Collingwood Football Club
The Collingwood Football Club, nicknamed the Magpies or colloquially the Pies, is a professional Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League. Formed in 1892 in the then-working class Melbourne suburb of Collingwood, the club played in the Victorian Football Association before joining seven other teams in 1896 to found the breakaway Victorian Football League. Based at Victoria Park, Collingwood now plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground with its training and administrative headquarters located at Olympic Park Oval and the Holden Centre. Collingwood has played in a record 44 VFL/AFL Grand Finals, winning 15, drawing two and losing 27. Collingwood won a record-breaking four premierships in a row between 1927 and 1930. Collingwood is regarded as one of Australia's most popular sports clubs, attracting the highest attendance figures and television ratings of any professional team in the nation. In 2013, it became the first AFL club to reach 80,000 members.
Collingwood's iconic home guernsey consists of black and white stripes, matching the colours of an Australian magpie. Throughout its history, the club has developed rivalries with cross-town Melbourne based clubs Carlton and Essendon. More the club developed a rivalry with the Brisbane Lions, based in Queensland. Collingwood fields a reserves team in the Victorian Football League and a women's side in the AFL Women's competition, it owns and operates a netball team in the National Netball League. The Collingwood Football Club was established on 12 February 1892. Collingwood played its first game in the Victorian Football Association against Carlton on 7 May 1892; the club won the VFA Premiership in 1896. In 1897, along with fellow VFA clubs Fitzroy, Melbourne, St Kilda, Essendon, South Melbourne and Geelong split from the VFA and formed the Victorian Football League. Collingwood won its first premiership in 1902. Collingwood was the most successful club of the 1920s and 1930s, appearing in 13 out of a possible 20 Grand Finals during the period.
Collingwood were premiers six times during this time, including four consecutive premierships between 1927 and 1930, a VFL/AFL record, two consecutive premierships in 1935 and 1936. The club's coach during this period was Jock McHale, who served as coach from 1912 to 1949. Collingwood had three Brownlow Medallists during the period, with Syd Coventry winning in 1927, Albert Collier in 1929 and Harry Collier in 1930 In the 1950s, rival club Melbourne enjoyed an era of unprecedented success, winning five premierships in six years. Collingwood lost two Grand Finals to Melbourne in this decade, but bounced back to win premierships in 1953 and 1958. Collingwood's 1958 premiership is much cherished by the club as it prevented Melbourne from equalling Collingwood's record four premierships in a row; the 1958 premiership was however to be Collingwood's last for 32 years, as the club was to suffer a string of Grand Final defeats in coming decades. A string of eight Grand Final losses by narrow margins, between 1960 and 1981 gave rise to a perception that the club was prone to "choking", a phenomenon wittily dubbed "Colliwobbles".
Whether this perception is accurate remains a subject of debate. Lou Richards ceremoniously buried the Colliwobbles at Victoria Park after the club's 1990 premiership; the 1990 premiership team, coached by Leigh Matthews and captained by Tony Shaw, had a one-sided grand final win against Essendon, the Magpies recording a 48-point victory and ending a 32-year premiership drought which included eight grand final losses and one draw. After this, the club lapsed into a state of decline; the club received a second wooden spoon in 1999. Within a few years, with a change of coach, playing list and club president, Collingwood reached and lost consecutive grand finals in 2002 and 2003, both to the Brisbane Lions. Following those Grand Final losses, Collingwood struggled for the next two years, finishing 13th in 2004 and second-last in 2005. Collingwood made a return to the finals in 2006, finishing fifth, but were defeated by the Western Bulldogs by 41 points in its elimination final. A loss to Essendon late in the season was to cost them the double chance.
The 2007 season saw them finish sixth on the ladder at season's conclusion, in the finals they knocked out the grand finalists of the past two years, Sydney, in the elimination final and West Coast in overtime at Subiaco Oval in the semi-final. Having earned a preliminary final against Geelong, Collingwood lost to the eventual premiers, by five points. Nathan Buckley would announce his retirement at season's end after playing just five games in 2007 due to injury. Collingwood finished eighth in 2008 and were assigned an away final against Adelaide at AAMI Stadium. After at one point trailing in the match, Collingwood went on to end Adelaide's season and earn a semi-final meeting against St Kilda. Having defeated the Saints in both their regular season meetings, Collingwood lost convincingly, ending their 2008 season; the 2009 season saw Collingwood finish inside the top-four for the first time since 2003, but in the qualifying final were beaten by minor premiers St Kilda convincingly. Having won a second chance, Collingwood struggled against Adelaide for the second year in a row before John Anthony kicked the match-winning goal with a minute left to send them into ano
Panathinaikos Football Club, known as Panathinaikos, or by its full name, the name of its parent sports club, Panathinaikos A. O. or PAO, is a Greek professional football club based in the capital-city of Athens. The name "Panathinaikos" was inspired by the ancient work of Isocrates, where the orator praises the Athenians for their democratic education and their military superiority, used for the benefit of all Greeks. Today a part of Panathinaikos A. O. they are the oldest active football club in Greece founded only to practice this sport. Created in 1908 as "Podosfairikos Omilos Athinon" by Georgios Kalafatis, they play in the Super League Greece, being one of the most successful clubs in Greek football and one of three clubs which have never been relegated from the top division. Amongst their major titles are 20 Greek Championships, 18 Greek Cups, achieving eight times the Double, 3 Greek Super Cups, they are the only club that won a championship undefeated, going without a loss in a top-flight campaign, a feat that no other club in Greece has been able to achieve.
