Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
The sound barrier or sonic barrier is the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other undesirable effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches the speed of sound. When aircraft first began to be able to reach close to the speed of sound, these effects were seen as constituting a barrier making faster speeds difficult or impossible; the term sound barrier is still sometimes used today to refer to aircraft reaching supersonic flight. In dry air at 20 °C, the speed of sound is 343 metres per second; the term came into use during World War II when pilots of high-speed fighter aircraft experienced the effects of compressibility, a number of adverse aerodynamic effects that deterred further acceleration impeding flight at speeds close to the speed of sound. These difficulties represented a barrier to flying at faster speeds. In 1947 it was demonstrated that safe flight at the speed of sound was achievable in purpose-designed aircraft thereby breaking the barrier. By the 1950s new designs of fighter aircraft reached the speed of sound, faster.
Some common whips such as the bullwhip or stockwhip are able to move faster than sound: the tip of the whip exceeds this speed and causes a sharp crack—literally a sonic boom. Firearms made after the 19th century have had a supersonic muzzle velocity; the sound barrier may have been first breached by living beings some 150 million years ago. Some paleobiologists report that, based on computer models of their biomechanical capabilities, certain long-tailed dinosaurs such as Apatosaurus and Diplodocus may have been able to flick their tails at supersonic speeds, creating a cracking sound; this finding is theoretical and disputed by others in the field. Meteors entering the Earth's atmosphere if not always, descend faster than sound; the tip of the propeller on many early aircraft may reach supersonic speeds, producing a noticeable buzz that differentiates such aircraft. This is undesirable, as the transonic air movement creates disruptive turbulence, it is due to these effects that propellers are known to suffer from decreased performance as they approach the speed of sound.
It is easy to demonstrate that the power needed to improve performance is so great that the weight of the required engine grows faster than the power output of the propeller can compensate. This problem was one that led to early research into jet engines, notably by Frank Whittle in England and Hans von Ohain in Germany, who were led to their research in order to avoid these problems in high-speed flight. Propeller aircraft were able to approach the critical Mach number in a dive. Doing so led to numerous crashes for a variety of reasons. Most infamously, in the Mitsubishi Zero, pilots flew at full power into the terrain because the increasing forces acting on the control surfaces of their aircraft overpowered them. In this case, several attempts to fix it only made the problem worse; the flexing caused by the low torsional stiffness of the Supermarine Spitfire's wings caused them, in turn, to counteract aileron control inputs, leading to a condition known as control reversal. This was solved in models with changes to the wing.
Worse still, a dangerous interaction of the airflow between the wings and tail surfaces of diving Lockheed P-38 Lightnings made "pulling out" of dives difficult. Flutter due to the formation of shock waves on curved surfaces was another major problem, which led most famously to the breakup of de Havilland Swallow and death of its pilot, Geoffrey de Havilland, Jr. in 1946. A similar problem is thought to have been the cause of the 1943 crash of the BI-1 rocket aircraft in the Soviet Union. All of these effects, although unrelated in most ways, led to the concept of a "barrier" making it difficult for an aircraft to exceed the speed of sound. Erroneous news reports caused most people to envision the sound barrier as a physical "wall", which supersonic aircraft needed to "break" with a sharp needle nose on the front of the fuselage. Rocketry and artillery experts' products exceeded Mach 1, but aircraft designers and aerodynamic engineers during and after World War II discussed Mach 0.7 as a limit dangerous to exceed.
During WWII and thereafter, a number of claims were made that the sound barrier had been broken in a dive. The majority of these purported events can be dismissed as instrumentation errors; the typical airspeed indicator uses air pressure differences between two or more points on the aircraft near the nose and at the side of the fuselage, to produce a speed figure. At high speed, the various compression effects that lead to the sound barrier cause the ASI to go non-linear and produce inaccurately high or low readings, depending on the specifics of the installation; this effect became known as "Mach jump". Before the introduction of Mach meters, accurate measurements of supersonic speeds could only be made externally using ground-based instruments. Many claims of supersonic speeds were found to be far below this speed when measured in this fashion. In 1942, Republic Aviation issued a press release stating that Lts. Harold E. Comstock and Roger Dyar had exceeded the speed of sound during test dives in the P-47 Thunderbolt.
