1799, although other sources say he had invented his first high-pressure engine by 1797. Not only would a high-pressure steam engine eliminate the condenser, but it would allow the use of a smaller cylinder, saving space and weight, he reasoned that his engine could now be more compact and small enough to carry its own weight with a carriage attached. Trevithick began building his first models of high-pressure steam engines - first a stationary one and subsequently one attached to a road car
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
London Steam Carriage
The London Steam Carriage was an early steam-powered road vehicle constructed by Richard Trevithick in 1803 and the world's first self-propelled passenger-carrying vehicle. Cugnot had built a steam vehicle thirty years but, a slow-moving artillery tractor, not built to carry passengers. In 1801, after James Watt's earlier patent on "a carriage propelled by a steam engine" had expired, Richard Trevithick constructed an experimental steam-driven vehicle at Camborne, Cornwall, it was equipped with a firebox enclosed within the boiler, with one vertical cylinder, the motion of the single piston being transmitted directly to the driving wheels by means of connecting rods. It was reported as weighing 1,520 kg loaded, with a speed of 14.5 km/h on the flat. Trevithick ran this for several hundred yards up a hill with several people hanging on to it. While the driver and passengers were in a pub celebrating the event, it set fire to a shed in which it had been left unattended, was destroyed; the following year and his partner, his cousin Andrew Vivian, patented a steam coach, the patent describing other uses for Trevithick's new high-pressure engines.
The vehicle was assembled at Felton's carriage works at Leather Lane, the engine components having been brought from Falmouth where they were made. Not all the details of the carriage are known but the drawings which accompanied the original patent have survived, as have contemporary drawings made by a naval engineer, sent to examine it. Further information has been obtained from eyewitness accounts; the carriage had 8-foot-diameter driving wheels which were intended to smooth out the road surfaces of the time, to help the fire from being extinguished by shaking. A forked piston rod reduced the distance between the single cylinder and the crankshaft and was considered a singular innovation at the time. Spring-operated valve gear was used to minimise the weight of the flywheel, overcoming one of the drawbacks of industrial steam engines; the engine had a single horizontal cylinder which, along with the boiler and firebox, was placed behind the rear axle. The motion of the piston was transmitted to a separate crankshaft via the forked piston rod.
The crankshaft drove the axle of the driving wheel via a spur gear. The steam cocks, the force pump and the firebox bellows were driven by the crankshaft; the patent shows two features which may have been incorporated by Trevithick to discourage unlicensed copies: if the engine had been assembled as per the patent drawings it would have been able to run only backwards. It is reported that the coach builder William Felton charged £207 for building the coach and that the cost of transporting the engine from Falmouth to London was £20 14s 11d; the cost of the engine is unknown. Following its completion, the London Steam Carriage was driven about 10 miles through the streets of London to Paddington and back via Islington, with seven or eight passengers, at a speed of 4–9 miles per hour, the streets having been closed to other traffic. On a subsequent evening and his colleague crashed the carriage into some house railings and, as a result of this, plus lack of interest in the carriage by potential purchasers, its demonstrations having exhausted the inventors' financial resources, it was scrapped, the engine being used in a mill which made hoops for barrels.
History of steam road vehicles Fletcher, William. The History and Development of Steam Locomotion on Common Roads. E. & F. N. Spon. p. 94. Working replica of the London Steam Carriage
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a