Neoclassical metal is a subgenre of heavy metal, influenced by classical music and features technical playing, consisting of elements borrowed from both classical and speed metal music. Deep Purple's Ritchie Blackmore pioneered the subgenre by merging classical blues rock. Yngwie Malmsteen became one of the most notable musicians in the subgenre, contributed to the development of the style in the 1980s. Other notable players in the genre are Randy Rhoads, John Petrucci, Jason Becker, Tony MacAlpine, Vinnie Moore, Uli Jon Roth, Stéphan Forté, Wolf Hoffmann and Timo Tolkki. Neoclassical metal takes its name from a broad conception of classical music. In this it is a concept distinct from how neoclassicism is understood within the classical music tradition. Neoclassical music refers to a movement in musical modernism which developed a century after the end of the Classical period and peaked during the years in between the two World Wars. On the other hand, neoclassical metal music does not restrict itself to a return to classical aesthetic ideals, such as equilibrium and formalism.
Its influences include both the Romantic musical period and the Baroque period of the seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth centuries. The music of late Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Bach was highly ornate. Neoclassical metal musicians such as Yngwie Malmsteen and Joshua Perahia are inspired by this aspect of Baroque music and by composers such as the violinist Niccolò Paganini in using runs and other decorative and showy techniques in their performances. Neoclassical metal music thus looks to classical music as broadly understood by the general public and not to the more specialist technical definition used within classical circles. In the 1960s and 1970s, there were many works that influenced this subgenre, Deep Purple's Concerto for Group and Orchestra being the most important one. Other bands, like Rainbow featured neoclassical influences. Early classical influences within hard rock and heavy metal are most notably found in the playing of Jon Lord, Keith Emerson, Ritchie Blackmore, Uli Jon Roth and Randy Rhoads.
But it was in the 1980s. Heavy metal guitar technique developed from its late-1960s beginnings to its late-1980s peak, but before the 1980s, few metal guitarists displayed the advanced technical proficiency, a hallmark of the neoclassical metal style; the popularization and growth of neoclassical metal is related to the ascension of the guitar "shredding" movement. The "golden age" of neoclassical metal in the middle to late 1980s revolved around the sizeable roster of flashy electric-guitar soloists who recorded instrumental albums for Mike Varney's Shrapnel Records label. Swedish guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen regarded as the originator and still-reigning king of neoclassical metal, was brought to the United States by Varney to sign with Shrapnel Records in 1982. Many subsequent Shrapnel artists, including Tony MacAlpine, Vinnie Moore, Joey Tafolla, Michael Angelo Batio, Paul Gilbert, David T. Chastain, Jason Becker, Marty Friedman, emerged in the latter 1980s as exemplars of the neoclassical style.
In recent years, appreciation of the neoclassical metal oeuvre has been confined to guitarists in more of an underground setting, as the style is not well known beyond the realm of guitarists. Today, there are many more bands that contribute as a whole as opposed to the "solo" musicians in the past; some of today's notable neoclassical metal performers are Rhapsody of Fire, Vitalij Kuprij, Trans-Siberian Orchestra, Herman Li, Symphony X, Rata Blanca, Time Requiem, At Vance, Mastercastle, Sound Horizon, Concerto Moon, Pier Gonella, Dark Moor and Stratovarius. A common practice in the genre is to transcribe classical pieces and play them in a rock/metal band format; the Baroque and Classical periods have been influential to the genre because of their unique sound and techniques that blend into a rock setting effectively. Although neoclassical metal differs in theory and structure than neoclassical orchestral music, there are distinct styles and progressions that make a metal piece neoclassical.
The complexity of keys and scales make playing neoclassical metal difficult without a strong foundation in music theory. In contrast to most music, neoclassical metal switches keys in the middle of the song to compliment each other and allow for more artistic freedom. Minor keys are used for their unique note progressions and dissonant sounds. A used feature in Neoclassical metal is the use of diminished seventh arpeggios; as diminished seventh chords are an equidistant scale consisting of stacked minor thirds, they become a useful tool for modulation, as it is possible to move by minor thirds through the chord/arpeggio use the diminished chord as a leading tone to resolve to the tonic a semitone above it. Pentatonic scales are prevalent and conveniently have the same picking structure as minor thirds on the guitar. Playing back and forth between the two scales is common and a good example of how neoclassical metal uses different scales stacked on top of each other to progress melodic ideas.
