Peter Huchel, born Hellmut Huchel, was a German poet. Huchel was born in Lichterfelde. From 1923 to 1926 Huchel studied literature and philosophy in Berlin and Vienna. Between 1927 and 1930 he travelled to France, Romania and Turkey. In 1930, he changed his first name to Peter and befriended Ernst Bloch, Alfred Kantorowicz and Fritz Sternberg, his early poems, published from 1931 to 1936, are marked by the atmosphere and landscape of Brandenburg. In 1934, Huchel married Dora Lassel; the couple would divorce in 1946 and Huchel would marry Monica Rosental in 1953. Between 1934 and 1940, Huchel wrote plays for German radio. During the Second World War, he served as a soldier until he was taken prisoner by the Russians in 1945. After his release, he began working for East German radio and in 1949, he became editor of the influential poetry magazine Sinn und Form. After the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, Huchel came under attack from the East German authorities and the following year he was forced to resign the editorshop of Sinn und Form.
From 1962 to 1971, he lived in isolation under Stasi surveillance in his house in Wilhelmshorst near Berlin. In 1971, he was permitted to leave the German Democratic Republic and move, first to Rome to Staufen im Breisgau, where he died; the poem and song "Ermutigung", written by his friend Wolf Biermann in 1968, was dedicated to Huchel. Gedichte Chausseen, Chausseen. Gedichte Die Sternenreuse. Gedichte 1925-1947 Gezählte Tage. Gedichte Die neunte Stunde. Gedichte Gesammelte Werke. Vol. 1: Poems, Vol. 2: Miscellaneous Writings. Briefe 1925-1977 ed. Hub Nijssen, Frankfurt am Main, 2000 A Thistle In His Mouth. Poems by Peter Huchel, selected and introduced by Henry Beissel. Cormorant Books, Ontario 1987.* On Crutches of Naked Poplars. Translated by Robert Firmage. Mid-American Review Vol. XI, Nr. 1, 1991, p. 137-187.* The Garden of Theophrastus and other poems. Translated by Michael Hamburger. Cheadle 1983. Again: Anvill Press 2004. Selected Poems. Translated by Michael Hamburger. Cheadle 1974.* This article is based on material from the German Wikipedia.
Hilton, Ian: Peter Huchel. Plough a lonely furrow. Lochee Publications, Blairgowrie 1986. Nijssen, Hub: Der heimliche König. Leben und Werk von Peter Huchel. Nijmegen University Press 1995. Königshausen & Neumann Verlag, Würzburg 1998. Translation of December 1942 the Huchel. House in Potsdam-Wilhelmshorst Translation of Eastern River Translation of Meeting Translation of Melpomene translation of Answer translation of Roads Translation of Snow
Sarah Kirsch was a German poet. She was born Ingrid Bernstein in Limlingerode, Prussian Saxony, she changed her first name to Sarah. She studied biology in Halle and literature at the Johannes R. Becher Institute for Literature in Leipzig. In 1965, she co-wrote a book of poems with writer Rainer Kirsch, to whom she was married for ten years, she protested against East Germany's expulsion of Wolf Biermann in 1976, which led to her exclusion from the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. One year she left the country herself being critical of the west as well, she is known for her poetry, but she wrote prose and translated children's books into German. According to complete review, "the great German-language post-war poets were East German born in the mid to late 1930s which included towering figures such as Volker Braun, Heinz Czechowski" and Sarah Kirsch, "the most prominent female representative of that generation."She won many prizes and honors including the German international literary Petrarca-Preis in 1976, the Peter-Huchel Prize in 1993 and the Georg Büchner Prize in 1996.
