University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
Martin A. Bennett
Martin Arthur Bennett FRS is an Australian inorganic chemist. He gained recognition for studies on the co-ordination chemistry of tertiary phosphines and acetylenes, the relationship of their behaviour to homogeneous catalysis. Born in London, Bennett studied at The Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School and received his PhD under the supervision of Geoffrey Wilkinson at Imperial College, he was subsequently a researcher at University College, London with Ronald Nyholm and with Arthur Adamson. While in London, he prepared the rhodium complex, now known as Wilkinson's catalyst. In the 1960s he took a position in the Research School of Chemistry at the Australian National University in Canberra. At ANU, Bennett developed several lines of research broadly on themes in organometallic chemistry; this included extending work on the iridium analogue of Wilkinson's catalyst which he began at University College with Milner. Wilkinson's catalyst can be prepared by reducing rhodium chloride in boiling ethanol in the presence of an excess of triphenylphosphine, but the equivalent preparative conditions lead not to but instead to a mixture of iridium products the hydrogen chloride adduct of the analogue: IrCl33 + 4 PPh3 → + OPPh3 + HCl + 2 H2OBennett prepared the analogue from the 1,5-cyclooctadiene iridium dimer, 2, using an excess of triphenylphosphine in ligroin under reflux.
The product is isomorphous with Wilkinson's catalyst but does not lose a triphenylphosphine ligand through dissociation in organic solvents anywhere near as readily. A phosphine is lost under oxidative conditions with chlorine and with excess chlorine, the iridium complex is obtained. Rearranges on heating via an insertion reaction, an ortho-metalation of one of the phenyl moieties, to produce the six-co-ordinate organometallic iridium hydride – an example of iridium-iridium tautomerism involving the formation of a bidentate phosphine ligand with a carbon donor atom: 2 + 4 PPh3 → 2 + 2 1,5-cod Bennett was the first to prepare complexes of cyclooctyne and cyclohexyne, he developed rare examples of metal-alkene complexes. His group first prepared the now-popular reagent ruthenium dichloride dimer, converted into a monomer by reaction with 1,1'-bisferrocene for use in borrowing hydrogen catalysis
Richard J. Roberts
Sir Richard John Roberts is an English biochemist and molecular biologist. He was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Phillip Allen Sharp for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing, he works at New England Biolabs. Roberts was born in the son of Edna and John Roberts, an auto mechanic; when he was four, Roberts' family moved to Bath. In Bath, he attended City of Bath Boys' School; as a child he at first wanted to be a detective and when given a chemistry set, a chemist. In 1965 he graduated from the University of Sheffield with a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry followed by a PhD in 1969, his thesis involved phytochemical studies of isoflavonoids. During 1969–1972, he did postdoctoral research at Harvard University. Before moving to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he was hired by James Dewey Watson, a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and a fellow Nobel laureate. In 1992, he moved to New England Biolabs; the following year, he shared a Nobel Prize with his former colleague at Cold Spring Harbor Phillip Allen Sharp.
Roberts's discovery of the alternative splicing of genes, in particular, has had a profound impact on the study and applications of molecular biology. The realisation that individual genes could exist as separate, disconnected segments within longer strands of DNA first arose in the study of adenovirus, one of the viruses responsible for causing the common cold. Robert's research in this field resulted in a fundamental shift in our understanding of genetics, has led to the discovery of split genes in higher organisms, including human beings. In 1992, Roberts received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine at Uppsala University, Sweden. After becoming a Nobel Laureate in 1993 he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Bath in 1994. Roberts was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1995 and a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in the same year. In 2005, a multimillion-pound expansion to the chemistry department at the University of Sheffield, where he had been a student, was named after him.
A refurbished science department at Beechen Cliff School was named after Roberts, who had donated a substantial sum of his Nobel prize winnings to the school. Roberts was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto, he was knighted in the 2008 Birthday Honours. Roberts is a member of the Advisory Board of Patient Innovation, a nonprofit, multilingual, free venue for patients and caregivers of any disease to share their innovations. Roberts has been a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders, he is the chairman of The Laureate Science Alliance, a non-profit supporting research worldwide
Ugo Fano was an Italian American physicist, notable for contributions to theoretical physics. Ugo Fano was born into a wealthy Jewish family in Italy, his father was a professor of mathematics. Fano earned his doctorate in mathematics at the University of Turin in 1934, under Enrico Persico, with a thesis entitled Sul Calcolo dei Termini Spettrali e in Particolare dei Potenziali di Ionizzazione Nella Meccanica Quantistica; as part of his PhD examination he made two oral presentations entitled: Sulle Funzioni di Due o Più Variabili Complesse and Le Onde Elettromagnetiche di Maggi: Le Connessioni Asimmetriche Nella Geometria Non Riemanniana. Fano worked with Enrico Fermi in Rome, where he was a senior member of'Via Panisperna boys', it was during this period that with the urging of Fermi, Fano developed his seminal theory of resonant configuration interaction, which led to two papers. The latter is one of the most cited articles published in the Physical Review. Fano spent 1936–37 with Werner Heisenberg in Leipzig.