Panathinaikos is the most successful Greek club in terms of achievements in the European competitions. It is the only Greek team that has reached the European Cup final in 1971, the semi-finals twice, in 1985 and 1996, it is the only Greek team that has played for the Intercontinental Cup. Furthermore, they have reached the quarter-finals of the Champions League on another two occasions, as well as the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup twice, they have won the Balkans Cup in 1977. Panathinaikos is a member of the European Club Association. Since the 1950s, the club maintains some of the oldest and most successful academies in Greece, producing talent for the first team and feeding the Greek national football team. Panathinaikos became professional and independent in 1979, they have played their home games in the Apostolos Nikolaidis Stadium, considered their traditional home ground, the Athens Olympic Stadium. According to the most recent researches and polls, Panathinaikos is the second-most popular football team in Greece, with the percentage difference between Olympiacos and themselves varying between 2% to 9%.
The club has million of fans inside Greece and millions of others in the Greek communities all over the world. They hold a long-term rivalry with Olympiacos, the clash between the two teams being referred to as the "Derby of the eternal enemies."The derby of the eternal enemies is traditionally included among the world's top 10 greatest football derbies, by the international media, compared with rivalries such as Boca Juniors-River Plate, Real Madrid-Barcelona, Rangers-Celtic,Galatasaray-Fenerbahce and Manchester United-Liverpool. According to the official history of the club, Panathinaikos was founded by Giorgos Kalafatis on 3 February 1908, when he and 40 other athletes decided to break away from Panellinios Gymnastikos Syllogos following the club's decision to discontinue its football team; the name of the new club was "Podosferikos Omilos Athinon". It was founded with the aim of spreading and making more known this new sport to the Athenian and Greek public in general; the intention of the founders was to create a team for all of Athens and to be connected with the rest of the European football movement, active.
The first president elected was Alexandros Kalafatis, brother of Giorgos. The ground of the team was in Patission Street. Oxford University athlete John Cyril Campbell was brought in as coach, the first time that a foreigner was appointed as the coach of a Greek team. Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, the great Greek athlete of the early 20th century, played as goalkeeper for the new team. In 1910, after a dispute among a number of board members, Kalafatis with most of the players—also followed by Campbell—decided to pull out of POA and secured a new ground in Amerikis Square. Subsequently, the name of the club changed to Panellinios Podosferikos Omilos and its colours to green and white. By 1914, Campbell had returned to England but the club was at the top of Greek football with players such as Michalis Papazoglou, Michalis Rokkos and Loukas Panourgias. In 1918, the team adopted the trifolium as its emblem. In 1921 and 1922, the Athens-Piraeus FCA organized the first two post-WWI championships, in both of which PPO was declared champion.
By that stage, the club had outgrown both the grounds in Patission Street and Amerikis Square, due to its expansion in other sports, began to look at vacant land in the area of Perivola on Alexandras Avenue as its potential new ground. After long discussions with the Municipality of Athens, an agreement was reached and in 1922 Leoforos was granted to the club; the move to a permanent home ground heralded another—final—name change to Panathinaikos Athlitikos Omilos, "All-Athenian Athletic Club", on 15 March 1924, from now on a multi-sport club. However, the decision was taken by 1922. In 1926, the Hellenic Football Federation was founded and the first Greek Championship under its authority took place in 1927. Panathinaikos won undefeated the Championship of 1929–30 under the guidance of József Künsztler and Angelos Messaris as the team's star player. Other notable players of this Belle Époque period of the team were Antonis Migiakis, Diomidis Symeonidis, Mimis Pierrakos and Stefanos Pierrakos, amo
Heidelberg United FC
Heidelberg United Football Club is an association football club based in the northern Melbourne suburb of Heidelberg, Australia. The team competes in the National Premier League Victoria. Heidelberg are one of six state league teams to have eliminated an A-League team in the FFA Cup, along with Blacktown City FC, Redlands United FC, Green Gully SC, APIA Leichhardt Tigers FC and Adelaide City FC; the Heidelberg United Alexander Football Club was founded in 1958 by Greek immigrants from Florina, Macedonia. They decided to form the Clifton Hill Social Club, it was at that time when families immigrants wives and their unmarried children, began to arrive in Australia in great numbers. In May 1955 the founding members, George Baniscas, Nicholas Themelkos, Nick Romanidis, Tryphon Rakovalis, Tryphon Avramopoulos, Chris Samartzis and Peter Economidis commenced their meetings at the residence of Tryphon Rakovalis in Fairfield, their successful gathering attracted Florinians, as well as from other regions.
