Gustaf Peder Wilhelm Dyrssen was a Swedish Army officer and Olympic modern pentathlete. Dyrssen was born in Stockholm, the son of admiral Wilhelm Dyrssen and baroness Lizinka af Uggla and brother of Magnus Dyrssen, he was commissioned into the Svea Artillery Regiment as a second lieutenant in 1912 and attended at the Artillery and Engineering College from 1914 to 1915. Dyrssen became a lieutenant in 1915 and attended at the Royal Swedish Army Staff College from 1917 to 1919, he was a cadet in the General Staff from 1920 to 1922, became captain in 1924 and served at the State Railways from 1924 to 1926. Dyrssen was a teacher at the Artillery and Engineering College from 1926 to 1932, captain in the Svea Artillery Regiment from 1930 to 1932, captain in the General Staff in 1932 and served as bureau chief at the Railway Board from 1932 to 1937, he was appointed to major in 1934 and was the first adjutant and lieutenant colonel in the General Staff in 1937. Dyrssen was head of the Communications Department of the Defence Staff from 1937 to 1939 and lieutenant colonel and commander of the Gotland Artillery Corps in 1939.
Dyrssen was appointed colonel in 1940 and was commander of the Svea Artillery Regiment from 1941 to 1942, the commandant of the Boden Fortress as well as the deputy military commander of the VI Military Area from 1942 to 1945. He was appointed major general in 1944 and was the military commander of the IV Military Area and the Commandant General in Stockholm from 1945 to 1957, he was appointed lieutenant general in the reserve. Dyrssen won the eventing contest at the 1916 Swedish Games. In the modern pentathlon he won a gold medal at the 1920 and a silver medal at the 1924 Summer Olympics, he competed in the individual and team épée at the 1924, 1928 and 1936 Olympics and won a team silver medal in 1936. He won seven medals in the épée at the world championships of 1931–1938, as well as three national titles, in 1927, 1932 and 1952, aged 60. Dyrssen won the modern pentathlon at the Nordiska Idrætslege in Copenhagen in 1921, the patrol competition on skis at the 1922 Nordic Games and the Swedish Championship in modern pentathlon in 1922.
Dyrssen was a prominent sports administrator, serving as president of the Swedish Fencing Federation, president of the International Modern Pentathlon Union, a member of the International Olympic Committee, among other posts. Dyrssen was chairman of the Railway Preparedness Investigation from 1935 to 1937, the Inter-Scandinavian Transit Committee in 1939 and the 1945 Military Investigation from 1945 to 1946, he became a member of the Swedish Olympic Committee in 1946 and was chairman of the Swedish Central Association for the Promotion of Sports from 1947 to 1961, the Swedish Fencing Federation from 1936 to 1940, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne and the Biathlon Association from 1949 to 1960. Dyrssen was a member of the International Olympic Committee from 1952 to 1970 and of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences in 1936, he was CEO of the Society for the Promotion of Ski Sport and Open Air Life from 1958 to 1962 and chairman of Uppsala County Hunting Association. Dyrssen was married 1915–53 with Maia Wennerholm, daughter of colonel Malcolm Wennerholm and Elsa Broman.
He married a second time in 1953 with Eva Hallin, daughter of the chamberlain Axel Hallin and Helga Kreuger. He was the father of David, Marika, Thérese and Wilhelm
Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli, used since the 1928 Games; this rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.
The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC President Jacques Rogge, left Athens with a improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, subway system. There have been arguments regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the Greek government-debt crisis, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation; the 2004 Olympics were deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several World and Olympic records were broken during these Games. Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004.
The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based on Athens' appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. Furthermore, unlike their bid for the 1996 Games, criticized for its overall disorganization and arrogance—wherein the bid lacked specifics and relied upon sentiment and the notion that it was Athens' right to organize the Centennial Games—the bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, its detailed bid concept; the 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – Athens' infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, politicization of Games preparations. Athens' successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events.
Another factor which contributed to Athens' selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost during the criticized over-commercialization of Atlanta 1996 Games. Subsequently, the selection of Athens was motivated by a lingering sense of disappointment among IOC members regarding the numerous organizational and logistical setbacks experienced during the 1996 Games. After leading all voting rounds, Athens defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996; these cities were Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Saint Petersburg and Cali. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage. According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive.
The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games. As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million; the State's contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an anticipated 14%. The overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc. totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income came from broadcasting rights; the overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million. Analysts refer to the "Cost of the Olympic Games" by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee's budget directly related to the Olympic Games, but the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country's infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, airports, power grid etc.
This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the act
Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna (pentathlete)
Johan Gabriel Oxenstierna af Korsholm och Wasa was a Swedish modern pentathlete and naval officer. He won a gold medal at the 1932 Summer Olympics. Oxenstierna belonged to one of the oldest noble families of Sweden, known from the 13th century. In 1917 he became in 1932 appointed naval attaché in Paris. During World War II he served as a defense attaché in London, his enciphered cables to his government were treacherously passed on to the Germans by a code clerk in Stockholm who deciphered them, becoming a major source of naval intelligence to the Nazi regime. He retired in 1954 in the rank of sea captain. In 1922 Oxenstierna married Görel Elisabeth Huitfeldt, they divorced in 1946, Oxenstierna remarried the same year
Sven Alfred Thofelt was a Swedish modern pentathlete and épée fencer who competed at the 1928, 1932, 1936 and 1948 Summer Olympics. In the modern pentathlon, Thofelt won the gold medal in the 1928 Olympics and finished fourth in 1932 and 1936, competing in 1932 with broken ribs and injured arm due to a bad fall from the horse. In fencing, he won two team medals in 1936 and 1948, finishing ninth individually in 1932, he won four bronze and two silver medals in the team épée at the world championships of 1931–1947. Nationally Thofelt won six titles in the modern pentathlon, three in the individual épée, one in the 4 × 100 m freestyle swimming. Thofelt was a career officer, graduating from the Royal Military Academy in 1924 and retiring in 1964 in the rank of brigadier-general, he was an adjutant of the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf and King Gustav V. In parallel he served as a sports administrator. In 1948 he became secretary-general of the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne, in 1960–1988 served as its president.