Classical music Cello rock Power metal Symphonic metal Progressive metal Shred guitar 4. Adams, Ricci "Specific Intervals" http://www.musictheory.net/lessons/31
Slaughter of the Soul
Slaughter of the Soul is the fourth studio album by Swedish melodic death metal band At the Gates, released on October 3, 1995. It was their last album before their eleven-year breakup from 1996 to 2007. Slaughter of the Soul is considered a landmark in melodic death metal and played a major role in popularizing the Gothenburg scene, alongside The Jester Race by In Flames and The Gallery by Dark Tranquillity; the album was recorded and mixed in Studio Fredman, early 1995. Andy LaRocque's neo-classical guest solo on "Cold" was acclaimed as one of the greatest metal solos and guitarist Anders Björler admitted in 2007 that he still couldn't play it properly."Blinded by Fear" was covered by The Haunted on their Japanese version of their live/double disc album, Live Rounds in Tokyo and was covered by Fleshgod Apocalypse on their Mafia EP. The song appeared in the game Rock Band 2 as downloadable content. Tracks from the album have made appearances in several video games. "Blinded by Fear" was made available as downloadable content for the Rock Band video game series on March 28, 2008.
It was included in the game's retail "Metal Track Pack" add-on content disc, released on September 22, 2009 in North America. The song is considered one of the most difficult songs in the series to perform on drums, due to its fast tempo; the title track is featured in both Grand Theft Auto IV: The Lost and Damned and Tony Hawk's Proving Ground. A 2002 Reissue contained 11 tracks from the original 1995 release of Slaughter of the Soul, plus 6 bonus audio tracks. Three of the bonus tracks were cover songs, two were demo tracks, 1 was a unreleased track, recorded during the Slaughter of the Soul sessions; the 2006 reissue contained everything from the 2002 reissue, but included an additional bonus DVD, which featured a 35-minute behind-the-scenes documentary as the highlight. The 2008 reissue contains everything from the 2002 and 2006 rereleases, as well as additional DVD footage—an eight-song live set, recorded in Kraków, Poland on December 30, 1995. Reviews for Slaughter of the Soul have been positive.
AllMusic's Steve Huey awarded the album five stars and called it an "excellent example of Gothenburg-style melodic death metal, the band's best and most focused album to date." In 2005, the album was ranked number 300 in Rock Hard magazine's book of The 500 Greatest Rock & Metal Albums of All Time. Metal Injection ranked Slaughter of the Soul No. 8 on their list "Top 10 Influential Heavy Metal Albums." Slaughter of the Soul was inducted into the Decibel Magazine Hall of Fame in March 2005, being the second album overall to receive such award. All lyrics written by Lindberg. Writing and production credits are adapted from the album liner notes. 01. Blinded by Fear 02. Slaughter of the Soul 03. Cold 04. Under a Serpent Sun 05. Into the Dead Sky 06. Suicide Nation 07. World of Lies 08. Unto Others 09. Nausea 10. Need 11; the Flames of the End Tomas Lindberg − vocals Anders Björler − guitar, phaser drums on "Into the Dead Sky" Martin Larsson − guitar Jonas Björler − bass Adrian Erlandsson − drums Andy LaRocque − guitar solo on "Cold" Fredrik Nordström − production At the Gates – co-production Noel Summerville − mastering Kristian Wåhlin − artwork, logo Absolute Design Associates – additional artwork and layout Frequent Form – logo concept Studio Fredman, Sweden – recording, mixing Transfermation – mastering Slaughter of the Soul at AllMusic Slaughter of the Soul at At the Gates's official website Slaughter of the Soul at Earache Records
Randall William Rhoads was an American heavy metal guitarist who played with Quiet Riot and Ozzy Osbourne. A devoted student of classical guitar, Rhoads combined his classical music influences with his own heavy metal style, he died in a plane accident while on tour with Osbourne in Florida in 1982. Despite his short career, a major influence on neoclassical metal, is cited as an influence by many guitarists. Rhoads is included in several "Greatest Guitarist" lists. Rhoads was born in California; the youngest of three children, he had a brother named a sister named Kathy. Doug, who performed under the name "Kelle", is a musician, their parents and William, were both music teachers. In 1958, father William left the family when Randy was 1 year and 5 months old and remarried, all three children were subsequently raised by Delores, who opened a music school in North Hollywood called Musonia to support the family. Delores had played piano professionally; the Rhoads family did not own a stereo and the children created their own music at home to entertain themselves.