In 1957 discussions to establish "Alexander The Great" began. Markos Economidis managed to convince the committee of Clifton Hill Social Club to contribute the funds required to purchase the necessary gear for the team. On 12 May 1958, the Clifton Hill members organised their first appeal. A total of 125 pounds was collected. Wishing to broaden support for the soccer team and in an effort to avoid any political affiliation and, conflict, the leaders of "Alexander The Great" launched a campaign to run a independent sporting club, their move gained momentum immediately. The first committee consisting of George Baniscas, Markos Economidis, NicholasThemelkos, Tryphon Rakovalis, A. Doukas, E. Mangopoulos, G. Milopoulos, V. Iliopoulos and T. Iliopoulos and Members, they declared. During the first two years "Alexander the Great" received the financial support of the Clifton Hill Social Club, as well as of their own membership, the spectators and supporters the players; the records of the club indicate, for example, that on 1 February 1960 the players donated the amount of 5 pounds 3s 0d.
The inaugural game was played on 13 September 1958 attracting four hundred spectators and 2 pounds 2s 10d was collected, an amount which" was increased to 5 pounds 8s 3d within three months following the successful and popular start up of the club. The committee members walked around the fences to collect the entrance'tickets' in a hat, their wives were responsible for having the first-aid box ready. The main expenditure areas included the hiring of the soccer grounds, administrative expenses, players' clothing, fees for the referee 1 pound 10s 0d and drinks for the players. In 1959 the first elections took place which returned the old committee with the addition of A. Nicolaides, L. Pavlides, E. Kreskas, P Boubis, S. Sakellarides, S. Theos; the new committee increased the numbers of social activities in an effort to attract more family members to stabilise the affairs of the club and create a stronger team. The weekly social dances of the club were held at Queens Parade, Clifton Hill; the members paid two shillings and sixpence as an entrance fee, which cleared an average of 40 pounds per week.
Following the successful first two years, "Alexander the Great" applied unsuccessfully for a place in the Victorian Amateur Soccer Football Association. The club's secretary, Markos Economides, in his letters dated 9 February and 17 March 1959 to the President of the VASF H. J. Dockerty, requested "Alexander the Greats" admission to the Victoria Provisional League; the club received a negative reply in a letter signed by VASFA's Secretary-Manager, S. Beaton, claiming that the club had not played a sufficient number of games to prove its strength and financial stability. In September 1959, the committee, amidst renewed recruitment of players and membership, reapplied; this time Alexander the Great was admitted to the Provisional League, together with four other teams. By this time, the Club had managed to build a strong and skilful squad of twenty-one players unbeatable in their category in Victoria; the 1958 and 1959 team included the players A. Boutlis, J. Dafinis, Th. Doukas, D. Filippou, V. Hatzigeorgiou, V. lordanis, K. Korfiatis, A. Politis, N. Romanides, C.
Rakovalis, S. Savvides, A. Soumelides, P Themelkos, C. Zouros and C. Zygomanis. In 1960 Megas Alexandros was further strengthened with Th. Boutlis, L. Foutoulis, the brothers Evan and George Morihovitis, Th. Tangas, E. Taskas, K. Xanthopoulos and C. Zouros. During its inaugural appearance in the provisional league competition, "Alexander the Great" was declared the undisputed champions of the league winning 34 points and scoring 113 goals; the official magazine of the VASFA, Soccer News, in its 24 September 1960 edition under the title'Alexander are Real Champions' paid tribute to the club implicitly signalling remorse for the delayed admission: "of the entrants, Alexander proved themselves champions when they won the League Championship with a total of 34 points. Their attack was the best of any team competing in Victorian soccer this season, with 113 goals scored." With its successful appearance in competitive soccer, the club received an additional boost in the following years, winning all league competitions and climbing to the State League in 1964.