From 1960-1968 she was married to lyricist Rainer Kirsch. Sarah Kirsch died in May 2013 following a brief illness. Sarah Kirsch by Mererid Hopwood Media related to Sarah Kirsch at Wikimedia Commons
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
Education in Poland during World War II
World War II saw the cultivation of underground education in Poland. Secretly conducted education prepared scholars and workers for the postwar reconstruction of Poland and countered German and Soviet threats to eradicate Polish culture. After the Polish defeat in the Polish Defensive War of 1939 and the subsequent German and Soviet occupation of Polish territory, Poland was divided into the areas directly incorporated into the Reich, areas directly incorporated into the Soviet Union and the German-controlled General Government. According to Nazi racial theories the Slavs needed no higher education and the whole nation was to be turned into uneducated serfs for the German race; the only schools that remained opened were trade courses for factory workers. Himmler prescribed: For the non-German population of the East there can be no type of school above the four-grade rudimentary school; the job of these schools should be confined to the teaching of counting, the writing of one's name, the teaching that God's commandment means obedience to the Germans, honesty and politeness.
Reading I do not consider essential. By 1941, the number of children attending elementary school in the General Government was half of the pre-war number. On the territories incorporated into the Reich, education in Polish was banned and punished with death. Throughout Polish territory the Germans abolished all university education for non-Germans. All institutions of higher education were closed, their equipment and most of the laboratories were taken to Germany and divided among the German universities while the buildings were turned into offices and military barracks. There existed however the Staatliche Kunstgewerbeschule Krakau, it inspired a number of theater creators cooperating with Tadeusz Kantor. However, many teachers and educational activists organized underground courses all around the country, reviving the tradition of Flying University from the times of partition of Poland; those who survived the A-B Aktion and were not sent to concentration camps lectured to small groups in private apartments.
The attendants were risking deportation and death. Most of the underground education was organized by the Secret Teaching Organization, which took care of the underground primary and secondary level education. Norman Davies notes. By 1942, about 1,500,000 students took part in underground primary education; the net of underground university faculties spread and by 1944 there were more than 300 lecturers and 3,500 students at various courses at the Warsaw University alone. Underground Law and Social Sciences faculties, as well as Humanities, Theological and Biology faculties were kept alive at Stefan Batory University in Wilno from 1939 until 1944 with lectures and exams; the main universities included the University of Lwów, Warsaw University, Stefan Batory University in Wilno and Jagiellonian University in Kraków. A new University of Western Lands was created in Warsaw, with branches in Kielce, Jędrzejów, Częstochowa and Milanówek; the latter university was composed of the professors of Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznań and included 17 different units, among them the faculty of medicine and surgery.
10,000 students received master's degrees at the secret universities and several hundred others received doctorates. Secret printing houses that sprang up across Poland shortly after the war started, provided the facilities of secret learning with handbooks and scripts; the professors organized a net of secret high schools, trade schools and special courses on forbidden subjects, such as the Polish language and geography. A special case were the secret talmudic schools organized in ghettos; until 1944 there were more than a million secret high school students in Poland. At least 18,000 students received their certificates; this led to a bizarre situation in which students of formally non-existent high schools entered formally non-existent universities. Most of these certificates were issued on pre-war forms with the dates forged to indicate either 1938 or 1939; these were accepted by post-war Polish universities. There was a net of secret military colleges in most major cities; until 1944, most of Armia Krajowa regiments had their military schools for Non-commissioned officers while the regional headquarters organized officer courses and special training.
The Szare Szeregi opened its own NCO school in Warsaw nicknamed Agricola. Religious education and training took place. Prominently, the Roman Catholic Church operated underground seminaries for the education of priests. One well-known seminary was run by the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Sapieha and trained future Cardinal and Pope, John Paul II; this is a partial list of professors who risked their lives teaching under the Nazi and Soviet occupations. Dates of death are given for those executed for their teaching activities. Stefan Bryła, engineering Eugeniusz Lokajski, sports Marceli Handelsman, history Tadeusz Manteuffel, history Andrzej Mostowski, mathematics Kazimierz Iwiński, Polish language Zygmunt Szweykowski, history Władysław Tatarkiewicz, history of philosophy, history of aesthetics, history of art Jan Łukasiewicz and philosophy Władysław Czapliński, history Marian Gieszczykiewi
History of Poland (1945–1989)
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders. These years, while featuring general industrialization and urbanization and many improvements in the standard of living, were marred by social unrest, political strife and severe economic difficulties. Near the end of World War II, the advancing Soviet Red Army, along with the Polish Army formed in the Soviet Union, pushed out the Nazi German forces from occupied Poland. In February 1945, the Yalta Conference sanctioned the formation of a provisional government of Poland from a compromise coalition, until postwar elections. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, manipulated the implementation of that ruling. A communist-controlled Provisional Government of National Unity was formed in Warsaw by ignoring the Polish government-in-exile based in London since 1940. During the subsequent Potsdam Conference in July–August 1945, the three major Allies ratified the colossal westerly shift of Polish borders and approved its new territory between the Oder–Neisse line and Curzon Line.