Rhoads began taking folk and classical guitar lessons at age 7 at his mother's music school. He soon became interested in electric guitar and began taking lessons at Musonia from an instructor named Scott Shelly. Shelly soon approached Delores to inform her that he could no longer teach her son, as Rhoads' knowledge of the electric guitar had exceeded his own. Rhoads received piano lessons from his mother to build his understanding of music theory. Rhoads met future bandmate Kelly Garni while attending John Muir Middle School and the two became best friends. According to Garni, the pair were unpopular due to "the way we looked". "Every time we showed up for school it was problematic so we pretty much avoided it. We weren't nerds, we weren't jocks, we weren't dopers, we were just on our own". Rhoads taught Garni how to play bass guitar, together they formed a band called The Whore, rehearsing during the day at Rodney Bingenheimer's English Disco, a 1970s Hollywood nightspot, it was during this period.
"When I met him he didn't know. He was just starting to take lessons for it and just riffing around", said Garni. With this band, Rhoads spent several months playing at backyard parties around the Los Angeles area in the mid-1970s; the pair formed. Violet Fox, who were together for five months, staged several performances in the Grand Salon at Musonia. Among their setlist was "Mississippi Queen" by Mountain, songs from the Rolling Stones, Alice Cooper and David Bowie. After Violet Fox dissolved, Rhoads formed various other short-lived bands such as The Katzenjammer Kids and Mildred Pierce. Rhoads' brother states that a July 11, 1971 Alice Cooper concert at the Long Beach Auditorium that the pair attended was a defining point in the guitarist's life. After the concert was over Kelle said "Randy was mesmerized, he was catatonic just staring at the stage. That night Randy said "I can do this. I can look like this. I can be this." Something clicked that night and I think that kind of showed him what he could do with his talent."
Glen Buxton of Alice Cooper and Mick Ronson were two early rock influences on his playing. At age 16, Rhoads and Garni formed the band Little Women. At the same time, Rhoads began teaching guitar in his mother's school during the day and playing live gigs at night, he graduated from Burbank High School, participating in a special program that allowed him to condense his studies and graduate early so he could teach guitar and pursue music full-time. Recruiting lead vocalist Kevin DuBrow and drummer Drew Forsyth, the band soon changed its name to Quiet Riot. Forsyth had periodically played with Garni in the past. Quiet Riot became one of the most popular acts on the Los Angeles club circuit, by late 1976 were signed to CBS/Sony Records. Rhoads' "polka-dot theme" became the visual focal point of the band, as many fans began showing up at Quiet Riot shows wearing polka-dot bow-ties and vests, emulating what the guitarist wore on stage. While the band had a strong following in Los Angeles, Quiet Riot and Quiet Riot II were released only in Japan.
In 1979, ex-Black Sabbath vocalist Ozzy Osbourne was in Los Angeles. An acquaintance of Rhoads' from the LA club circuit, future Slaughter bassist Dana Strum, phoned Rhoads relentlessly to coax him into auditioning. Rhoads told Quiet Riot bandmate Rudy Sarzo that he wasn't interested in auditioning, but agreed to go to get Strum off his back. Rhoads got the call for the audition just before his final show with Quiet Riot in September 1979; the day before Osbourne was scheduled to return to England, Rhoads agreed to audition for Osbourne at a Los Angeles studio with his Gibson Les Paul guitar and a practice amp and started warming up. Osbourne, inebriated on that day, said of the audition "He played this fucking solo and I'm like, am I that fucking stoned or am I hallucinating or what the fuck is this?!" Osbourne has maintained that he gave him the job. Rhoads recalled "I just tuned up and did some riffs, he said,'You've got the gig'. After the audition, Rhoads returned to Musonia and told Sarzo that he had never met Osbourne, drunk and remained in the studio's control room the entire time.
According to Rhoads' own account, it was Strum who emerged from the
Varberg is a locality and the seat of Varberg Municipality, Halland County, Sweden with 27,602 inhabitants in 2010. Varberg and all of Halland are well known for their "typical west coast" sandy beaches. In Varberg the coast changes from wide sandy beaches to rocky terrain that continues north into the Bohuslän archipelago and as far as the North Cape. Varberg is a charming and popular summer resort and many people from inland cities such as Borås are either moving to Varberg or holidaying there. Varberg is located in a terrain of plains, it is without trees and green areas, in its place are bald rocks and sand. The Swedish authoritative author and bishop Esaias Tegnér described it in 1826 as the least appealing place in Sweden, used in the marketing of Varberg; the sandy beaches are however popular in the summer. Another main factor in Varberg is its natural surroundings; the landscape further inland has rolling hills with lakes and forests in contrast to the flatter coastal areas. Varberg has an oceanic climate that although moderate by Swedish standards, still retains quite large seasonal variation.
Summers are in general cooler than both in Halmstad and Gothenburg, with highs being moderated by the marine airflow. Although this moderation occurs, some summer days can be warm, some winter nights see severe frosts; the highest recorded temperature since 1901 is 33.6°C on July 31, 2018 and the lowest is -25.5°C in January 1942. A fortress called Varberg was erected in the 1280s as part of a chain of military establishments along the coast, in what was Danish territory. In the middle of the 14th century, the old settlement "Getakärr" 1 kilometre north of the fortress took its new name from the fortress; the town was moved 5 km northwards around the year 1400. It was rebuilt near the fortress. In 1645 Halland passed from Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Brömsebro for a period of 30 years, it had at that time about 600 inhabitants. The transfer was made permanent by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658; the town was moved again to the location were the city centre is today. The city was devastated by a huge fire in 1863 and was subsequently rebuilt with stone or brick houses.
In 1890 the population figure had passed 4,000 and with industrialization it reached 8,500 in 1930. The local government reform of 1971 made Varberg the seat of the much larger Varberg Municipality, with a current population of close to 56,000 inhabitants. Although several houses were torn down in the 1970s, most of the city center still remains intact. Varberg's fortress is its most notable historical building because of its size as it has no architectural uniformity, it was first built with new parts being built in successions. Near Varberg there is the VLF transmitter Grimeton, an interesting radio-technical facility and classified by UNESCO to be a World Cultural Heritage site, it can be visited during the summer. Bexell Cottage is located in the area; the following sports clubs are located in Varberg: Varbergs BoIS FC Varbergs GIF FK Lilla Träslövs FF Varberg Vipers Varberg is a member city of Eurotowns network Sophie Gustafson, golfer Kamchatka, hard rock band Sven Nylander, 400m hurdler Mathilda Ranch, early Varberg photographer Stefan Selaković, footballer Margareta Svensson, performer, television personality Dafina Zeqiri, singer Niclas Eliasson, footballer Some material from sv:Varberg Cyber City article Varberg from Nordisk familjebok Varberg Municipality - Official site Halland County Museum at Varberg - Official site
Mercyful Fate is a Danish heavy metal band from Copenhagen, formed in 1981 by vocalist King Diamond and guitarist Hank Shermann. Influenced by progressive rock and hard rock, with lyrics dealing with Satan and the occult, Mercyful Fate were part of the first wave of black metal in the early to mid-1980s. Many of the bands from this movement went on to influence black metal musicians in the 1990s in Norway. Since the band's inception in 1981, Mercyful Fate have released seven studio albums, two extended plays and four compilations. After several line-up changes and self-made demos, Mercyful Fate released their self-titled EP in 1982, with the line-up of King Diamond, Hank Shermann, Michael Denner, Timi Hansen and Kim Ruzz. With this line-up the group recorded their first two studio albums, until 1985 when the band broke up due to musical differences. In 1993, four out of the five members of Mercyful Fate reunited to record the album In the Shadows, released the same year. During the 1990s, the band released four more studio albums and went through several line-up changes.