In 1965 Alexander's activities declined due to internal administrative problems and the team was relegated. Next year the club again won the first
New Zealand Knights FC
This page details the history of the club. For information on seasons and results see New Zealand Knights seasons 2005–06 and 2006–07 New Zealand Knights Football Club were the only professional football club in New Zealand before they became defunct. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, they played in the A-League, Australia's premier football competition and have since been replaced by the Wellington Phoenix. Football Kingz FC joined the Australian National Soccer League in 1999 and proceeded to play in the last five seasons of the NSL, failing to qualify for the playoffs in every season; the club was to use the spelling of "Kings", however this was changed to the Kingz after receiving legal threats from the Sydney Kings basketball franchise. The Football Kingz brand was disestablished in 2004 and was restructured into the New Zealand Knights as a new franchise for Australia's new national football competition called the A-League. Market research carried out by the club, to determine the viability of a new identity for the team, indicated that 76% of respondents were in favour of a name change.
When that research was focused on those aged 35 and under, the percentage in favour of a change rose to 90%. Further to that, the name of "Knights" were polled best of all names suggested in the survey, a clear 30% higher than any other option; the former Football Kingz FC General manager Guy Hedderwick was promoted to the role of New Zealand Knights chief executive officer. Alongside him Football Kingz and Waitakere City Chairman, Anthony Lee, became the New Zealand Knights Chairman in the restructuring. Anthony Lee had invested into the New Zealand Knights, with his company's 20% shareholding second only to majority owner Brian Katzen's Octagon Sport with 60%; the other shareholders were Sky Television, Chris Turner, New Zealand Soccer. The only major sponsor the club had was retailer Zero's New Zealand, they agreed to a deal with the Knights over the first three seasons in a six figure deal as a sleeve sponsor. New Zealand Knights was confirmed as one of the eight founding teams in the A-League.
John Adshead, who took the New Zealand national side, the All Whites to their first World Cup finals appearance in 1982 was named their inaugural manager/coach. Former New Zealand international, Danny Hay, who played in the English Premiership with Leeds United was named the inaugural captain of the team. Despite having a squad boasting several players with extensive experience in English football, many pundits did not rate the Knights as serious contenders for the A-League title, they were considered favourites for the wooden spoon; these predictions turned out to be true, with New Zealand Knights proving to be well out of their depth in their debut A-League season. In April 2006, after the poor season, manager John Adshead resigned from the club. Paul Nevin was confirmed as manager a month having worked as caretaker manager since the position was vacated by Adshead. In late October 2006, as a result of low crowd attendance at North Harbour Stadium in Auckland and continual poor on-field performances, rumours began to circulate that Football Federation Australia was considering the possibility of revoking the Knights' A-League licence and granting it to a new team that would be set to enter the competition in the 2007–08 season.
On 15 November and nearing the end of the November transfer window New Zealand Knights board and management decided to relieve Paul Nevin of his coaching duties due to a string of poor performances. On 13 December 2006, strong rumours resurfaced that the FFA was considering the revocation of the Knights' licence to compete in the A-League, it became clear that, with five weeks remaining in the current season, the FFA intended to reclaim the licence from the Knights. The FFA had continued to express angst at low attendance numbers, poor on-field performance and the lack of domestically developed players. Late on 14 December, the FFA announced that it had revoked the competition licence held by the Knights' owners. An arrangement with NZ Soccer would see the national body step in to manage the club for the remaining five weeks of the regular season, with former All Whites player Ricki Herbert to fill the role of head coach; the Knights dissolved on 21 January, when the final match of the season was played against Perth Glory FC.
On 19 March 2007 after several delays, Wellington Phoenix was selected as the successor to the New Zealand Knights. There has been recent speculation on a possible return for the New Zealand Knights, or another Auckland-based team, to re-join the A-League. Encouraging crowds of 20,078 in November 2011 when Wellington Phoenix played Adelaide United and 11,566 in January 2013 when Wellington Phoenix played Perth Glory, both held at Eden Park, have added to the push for the addition of a second New Zealand team in the A-League. North Harbour Stadium is a rectangular stadium situated in Albany on Auckland's North Shore in New Zealand, it was opened in 1997 after nearly a decade of discussion and construction. North Harbour Stadium has four main seating areas with an official capacity of 25,000. 19,000 of this capacity is seated, the other 6,000 are on grass embankments. Main Grandstand — A futuristic looking structure with a distinctive arched roof, it has three main tiers of seating, as well as a row of corporate boxes and several corporate lounges.
A total of 12,000 can be seated under the roof. This is on the southern side of the ground. Open Stand — A single uncovered tier opposite the Main Grandstand that can seat 7,000. Embankments — At eit
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and