Following the destruction of the Polish-Jewish population in the Holocaust, the flight and expulsion of Germans in the west, resettlement of Ukrainians in the east, the repatriation of Poles from Kresy, Poland became for the first time in its history an ethnically homogeneous nation-state without prominent minorities. The new government solidified its political power over the next two years, while the Polish United Workers' Party under Bolesław Bierut gained firm control over the country, which would become part of the postwar Soviet sphere of influence in Central and Eastern Europe; the Constitution of the Polish People's Republic was promulgated in July 1952 and the state became the Polish People's Republic. Following Stalin's death in 1953, a political "thaw" in the Soviet sphere allowed a more liberal faction of the Polish communists, led by Władysław Gomułka, to gain power. By the mid-1960s, Poland began experiencing increasing economic as well as political difficulties, they culminated in the 1968 Polish political crisis and the 1970 Polish protests, when a consumer price hike led to a wave of strikes.
The government introduced a new economic program based on large-scale borrowing from the West, which resulted in a rise in living standards and expectations, but the program meant growing integration of Poland's economy with the world economy and it faltered after the 1973 oil crisis. In 1976, the government of Edward Gierek was forced to raise prices again and this led to the June 1976 protests; this cycle of repression and reform and the economic-political struggle acquired new characteristics with the 1978 election of Karol Wojtyła as Pope John Paul II. Wojtyła's unexpected elevation strengthened the opposition to the authoritarian and ineffective system of nomenklatura-run state socialism with the pope's first visit to Poland in 1979. In early August 1980, a new wave of strikes resulted in the founding of the independent trade union "Solidarity" led by electrician Lech Wałęsa; the growing strength and activity of the opposition caused the government of Wojciech Jaruzelski to declare martial law in December 1981.
However, with the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union, increasing pressure from the West, dysfunctional economy, the regime was forced to negotiate with its opponents. The 1989 Round Table Talks led to Solidarity's participation in the 1989 election, its candidates' striking victory gave rise to the first of the succession of transitions from communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe. In 1990, Jaruzelski resigned from the presidency of the Republic of Poland. Before World War II, a third of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities. Poland had about 35 million inhabitants in 1939, but fewer than 24 million in 1946, within the respective borders. Of the remaining population over three million were ethnic minorities, such as Germans and Jews, most of whom would soon leave Poland. Poland suffered the heaviest proportionate human losses during World War II, amounting to 16–17 percent of its population, it is estimated that up to 6 million Polish citizens died from war-related causes between 1939 and 1945.
The approximate figure includes 3 million Jewish-Polish victims as part of the above total. The number of ethnically Polish victims was 2 million; the historical minorities in Poland were most affected, whereas Poland's multiethnic diversity reflected in prior national censuses was all but gone within several years after the war. The Polish educated class suffered greatly. A large proportion of the country's pre-war social and political elite perished and a large proportion were dispersed; the implementation of the immense task of reconstructing the country was accompanied by the struggle of the new government to acquire centralized authority, further complicated by the mistrust a considerable part of society held for the new regime and by disputes over Poland's postwar borders, which were not established until mid-1945. The Soviet forces present at that time engaged in plunder of the former eastern territories of Germany which were being transferred to Poland, stripping it of valuable industrial equipment and factories and sending them to the Soviet Union.