In 1939, he married Camilla Lattes known as Lilla, a teacher who would collaborate with him in a well-known book on atomic and molecular physics, Physics of Atoms and Molecules. Appendix III of this book presents an elementary description of the collision of two charged particles, used by Richard Feynman in lectures that have been published as Feynman's Lost Lecture: Motion of Planets Around the Sun. An expanded version of this book was subsequently published as Basic Physics of Molecules. In 1939, he immigrated to the United States due to increasing antisemitic measures taking effect in Italy, his initial work in the U. S. was on bacteriophages and pioneering work in the study of radiological physics the differences in the biological effects of X-rays and neutrons. After serving a stint at the Aberdeen Proving Ground during World War II, he joined the staff of the National Bureau of Standards, where he was hired as the first theoretical physicist on the NBS staff, he served there until 1966.
There he trained, until the early 1990s, about thirty graduate students and postdoctoral research associates, many of whom now occupy leading positions in theoretical atomic and molecular physics in the United States and Japan. Fano had a major impact in sustained work over six decades on atomic physics and molecular physics, earlier on radiological physics. Most areas of current research in these subjects reflect his fundamental contributions; such phenomena as the Fano resonance profile, the Fano factor, the Fano effect, the Lu-Fano plot, the Fano–Lichten mechanism bear his name. The Fano theorem used in radiation dosimetry is a result of his work, his brother, Robert Fano, was an eminent professor emeritus of electrical engineering at MIT. Fano's cousin, Giulio Racah, made great contributions to the quantum theory of angular momentum, wrote a concise monograph with Fano on the subject. Fano was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Physical Society and a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London.
In 1989 he was awarded the William F. Meggers Award by the Optical Society He was awarded the Enrico Fermi Award of the U. S. Department of Energy in 1995, his most-cited work is the 1961 paper mentioned above. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to death; these changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, global mRNA decay. The average adult human loses between 70 billion cells each day due to apoptosis. For an average human child between the ages of 8 to 14 year old 20 to 30 billion cells die per day. In contrast to necrosis, a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. For example, the separation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the digits undergo apoptosis. Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them; because apoptosis cannot stop once it has begun, it is a regulated process.
Apoptosis can be initiated through one of two pathways. In the intrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because it senses cell stress, while in the extrinsic pathway the cell kills itself because of signals from other cells. Weak external signals may activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Both pathways induce cell death by activating caspases, which are proteases, or enzymes that degrade proteins; the two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which activate executioner caspases, which kill the cell by degrading proteins indiscriminately. Research on apoptosis has increased since the early 1990s. In addition to its importance as a biological phenomenon, defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Excessive apoptosis causes atrophy, whereas an insufficient amount results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, such as cancer; some factors like Fas receptors and caspases promote apoptosis, while some members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins inhibit apoptosis.
German scientist Karl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. In 1885, anatomist Walther Flemming delivered a more precise description of the process of programmed cell death. However, it was not until 1965. While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at the University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. Following the publication of a paper describing the phenomenon, Kerr was invited to join Alastair R. Currie, as well as Andrew Wyllie, Currie's graduate student, at University of Aberdeen. In 1972, the trio published a seminal article in the British Journal of Cancer. Kerr had used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis. Kerr and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen, with suggesting the term apoptosis. Kerr received the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize on March 14, 2000, for his description of apoptosis.
He shared the prize with Boston biologist H. Robert Horvitz. For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a cited term. Two discoveries brought cell death from obscurity to a major field of research: identification of components of the cell death control and effector mechanisms, linkage of abnormalities in cell death to human disease, in particular cancer; the 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis; the genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "falling off" of leaves from a tree. Cormack, professor of Greek language, reintroduced the term for medical use as it had a medical meaning for the Greeks over two thousand years before. Hippocrates used the term to mean "the falling off of the bones". Galen extended its meaning to "the dropping of the scabs".
Cormack was no doubt aware of this usage. Debate continues over the correct pronunciation, with opinion divided between a pronunciation with the second p silent and the second p pronounced, as in the original Greek. In English, the p of the Greek -pt- consonant cluster is silent at the beginning of a word, but articulated when used in combining forms preceded by a vowel, as in helicopter or the orders of insects: diptera, etc. In the original Kerr, Wyllie & Currie paper, there is a footnote regarding the pronunciation: "We are most grateful to Professor James Cormack of the Department of Greek, University of Aberdeen, for suggesting this term; the word "apoptosis" is used in Greek to describe the "dropping off" or "falling off" of petals from flowers, or leaves from trees. To show the derivation we propose that the stress should be on the penultimate syllable, the second half of the word being pronounced like "ptosis", which comes from the same root "to fall", is used to describe the drooping of the upper eyelid."
The initiation of apoptosis is regulated by activation mechanisms, because once apoptosis has begun, it leads to the death of the cell. The two best-understood activation mechanisms are the extrinsic pathway; the intrinsic pathway is activated by intracellular signals generated when cells are stressed and depends on the release of proteins from th
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat