Gabriel Medina Pinto Ferreira is a Brazilian professional surfer the 2014 and 2018 WSL World Champion. Medina joined the world's elite of the World Surf League Tour in 2011, in his rookie year he finished within the top 12 of the ASP World Tour at the age of 17. In March 2014 he won the Quiksilver Pro Gold Coast. Media sources credit him as being the second person to have executed a maneuver called the "Backflip". Medina became the first person to land this move in competition. Born in São Sebastião, São Paulo, raised in the city's district of Maresias, is the son of Simone Pinto Medina and Claudio de Jesus Ferreira. Medina began surfing at age 9. Medina won many Brazilian amateur championships, becoming champion at the Volcom Sub-14, Quicksilver King of Groms, Rip Curl Grom Search, besides conquering the state championship three times. In California, he was second at the Volcom Internacional Sub-14, in Ecuador, vice-champion of the Amateur World Sub-16 Championship. At 14 years old, Medina was at the finals of the Paulista Championship, became the Paulista Junior Champion, surfing the World Qualifying Series 6-star event Onbongo Pro Surfing 2008 in Ubatuba, where he managed to defeat his idol Adriano de Souza, aka Mineirinho.
In July 2009, Medina won a contract with Rip Curl, thereafter endeavored to pursue a professional surfing career. Just 10 days Medina set a new mark as the youngest male winner of an open age pro competition by taking out the Maresias Surf International in Brazil by the age of 15. In 2011 came the sequence of championships that took Medina to share the waves with the top surfers, surfing the WQS 6 Star Prime in Imbituba, the two WQS 6 Star in France and Spain, he was victorious in the Pro Junior World Championship, held in French waves. With his prowess and results in such a young age, Medina signed and extension contract with Rip Curl just in the same week of his debut on the 2011 ASP World Championship Tour, by the age of 17, by the mid-season rotation. Medina went on to finish his rookie season with two WCT events wins, despite competing only half of the season. In 2013, Medina went on to win the World Junior Tour in 2013, at age 19. In the 2014 WCT season, by winning the first event of the season, the Quiksilver Pro Gold Coast, Medina became the first Brazilian male surfer to win on the Gold Coast, the first goofy to win this contest since 2004 and less than two months after recovering from a broken leg injury suffered while surfing in Hawaii.
He dropped to 5th on the rankings after finishing 13th on the Billabong Rio Pro, but re-assumed the pole after winning the Volcom Fiji Pro. Medina won the Billabong Pro Teahupoo, the seventh WCT event of the season in Tahiti, beating in a competitive final Kelly Slater. In the year, after finishing in 2nd place in the last event of the season at the Billabong Pipeline Masters in Hawaii, Medina went on to become the first Brazilian ASP World Champion by the age of 20. In 2015, after a sequence of average results, Medina won the Quiksilver Pro France, capturing his sixth WCT event win and his second in Hossegor, France. After beating Mick Fanning and reaching the finals at the last WCT event of the season, the Billabong Pipe Masters in Hawaii, for the second straight year, Medina once again made history, becoming the first Brazilian to win the Hawaiian Triple Crown of Surfing title. With Adriano de Souza winning the other semifinal and capturing the 2015 World Title, the stage was set for a first time all Brazilian final at the Pipe Masters.
Medina finished runner-up once again as de Souza became the first Brazilian to win the Hawaiian CT event. With this second place, Medina finished the 2015 WCT season on a high note. On May 14, 2016, during the Oi Rio Pro, Medina made history once again, becoming the first surfer to land the move "Backflip" in competition; as a result, Medina got a perfect 10 in all five judges thus beating fellow countryman Alex Ribeiro in a 2nd round elimination heat. Medina went on to finish the competition in third place. On June 17, 2016, in the Fiji Islands, Medina won his seventh WCT event, his second in Cloudbreak, in heavy conditions; the win put him as the most victorious Brazilian surfer in the history of the CT only at the age of 22. In the 2017 season, Medina managed to secure 2 more event wins reaching 9 WCT wins in his career, by the age of 23. Though reaching the final event with title chances, Medina finished off the season in second place. With that Medina extends his streak of finishing the season in at least the Top 3 to an incredible four years, since his 2014 world title.
In the 2018 season, Medina's better start than the previous 3 seasons and victories at Tahiti, the wave pool in California, Pipeline lead him onto becoming a two-time world champion, therefore becoming the most accomplished surfer from Brazil, by the age of 24. 2018 was marked as a historic year for Brazilian surfing, as the country grabbed 9 event wins - Medina, Ítalo Ferreira, Filipe Toledo and William Cardoso - out of the 11 events on the 2018 Championship Tour calendar, which culminated in Medina's second world title. CT surfer Jessé Mendes won the Vans Triple Crown
Hanalei Bay is the largest bay on the north shore of Kauaʻi island in Hawaii. The town of Hanalei is at the midpoint of the bay. Hanalei Bay consists of nearly two miles of beach, surrounded by mountains. In the summer, the bay offers excellent mooring for sailboats, stand up paddle boarding and swimming; the Princeville community overlooks from the northeast entrance to the bay of Hanalei River, 22°12′52″N 159°29′52″W. During the winter the surf is a favorite surf location; the wetlands of Hanalei Bay were used to grow taro by ancient Hawaiians. By the 1860s, the new crop was rice, shipped to Honolulu to become the second largest export crop of the islands; the Hanalei Pier was built to help Hanalei farmers move their crops to market. The covered pier's location near the mouth of the Hanalei River and Black Pot beach has long been a favorite family gathering place for fishing, picnicking and playing. On April 5, 1824, King Kamehameha II’s royal yacht, Pride of Hawaii, sank near the mouth of the Waiʻoli River, 22°12′14″N 159°30′37″W, on the southwest corner of the bay after its crew struck a 5-foot-deep reef a hundred yards offshore.
It is believed the crew were drunk at the time. A large section of the ship’s hull washed ashore in 1844 in a winter storm surge, but most of this historic wreck remains buried in silt in the bay. In 1995–2000, archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History excavated the wreck and recovered more than 1,200 artifacts. During this excavation, a 40-foot section of the stern was discovered, re-buried where it was discovered; the Waiʻoli mission at the southwest included a church since the 1830s. Japanese author Haruki Murakami wrote; the story is included in Sleeping Woman. Hanalei Bay served as a filming location for the 1958 film South Pacific and for the 2011 film The Descendants. EPA.gov Hanalei Watershed
The New Zealand Herald
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily Herald had declined to 115,213 copies on average by December 2017, its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country; the New Zealand Herald was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, first published on 13 November 1863. Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the New Zealander, but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland's growing population, he had split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori while Williamson opposed it. The Herald promoted a more constructive relationship between the North and South Islands. After the New Zealander closed in 1866 The Daily Southern Cross provided competition after Julius Vogel took a majority shareholding in 1868.
The Daily Southern Cross was first published in 1843 by William Brown as The Southern Cross and had been a daily since 1862. Vogel sold out of the paper in 1873 and Alfred Horton bought it in 1876. In 1876 the Wilson family and Horton joined in partnership and The New Zealand Herald absorbed The Daily Southern Cross. In 1879 the United Press Association was formed so that the main daily papers could share news stories; the organisation became the New Zealand Press Association in 1942. In 1892, the New Zealand Herald, Otago Daily Times, Press agreed to share the costs of a London correspondent and advertising salesman; the New Zealand Press Association closed in 2011. The Wilson and Horton families were both represented in the company, known as Wilson & Horton, until 1996 when Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media Group of Dublin purchased the Horton family's interest in the company; the Herald is now owned by Entertainment. That company is owned by Sydney-based APN News & Media and the Radio Network, owned by the Australian Radio Network.
Dita de Boni was a columnist for the newspaper, writing her first columns for the NZ Herald in 1995. From 2012 - 2015 she wrote a business and politics column until – after a series of articles critical of the Key government – the Herald discontinued her column for financial reasons. Gordon Minhinnick was a staff cartoonist from the 1930s until his retirement in the 1980s. Malcolm Evans was fired from his position as staff cartoonist in 2003 after the newspaper received complaints about his cartoons on the conflict between Israel and Palestine. Laurence Clark was the daily political cartoonist from 1987 to 1996, continued to publish cartoons weekly in the Herald until 2000. On 10 September 2012, the Herald moved to a compact format for weekday editions, after 150 years publishing in broadsheet format; the broadsheet format was retained for the Saturday edition. In April 2007, APN NZ announced it was outsourcing the bulk of the Herald's copy editing to an Australian-owned company, Pagemasters.