Since 1999, Mercyful Fate have reunited on occasion during the 2000s. Mercyful Fate was formed in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1981, following the dissolution of the band Brats. Brats had been a punk/metal band, featuring future Mercyful Fate members, vocalist King Diamond, guitarists Hank Shermann and Michael Denner. After two studio albums and several line-up changes and Shermann began writing new material, much heavier than any of Brats' previous work; the band's record label CBS was not pleased with the material, demanded they stop singing in English and become more commercial. As a result and Shermann quit the group and went on to form Mercyful Fate. Former Rock Nalle bassist Ole Beich joined the band around this time. After several line-up changes and semi-professional demo tapes, Mercyful Fate released their self-titled EP in 1982; this line-up, consisting of King Diamond, Hank Shermann, bassist Timi Hansen, drummer Kim Ruzz and guitarist Michael Denner, would go on to record the group's first two studio albums.
In July, 1983, Mercyful Fate recorded their debut album at Easy Sound Recording, in Copenhagen, Denmark. Entitled Melissa, the album was produced by Henrik Lund and released on October 30, 1983 on Roadrunner Records. After a number of concerts around Denmark, Mercyful Fate entered the studio in May 1984 to record their second studio album Don't Break the Oath, released on September 7, 1984. During the album's supporting tour, the band played the US for two months and made festival appearances in Germany. Despite winning a cult following around the world, Mercyful Fate broke up in April, 1985, due to musical differences. Guitarist Hank Shermann wanted the band to move to a more commercial sound. After Mercyful Fate broke up in 1985, King Diamond, along with Michael Denner and Timi Hansen, formed the eponymous King Diamond band. Both Denner and Hansen stayed with the group until 1987's Abigail, after which both left King Diamond, they were replaced by Mike Moon and Hal Patino and King Diamond continued releasing albums after Mercyful Fate had reformed.
After leaving King Diamond, Michael Denner opened up a recordshop in Copenhagen, until 1988, when he formed the band Lavina, along with former bandmate Hank Shermann. Hank Shermann had formed the hard rock band Fate after having left Mercyful Fate. With Fate, Shermann released 1986's A Matter of Attitude. After leaving the band, Shermann joined-up with Michael Denner to form Lavina. During the time Mercyful Fate were disbanded, Roadrunner Records released three Mercyful Fate compilation albums; the Beginning was released on June 24, 1987, featured material from the band's 1982 self-titled EP, as well as rare live and studio recordings. On May 12, 1992, Return of the Vampire was released, another compilation of rare studio recordings. On October 6, 1992, Roadrunner released A Dangerous Meeting. In 1993, King Diamond, Hank Shermann, Michael Denner and Timi Hansen reunited to reform Mercyful Fate; the result was the album In the Shadows, released on June 22, 1993, through Metal Blade Records. The album featured a guest appearance by Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich, on the track "Return of the Vampire".
For the album's supporting tour, Morten Nielsen was replaced by King Diamond drummer Snowy Shaw, due to a knee injury Nielsen had sustained. Bassist Timi Hansen was replaced by Sharlee D'Angelo, as Hansen did not want to take part in touring. On June 27, 1994, the band released The Bell Witch, an EP of live tracks, as well as studio recordings from In the Shadows. On September 25, 1994, Mercyful Fate released the album Time, recorded and mixed at the Dallas Sound Lab during May–August 1994. After the album's release drummer Snowy Shaw was replaced by Bjarne T. Holm for the Time Tour. Holm had been asked to join Mercyful Fate back in 1981, but had declined due to prior commitments; the band spent January through February 1996 recording and mixing the album Into the Unknown, released on August 20, 1996. After the album's release, guitarist Michael Denner was replaced by Mike Wead. In October 1997, Mercyful Fate began rec
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w