It is agreed that this was due to inaccurate ASI readings. In similar tests, the North American P-51 Mustang, a higher performance aircraft, demonstrated limits at Mach 0.85, with every flight over M0.84 causing the aircraft to be damaged by vibration. One of the highest recorded instrumented Mach numbers attained for a propeller
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
Black Rock Desert
The Black Rock Desert is a semi-arid region, of lava beds and playa, or alkali flats, situated in the Black Rock Desert–High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area, a silt playa 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada that encompasses more than 300,000 acres of land and contains more than 120 miles of historic trails. It is in the northern Nevada section of the Great Basin with a lakebed, a dry remnant of Pleistocene Lake Lahontan; the Great Basin, named for the geography in which water is unable to flow out and remains in the basin, is a rugged land serrated by hundreds of mountain ranges, dried by wind and sun, with spectacular skies and scenic landscapes. The average annual precipitation at Gerlach, Nevada is 7.90 inches. The region is notable for its paleogeologic features, as an area of 19th-century Emigrant Trails to California, as a venue for rocketry, as an alternative to the Bonneville Salt Flats in northwestern Utah, for setting land speed records, it is the location for the annual Burning Man event.
The Black Rock Desert is part of the National Conservation Area, a unit of the Bureau of Land Management National Landscape Conservation System. The NCA is located in northwest Nevada, was established by legislation in 2000, it is a unique combination of desert playa, narrow canyons, mountainous areas. Humans have been in Black Rock Desert since 11,000 BC. In 1300 BC the area was settled by the Paiute people; the large black rock formation was used as a landmark by the Paiute and emigrants crossing the area. The landmark is a conical outcrop composed of interbedded Permian marine limestone and volcanic rocks. At its base is a large hot spring and grassy meadow, an important place for those crossing the desert headed for California and Oregon. In 1843, John Fremont and his party were the first white men to cross the desert, his trail was used by over half the 22,000 gold seekers headed to California after 1849. In 1867, Hardin City, a short-lived silver mill town was established; the Black Rock Desert region is in the northwestern Great Basin.
The playa extends for 100 mi northeast from the towns of Gerlach and Empire, between the Jackson Mountains to the east and the Calico Hills to the west. The Black Rock Desert is separated into two arms by the Black Rock Range, it has an area of about 1,000 sq mi. There are several possible definitions of the extent of the Black Rock Desert. People refer just to the playa surface. Sometimes terrain which can be seen from the playa is included; the widest definition of the Black Rock Desert region is the watershed of the basin that drains into the playa. The intermittent Quinn River is the largest river in the region, starting in the Santa Rosa Range and ending in the Quinn River Sink on the playa south of the Black Rock Range; the watershed covers 11,600 sq mi including the Upper and Lower Quinn River, Smoke Creek Desert, Massacre Lake, Thousand Creek/Virgin Valley watersheds of northwestern Nevada as well as small parts across the borders of California and Oregon. If the playa is wet for a month or so, the shallow waters teem with fairy shrimp, or anostraca born of eggs that lie dormant in the silt crust for long periods of time - sometimes for many years.
The edges of the playa and the Quinn River Sink stay wet longer than the rest of the playa, which concentrates the fairy shrimp and migratory birds in those areas. More than 250 species of neo-tropical migrant birds and many other water birds stop in Black Rock-High Rock Country for varying lengths of time; when wet in spring, the playa is a favorite place for these winged visitors to rest and feed. When it rains, the playa can become sticky, bogging down four-wheel-drive vehicles; some areas of the Black Rock are environmentally closed to all vehicles. Humboldt and Washoe Counties of Nevada intersect at the Black Rock Desert; the following mountain ranges are within. The desert has numerous volcanic and geothermal features of the northwest Nevada volcanic region, including two Black Rock Points at the southern end of the Black Rock Range and which have dark Permian volcanic rocks similar to another Permian black diabase dike formation in Nevada; the portion of the Lake Lahontan lakebed in the Black Rock Desert is flat with Lahontan salt shrub vegetation scattered hot springs, a playa.
In areas of the lakebed along mountains, rain shadow results in desert precipitation levels. The playa of the Black Rock Desert lakebed is ~200 sq mi within an area bounded by the Calico Mountains Wilderness, the Applegate National Historic Trail, the Union Pacific Railroad; the "South Playa" is between Gerlach and the southwest boundary of the National Conservation Area, while the northeast NCA portion of the playa is between the NCA boundary and the Applegate National Historic Trail. A Nobles route between Gerlach and Black Rock Hot Springs extends through the length of the playa; the playa's Quinn River Sink of ~3 sq mi is where the Quinn River discharges/evaporates ~2.75 mi south-southwest of Black Rock Hot Springs. Prospecting and mining has occurred in the Black Rock region since the mid-19th century. US Gypsum Corporation operated a gypsum mine and drywall manufacturing plant in Empire, which
The JCB Dieselmax is a diesel-engined'streamliner' car designed for the purpose of breaking the land speed record for a diesel-engined vehicle. The car was built for a British multinational equipment company; as of 2018, the car holds the world diesel-powered land speed record, having been driven to over 350 miles per hour by Wing Commander Andy Green in 2006. The car is powered by two specially-tuned versions of the production JCB444 powerplant, developing up to 750 brake horsepower each and featuring four cylinders and 5 litres of displacement, accompanied by two stage turbochargers and aftercooler. One of the dual engines drives the front wheels; each engine is rev-limited to 3800 rpm. As the size of the car prohibited meaningful wind tunnel testing, the streamlined shape of the car was refined through the use of computational fluid dynamics by MIRA Ltd, which has enabled the car to obtain a low coefficient of drag of only 0.147 and a CdA value of only 0.129 m². The fuel tank, which holds only 9 litres, is located directly behind the carbon fiber cockpit.