In November 2012, two months after the launch of its new compact format, APN News and Media announced it would be restructuring its workforce, cutting eight senior roles from across the Herald's range of titles. The Herald is traditionally a centre-right newspaper, was given the nickname "Granny Herald" into the 1990s; this changed with the acquisition of the paper by Independent News & Media in 1996, today, despite remaining free enterprise oriented on economic matters such as trade and foreign investment, the Herald is editorially progressive on international geopolitics and military matters, printing material from British newspapers such as The Independent and The Observer but more conservative newspapers such as The Daily Telegraph. It regularly reprints syndicated material from the and politically conservative, right-wing British tabloid the Daily Mail; the Herald's stance on the Middle East is supportive of Israel, as seen most in its 2003 censorship and dismissal of cartoonist Malcolm Evans following his submission of cartoons critical of Israel.
On domestic matters, editorial opinion is centrist supporting conservative values. In 2007, an editorial disapproved of some legislation introduced by the Labour-led government, the Electoral Finance Act, to the point of overtly campaigning against the legislation. In July 2015, the New Zealand Press Council ruled that Herald columnist Rachel Glucina had failed to properly represent herself as a journalist when seeking comment from Amanda Bailey on a complaint she had made about Prime Minister John Key pulling her hair when he was a customer at the cafe in which she worked; the Herald published Bailey's name and comments after she had retracted permission for Glucina to do so. The council said there was an “element of subterfuge” in Glucina's actions and that there was not enough public interest to justify her behaviour. In its ruling the council said that, “The NZ Herald has fallen sadly short of those standards in this case.” The Herald's editor denied the accusations of subterfuge. Glucina subsequently resigned from the newspaper.
In 1998 the Weekend Herald was set up as a separate title and the newspaper's website was launched. A compact-sized Sunday edition, the Herald on Sunday, was first published on 3 October 2004 under the editorship of Suzanne Chetwin and for five years, by Shayne Currie, it won Newspaper of the Year for the calendar years 2007 and 2009 and is New Zealand's second-highest-circulating weekly newspaper after the more established and conservative broadshee
Benzoylecgonine is the main metabolite of cocaine. Chemically, benzoylecgonine is the benzoate ester of ecgonine, it is a primary metabolite of cocaine. Benzoylecgonine is the compound tested for in most substantive cocaine urinalyses, it is the corresponding carboxylic acid of its methyl ester. It is formed in the liver by the metabolism of cocaine, catalysed by carboxylesterases, subsequently excreted in the urine, it can be found in the urine for longer than the cocaine itself, cleared out within 5 days. Benzoylecgonine is sometimes found in drinking water supplies. In 2005, scientists found large quantities of benzoylecgonine in Italy's Po River and used its concentration to estimate the number of cocaine users in the region. In 2006, a similar study was performed in the Swiss ski town of Saint-Moritz using waste water to estimate the daily cocaine consumption of the population. A study done in the United Kingdom found traces of benzoylecgonine in the country's drinking water supply, along with carbamazepine and ibuprofen, although the study noted that the amount of each compound present was several orders of magnitude lower than the therapeutic dose and therefore did not pose a risk to the population.
Preliminary studies on ecological systems show. Research is being conducted on degradation options such as advanced oxidation and photocatalysis for this metabolite in an effort to reduce concentrations in waste and surface waters. At environmentally relevant concentrations, benzoylecgonine has been shown to have a negative ecological impact. Coca alkaloids Dihydrocuscohygrine
Huntington Beach, California
Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County in Southern California. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington; the population was 189,992 during the 2010 census, making it the most populous beach city in Orange County and the seventh most populous city in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,809, it is bordered by Bolsa Chica Basin State Marine Conservation Area on the west, the Pacific Ocean on the southwest, by Seal Beach on the northwest, by Westminster on the north, by Fountain Valley on the northeast, by Costa Mesa on the east, by Newport Beach on the southeast. Huntington Beach is known for its long 9.5-mile stretch of sandy beach, mild climate, excellent surfing, beach culture. The ocean waves are enhanced by a natural effect caused by the edge-diffraction of open ocean swells around Santa Catalina Island. Swells generated predominantly from the North Pacific in winter and from a combination of Southern Hemisphere storms and hurricanes in the summer focus on Huntington Beach, creating consistent surf all year long, hence the nickname "Surf City".
The area was occupied by the Tongva people. European settlement can be traced to a Spanish soldier, Manuel Nieto, who in 1784 received a Spanish land grant of 300,000 acres, Rancho Los Nietos, as a reward for his military service and to encourage settlement in Alta California. Nieto's western area was reduced in 1790 because of a dispute with the Mission San Gabriel, but he retained thousands of acres stretching from the hills north of Whittier and Brea, south to the Pacific Ocean, from today's Los Angeles River on the west, to the Santa Ana River on the east; the main thoroughfare of Huntington Beach, Beach Boulevard, was a cattle route for the main industry of the Rancho. Since its time as a parcel of the enormous Spanish land grant, Huntington Beach has undergone many incarnations. One time it was known as Shell Beach, the town of Smeltzer, Gospel Swamp for the revival meetings that were held in the marshland where the community college Golden West College can be found, it became known as Fairview and Pacific City, as it developed into a tourist destination.
In order to secure access to the Pacific Electric Red Car lines that used to criss-cross Los Angeles and ended in Long Beach, Pacific City ceded enormous power to railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington, thus became a city whose name has been written into corporate sponsorship, like much of the history of Southern California, boosterism; the Huntington Beach pier was built in 1904 and was a 1,000-foot-long timber structure. Huntington Beach was incorporated on February 17, 1909, during the tenure of its first mayor, Ed Manning, its original developer was Huntington Beach Company, a real-estate development firm owned by Henry Huntington. The Huntington Beach Company is still a major land-owner in the city, still owns most of the local mineral rights; the company is now wholly owned by the Chevron Corporation. At one time, an encyclopedia company gave away free parcels of land in the Huntington Beach area; the lucky buyers got more than they had bargained for when oil was discovered in the area, enormous development of the oil reserves followed.
Though many of the old reserves are depleted, the price of land for housing has pushed many of the rigs off the landscape, oil pumps can still be found to dot the city. Huntington Beach was agricultural in its early years with crops such as lima beans, peppers and sugar beets. Holly Sugar was a major employer with a large processing plant in the city, converted into an oil refinery; the city's first high school, Huntington Beach High School, located on Main Street, was built in 1906. The school's team, the Oilers, is named after the city's original natural resource. Meadowlark Airport, a small general-aviation airport, existed in Huntington Beach from the 1940s until 1989. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles. 26.7 sq mi of it is land and 5.1 sq mi of it is water. The entire city of Huntington Beach lies in area codes 657 and 714, except for small parts of Huntington Harbour, in the 562 area code. Huntington Beach has a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean climate changing for the second to the west and south due to its low precipitation.
Although areas such as Huntington Central Park and northern Bolsa Chica fall into the first climate type, thus being the boundary of the cool summer Mediterranean climate on the west coast of North America, except for elevated portions in the southern end of the state. The climate is sunny and cool, although evenings can be excessively damp. In the morning and evening, there are strong breezes that can reach 15 mph. Ocean water temperatures average 55 °F to 65 °F. In the summer, temperatures exceed 85 °F. In the winter, temperatures fall below 40 °F on clear nights. There are about 14 inches of rain all in mid-winter. Frost occurs only on the coldest winter nights; the area is annually affected by a marine layer caused by the cool air of the Pacific Ocean meeting the warm air over the land. This results in foggy conditions in May and June. Construction of any kind on the beach is prohibited without a vote of the people, allowing Huntington Beach to retain its natural connection to
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are found in the ocean, but can be found in lakes or rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools; the term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, did so on their belly and knees; the modern-day definition of surfing, most refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, using foils.
Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing. Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style, the kind of wave, ridden. In tow-in surfing, a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may be used to ride waves. With the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged; the Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 foot wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave surfed.
For hundreds of years, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767. Samuel Wallis and the crew members of HMS Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779; when Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing. References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu, Tonga, far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.
In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo, came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawānanakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards, according to surf historians Kim Stoner and Geoff Dunn. George Freeth is credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing", he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time; when he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original "Long board", which made him the talk of the islands.
To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo. Another native Hawaiian, Duke Kahanamoku, spread surfing to both the U. S. and Australia, riding the waves after displaying the swimming prowess that won him Olympic gold medals in 1912 and 1920. In 1975, professional contests started; that year Margo Oberg became the first female professional surfer. Swell is generated when the wind blows over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch; the size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. Local wind conditions affect wave quality since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave.
Waves are Left Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave. Waves are recognized by the surfaces over which they break. For example, there are Reef breaks and Point breaks; the most important influence on