He was president of the Swedish Fencing Federation and of the executive board of the Swedish Olympic Committee. Between 1970 and 1976 Thofelt was an IOC member and an IOC honorary member. Thofelt was the Swedish team leader at the 1956 Summer Olympics, where his son Björn competed in the modern pentathlon. Björn won the world title in 1954. Sven Thofelt at Swedish Olympic Committee Sven Thofelt at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
Hungary at the 1960 Summer Olympics
Hungary competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy. 184 competitors, 157 men and 27 women, took part in 107 events in 18 sports. Rudolf Kárpáti — Fencing, Men's Sabre individual Ferenc Németh — Modern pentathlon, Men's Individual Competition János Parti — Canoe racing, Men's C-1 1000 metres Gyula Török — Boxing, Flyweight András Balczó, Imre Nagy, Ferenc Németh — Modern pentathlon, Men's Team Competition Gábor Delneky, Aladár Gerevich, Zoltán Horváth, Rudolf Kárpáti, Pál Kovács, Tamás Mendelényi — Fencing, Men's Sabre Team Zoltán Horváth — Fencing, Men's Sabre individual Imre Nagy — Modern pentathlon, Men's Individual Competition Imre Polyák — Wrestling, Featherweight Imre Szöllősi — Canoe racing, Men's K-1 1000 metres Gyula Zsivótzky — Athletics, Men's Hammer throw György Mészáros, András Szente — Canoe racing, Men's K-2 1000 metres Imre Kemeczei, György Mészáros, András Szente, Imre Szöllősi — Canore racing, Men's K-1 1000 metres Lídia Dömölky, Katalin Juhász, Györgyi Marvalits, Magda Nyári, Ildikó Rejtő — Fencing, Women's Team foil Gergely Kulcsár — Athletics, Men's Javelin throw István Rózsavölgyi — Athletics, Men's 1500 metres Győző Veres — Weightlifting, Middleweight Imre Farkas, András Törő — Canoe racing, Men's C-2 1000 metres Klára Fried-Bánfalvi, Vilma Egresi — Canoe racing, Women's K-2 500 metres Flórián Albert, Jenő Dalnoki, Zoltán Dudás, János Dunai, Lajos Faragó, János Göröcs, Ferenc Kovács, Dezső Novák, Pál Orosz, Tibor Pál, Gyula Rákosi, Imre Sátori, Ernő Solymosi, Gábor Török, Pál Várhidi and Oszkár Vilezsál — Football, men's team competition Kálmán Markovits, András Katona, György Kárpáti, László Jeney, Otto Boros, István Hevesi, Mihály Mayer, Zoltán Dömötör, Dezső Gyarmati, Tivadar Kanizsa and Péter Rusorán — Water polo, men's team competition Five male cyclists represented Hungary in 1960.
Individual road raceFerenc Stámusz János Dévai Ferenc Horváth Győző Török1000m time trialJános Söre 21 fencers, 16 men and 5 women, represented Hungary in 1960. Men's foilMihály Fülöp Jenő Kamuti László KamutiMen's team foilFerenc Czvikovszki, Jenő Kamuti, Mihály Fülöp, László Kamuti, József Gyuricza, József SákovicsMen's épéeJózsef Sákovics István Kausz Tamás GáborMen's team épéeJózsef Marosi, Tamás Gábor, István Kausz, József Sákovics, Árpád BárányMen's sabreRudolf Kárpáti Zoltán Horváth Aladár GerevichMen's team sabreAladár Gerevich, Rudolf Kárpáti, Pál Kovács, Zoltán Horváth, Gábor Delneky, Tamás MendelényiWomen's foilMagda Nyári-Kovács Ildikó Ságiné Ujlakyné Rejtő Lídia Sákovicsné DömölkyWomen's team foilIldikó Ságiné Ujlakyné Rejtő, Györgyi Marvalics-Székely, Magda Nyári-Kovács, Katalin Nagyné Juhász, Lídia Sákovicsné Dömölky Three male pentathletes represented Hungary in 1960; the team won Ferenc Németh won an individual gold and Imre Nagy won silver. IndividualFerenc Németh Imre Nagy András BalczóTeamFerenc Németh Imre Nagy András Balczó Hungary had nine male rowers participate in three out of seven rowing events in 1960.
Men's coxed pairPál Wágner László Munteán Gyula Lengyel Men's coxless fourLajos Kiss György Sarlós József Sátori Béla ZsitnikMen's coxed fourTibor Bedekovits Csaba Kovács László Munteán Pál Wágner Gyula Lengyel Ten shooters represented Hungary in 1960. 25 m pistolFerenc Kun József Gyönyörű50 m pistolAmbrus Balogh300 m rifle, three positionsSándor Krebs Miklós Szabó50 m rifle, three positionsJános Holup Imre Simkó50 m rifle, proneJános Dosztály Imre SimkóTrapEde Szomjas Károly Kulin-Nagy Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t