The laden weight of the vehicle, including fuel, ice, water coolant and the driver, is less than 2,700 kg. The chassis was designed and built by Coventry-based engineering company Visioneering for JCB, with engine development undertaken by Sussex-based Ricardo UK Ltd; the electrical system for the vehicle was supplied by R&D Vehicle Systems Ltd under contract to Visioneering. Ron Ayers led work on the aerodynamics, having worked on the ThrustSSC land speed record car. During the 2006 Bonneville Speed Week and subsequent FIA record runs, the car was driven by Andy Green, a serving RAF Officer who broke, still holds, the absolute land speed record with ThrustSSC; the car began shakedown testing on 20 July 2006 on the runway at RAF Wittering with the lower-power 600 brake horsepower version of the JCB444 engine, the team ramping up the speed to prove the chassis and engines. They achieved a speed of over 200 miles per hour on 30 July 2006. Two days the car was disassembled ready to be flown to Wendover Airport, former home of the B-29 Enola Gay on 8 August.
On 13 August 2006, after several days spent re-assembling and re-testing the car, the Dieselmax made its first official run on the Bonneville Salt Flats as part of Speed Week attaining an average speed of 317 miles per hour to take the SCTA-BNI event record for an'AA/DS' Diesel Streamliner. On 22 August 2006, after being re-fitted with 750 brake horsepower'LSR' versions of the JCB444 engines, the JCB Dieselmax car broke the official FIA diesel engine land speed record, attaining a speed of 328.767 mph. 24 hours the JCB Dieselmax car broke its own record, achieving a speed of 350.092 mph over a distance of 1 mile on 23 August 2006. Before attaining these speeds, the Dieselmax was pushed from behind, by a JCB Fastrac, until it hit 30 miles per hour where it engaged first gear. Before the JCB Dieselmax records, the diesel land speed record was 235.756 mph, set by American Virgil Snyder, in the Thermo King streamliner on 25 August 1973. In a live interview from Utah on BBC News, Green said that the car was not running at its full potential, due to problems finding suitable tyres and that this speed was achieved while the car was still in fifth gear.
He reported that the vehicle traveled 11 miles on about a U. S. gallon of fuel. The fuel tank holds just 9 L while the ice tank, used for cooling, holds 180 L. In 2016 a ten-year anniversary celebration was held, where Lord Bamford expressed regret that the record had not been beaten and indicated that a fresh attempt could be made if the JCB record was broken. Although JCB have not made any official statements on the subject of a return to Bonneville, JCB Group Engineering Director Tim Leverton has hinted that they are studying the development of tires that would allow them to overcome the nominal 350 miles per hour'safety limit' they had placed upon their current Goodyear units. Andy Green RAF High Speed Flight ThrustSSC List of vehicle speed records JCB Dieselmax Official Website BBC News, Dieselmax breaks diesel speed record The engineering behind Dieselmax, Ingenia Magazine, September 2007 RDVS - Dieselmax electrical system supplier
Thrust2 is a British designed and built jet propelled car, which held the world land speed record from 4 October 1983 to 25 September 1997. The car was driven by Richard Noble; the project began with a budget of only £175. On 4 October 1983 the car broke the record at 633.468 mph. This was achieved at the Black Rock Desert in Nevada, US, it is powered by a single Rolls-Royce Avon jet engine sourced from an English Electric Lightning, has a configuration somewhat resembling that of the mid-1960s-era J79 turbojet-powered land speed record cars of Art Arfons, collectively known as the "Green Monster" cars. KTVN TV reporter/photographers Michael Hagerty and Gary Martin covered the record setting attempt in the days leading up to the record; the car was unceremoniously stored under a tarp in the only automotive garage at Black Rock desert when it wasn't being worked on by the team. A propane torch was used to burn the line straight down the hard cracked dirt of the desert for the driver to follow. No other cars were allowed to approach the race track except on the perpendicular lest the driver accidentally follow those car tracks as a different path through the measured mile.