After the Soviet annexation of the Kresy territories east of the Curzon Line, about 2 million Poles were "repatriated" from these areas into the new western and northern territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were transferred from Germany to Poland under the Potsdam Agreement. Others stayed i
PEN International is a worldwide association of writers, founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. The association has autonomous International PEN centers in over 100 countries. Other goals included: to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; the first PEN Club was founded in London in 1921 by Catherine Amy Dawson Scott, with John Galsworthy as its first president. Its first members included Joseph Conrad, Elizabeth Craig, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells. PEN stood for "Poets, Novelists", but now stands for "Poets, Editors, Novelists", includes writers of any form of literature, such as journalists and historians; the club established the following aims: To promote intellectual co-operation and understanding among writers. Past presidents of PEN International have included Alberto Moravia, Heinrich Böll, Arthur Miller, Mario Vargas Llosa, Homero Aridjis, Jiří Gruša and John Ralston Saul.
The current president is Jennifer Clement. PEN International is headquartered in London and composed of autonomous PEN Centres in over 100 countries around the world, each of which are open to writers, translators and others engaged in any branch of literature, regardless of nationality, colour, or religion, it is a non-governmental organization in formal consultative relations with UNESCO and Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The PEN Charter is based on resolutions passed at its International Congresses and may be summarised as follows:Literature knows no frontiers and must remain common currency among people in spite of political or international upheavals. In all circumstances, in time of war, works of art and libraries, the patrimony of humanity at large, should be left untouched by national or political passion. Members of PEN should at all times use what influence they have in favour of good understanding and mutual respect among nations.
PEN stands for the principle of unhampered transmission of thought within each nation and between all nations, members pledge themselves to oppose any form of suppression of freedom of expression in the country and community to which they belong, as well as throughout the world wherever this is possible. PEN opposes arbitrary censorship in time of peace, it believes that the necessary advance of the world toward a more organized political and economic order renders a free criticism of governments and institutions imperative. And since freedom implies voluntary restraint, members pledge themselves to oppose such evils of a free press as mendacious publication, deliberate falsehood, distortion of facts for political and personal ends. PEN International Writers in Prison Committee works on behalf of persecuted writers worldwide. Established in 1960 in response to increasing attempts to silence voices of dissent by imprisoning writers, the Writers in Prison Committee monitors the cases of as many as 900 writers annually who have been imprisoned, threatened, made to disappear, killed for the peaceful practice of their profession.
It publishes a bi-annual Case List documenting free expression violations against writers around the world. The committee coordinates the PEN International membership's campaigns that aim towards an end to these attacks and to the suppression of freedom of expression worldwide. PEN International Writers in Prison Committee is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of 90 non-governmental organisations that monitors censorship worldwide and defends journalists, internet users and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression, it is a member of IFEX's Tunisia Monitoring Group, a coalition of twenty-one free expression organisations that began lobbying the Tunisian government to improve its human rights record in 2005. Since the Arab Spring events that led to the collapse of the Tunisian government, TMG has worked to ensure constitutional guarantees of free expression and human rights within the country. On 15 January 2016, PEN International joined human rights organisations Freemuse and the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, along with seven other organisations, to protest against the 2013 imprisonment and 2015 sentencing of musicians Mehdi Rajabian and Yousef Emadi, filmmaker Hossein Rajabian, called on the head of the judiciary and other Iranian authorities to drop the charges against them.
The various PEN affiliations offer many literary awards across a broad spectrum. A grove of trees beside Lake Burley Griffin forms the PEN International memorial in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; the dedication reads: "The spirit dies in all of us who keep silent in the face of tyranny." The memorial was opened on 17 November 1997. A cast-iron sculpture entitled Witness, commissioned by English PEN to mark their 90th anniversary and created by Antony Gormley, stands outside the British Library in London, it depicts an empty chair, is inspired by the symbol used for 30 years by Englis