In 1997 Thrust2's record was broken by Richard Noble's follow up car, ThrustSSC, with a top speed of 1,228 km/h. When the car was offered for sale at £90,000 in 1991, an extensive fundraising campaign was organised without government assistance to keep the car in Britain; the bid was successful, today Thrust2 and its successor, ThrustSSC, are displayed at the Coventry Transport Museum in Coventry, England. John Ackroyd. Jet Blast and the Hand of Fate. Redline books. ISBN 0-9544357-8-8. Coventry Transport Museum where Thrust2 is on display
Charles Elwood Yeager is a former United States Air Force officer, flying ace, record-setting test pilot. In 1947, he became. Yeager's career began in World War II as a private in the United States Army Air Forces. After serving as an aircraft mechanic, in September 1942 he entered enlisted pilot training and upon graduation was promoted to the rank of flight officer and became a P-51 fighter pilot. After the war, Yeager became a test pilot of many types of aircraft, including experimental rocket-powered aircraft; as the first human to break the sound barrier, on October 14, 1947, he flew the experimental Bell X-1 at Mach 1 at an altitude of 45,000 ft, for which he won both the Collier and Mackay trophies in 1948. He went on to break several other speed and altitude records. Yeager commanded fighter squadrons and wings in Germany, in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, in recognition of the outstanding performance ratings of those units he was promoted to brigadier general. Yeager's flying career spans more than 70 years and has taken him to many parts of the world, including the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War.
Yeager was born February 13, 1923, to farming parents Susie Mae and Albert Hal Yeager in Myra, West Virginia, graduated from high school in Hamlin, West Virginia, in June 1941. He had two brothers and Hal Jr. and two sisters, Doris Ann and Pansy Lee. His first experience with the military was as a teen at the Citizens Military Training Camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, during the summers of 1939 and 1940. On February 26, 1945, Yeager married Glennis Dickhouse, the couple had four children. Glennis died in 1990; the name "Yeager" is an Anglicized form of Jaeger. He is the cousin of former baseball catcher Steve Yeager. Yeager enlisted as a private in the U. S. Army Air Forces on September 12, 1941, became an aircraft mechanic at George Air Force Base, California. At enlistment, Yeager was not eligible for flight training because of his age and educational background, but the entry of the U. S. into World War II less than three months prompted the USAAF to alter its recruiting standards. Having unusually sharp vision, which once enabled him to shoot a deer at 600 yards, Yeager displayed natural talent as a pilot and was accepted for flight training.
He received his wings and a promotion to flight officer at Luke Field, where he graduated from class 43C on March 10, 1943. Assigned to the 357th Fighter Group at Tonopah, Nevada, he trained as a fighter pilot, flying Bell P-39 Airacobras, shipped overseas with the group on November 23, 1943. Stationed in the United Kingdom at RAF Leiston, Yeager flew P-51 Mustangs in combat with the 363d Fighter Squadron, he named his aircraft Glamorous Glen after his girlfriend, Glennis Faye Dickhouse, who became his wife in February 1945. Yeager had gained one victory before he was shot down over France in his first aircraft on March 5, 1944 during his eighth mission, he escaped to Spain on March 30 with the help of the Maquis and returned to England on May 15, 1944. During his stay with the Maquis, Yeager assisted the guerrillas in duties that did not involve direct combat, he was awarded the Bronze Star for helping a B-24 navigator, "Pat" Patterson, shot in the knee during the escape attempt, to cross the Pyrenees.
Yeager cut off the tendon by which Patterson's leg was hanging below the knee tied off the leg with a spare shirt made of parachute silk. Despite a regulation prohibiting "evaders" from flying over enemy territory again, the purpose of, to prevent a second capture from compromising resistance groups, Yeager was reinstated to flying combat, he had joined another evader, fellow P-51 pilot 1st Lt Fred Glover, in speaking directly to the Supreme Allied Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, on June 12, 1944. With Glover pleading their case, they argued that because the Allies had invaded France and the Maquis were by openly fighting the Nazis alongside Allied troops, if Yeager or Glover were shot down again, there was little about those who had helped them evade capture that could be revealed to the enemy. Eisenhower, after gaining permission from the War Department to decide the requests, concurred with Yeager and Glover. Yeager credited his postwar success in the Air Force to this decision, saying that his test pilot career followed from his having been a decorated combat pilot, along with having been an aircraft mechanic before attending pilot school.
In part, because of his maintenance background, he frequently served as a maintenance officer in his flying units. Yeager demonstrated combat leadership. On October 12, 1944, he became the first pilot in his group to make "ace in a day," downing five enemy aircraft in a single mission. Two of these kills were scored without firing a single shot: when he flew into firing position against a Messerschmitt Bf 109, the pilot of the aircraft panicked, breaking to starboard and colliding with his wingman. Yeager said, he finished the war with 11.5 official victories, including one of the first air-to-air victories over a jet fighter, a German Messerschmitt Me 262 that he shot down as it wa