Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Marvin Julian Miller was an American baseball executive who served as the Executive Director of the Major League Baseball Players Association from 1966 to 1982. Under Miller's direction, the players' union was transformed into one of the strongest unions in the United States. In 1992, Red Barber said, "Marvin Miller, along with Babe Ruth and Jackie Robinson, is one of the two or three most important men in baseball history." Miller was born in The Bronx on April 14, 1917, grew up in Flatbush, rooting for the Brooklyn Dodgers. His father, was a salesman for a clothing company on the Lower East Side in Manhattan, his mother, Gertrude Wald Miller, who taught elementary school, was a member of the New York City teachers union, now the United Federation of Teachers. Miller graduated from New York University in 1938 with a degree in Economics, he resolved labor-management disputes for the National War Labor Board in World War II and worked for the International Association of Machinists and the United Auto Workers.
He joined the staff of the United Steelworkers in 1950, became its principal economic adviser and assistant to its president, took part in negotiating contracts. At the United Steelworkers union, Miller worked his way up to be its leading economist and negotiator. In the spring of 1966, Miller visited MLB spring training camps in an effort to be democratically elected Executive Director of the Major League Baseball Players Association, he won the election by a vote of 489–136. Miller negotiated MLBPA's first collective bargaining agreement with the team owners in 1968; that CBA, covering the 1969 seasons, was a short document. It won the players a nearly 43 percent increase in the minimum salary from $7,000 to $10,000, as well as larger expense allowances. More the deal brought a formal structure to owner–player relations, including written procedures for the arbitration of player grievances before the commissioner; the next CBA, a three-year deal signed in 1970, built on this gain. For the first time, owner-player disputes not involving the "integrity of baseball" could be arbitrated not before the commissioner, an employee of the owners, but before a three-member arbitration panel with a neutral chairman selected jointly by the players and owners.
Throughout the 1969 season, Curt Flood, a perennial standout player for the powerhouse St. Louis Cardinals, argued with Cardinals owner August Busch and General Manager Bing Devine over a $10,000 raise in his $90,000 salary. Shortly after the 1969 season concluded, Devine sent Flood a terse, two sentence letter notifying him that he had been traded to the National League East cellar dwelling Philadelphia Phillies. Flood took the trade as an insult and viewed it as a punishment by Cardinals management for his increased salary demands. Philadelphia's Shibe Park was known to be the most dilapidated in the major leagues compared with Busch Stadium that opened in 1966. Worse still, Phillies fans had earned a reputation for being virulent racists as was evidenced by the epithets and garbage they hurled at black player Dick Allen. At a conference held in his honor at New York University in 2012, Miller recalled what Flood had said to him about Philadelphia before filing the lawsuit: “On his experiences in Philadelphia, he said he had observed that the people at the ballpark, were as racist as any he had met in the south, he was not going to live there or work there.”
Coincidentally, Allen was the player the "Phils" sent to St. Louis as its part of the bargain for Flood. Flood wrote a letter to Commissioner of Baseball Bowie Kuhn stating that he did not view himself as "property" and instructed Kuhn to notify all teams in Major League Baseball that he was willing to consider financial offers to play for any team during the 1970 season. Flood had chosen to ignore the age old reserve clause, which prevented him from negotiating with any MLB team until he had sat out a season. Flood did not take his challenge of the reserve clause and did consult with Miller before suing MLB and Bowie Kuhn. "I told him," recalled Miller, "that given the courts' history of bias towards the owners and their monopoly, he didn't have a chance in hell of winning. More important than that, I told him if he won, he'd never get anything out of it—he'd never get a job in baseball again." Flood asked Miller. "I told him yes, those to come."Flood pressed forward with his suit and, as Miller predicted, became what generations would figuratively call "radioactive".
The MLBPA issued a statement supporting his legal battle, but none of his fellow players nor any of his friends came to his defense as the case Flood v. Kuhn made its way to the Supreme Court in March 1972. Flood was represented by prominent labor lawyer Arthur Goldberg, a former Secretary of Labor, Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, General Counsel of the United Steelworkers while Marvin Miller was the union's chief negotiator. Meanwhile, Miller took his union on a "lightning" strike on April Fools' Day 1972. From April 1 through April 13, the ballplayers stayed away from the ballparks while Miller negotiated with the owners. Baseball only resumed when the owners and players agreed on a $500,000 increase in pension fund payments. Owners agreed to add salary arbitration to the CBA; the total 86 exhibition and regular season games that were missed over the entire 13-day period were never play
Sporting News is a digital sports media owned by Perform Group, a global sports content and media company. Sporting News The Sporting News, was established in 1886 as a weekly U. S. magazine. It became the dominant American publication covering baseball, acquiring the nickname "The Bible of Baseball." It is now a digital-only publication providing essential coverage of all major sports, with editions in the U. S. Canada and Japan. March 17, 1886: The Sporting News, founded in St. Louis by Alfred H. Spink, a director of the St. Louis Browns baseball team, publishes its first edition; the weekly newspaper sells for 5 cents. Baseball, horse racing and professional wrestling received the most coverage in the first issue. Meanwhile, the sporting weeklies Clipper and Sporting Life were based in New Philadelphia. By World War I, TSN would be the only national baseball newspaper. 1901: The American League, another rival to baseball's National League, begins play. TSN was its founder, Ban Johnson. Both parties advocated cleaning up the sport, in particular ridding it of liquor sales and assaults on umpires.
1903: TSN editor Arthur Flanner helps draft the National Agreement, a document that brought a truce between the AL and NL and helped bring about the modern World Series. 1904: New York photographer Charles Conlon begins taking portraits of major league players as they passed through the city's three ballparks: the Polo Grounds, Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field. His images, many of which were featured in TSN have become treasured symbols of baseball's past. 1936: TSN names its first major league Sporting News Player of the Year Award, Carl Hubbell of the New York Giants. It is the oldest and most prestigious award given to the single player in MLB who had the most outstanding season. To this day, it remains voted on by MLB players. 1942: After decades of being intertwined with baseball, in-season football coverage is added. 1946: TSN expands its football coverage with an eight-page tabloid publication titled The Quarterback. The tab is renamed the All-Sports News as coverage of other sports is added, including professional and college basketball and hockey.
1962: J. G. Taylor Spink dies, his son C. C. Johnson Spink takes over the publication. 1967: TSN publishes its first full-color photo, a cover image of Orioles star Frank Robinson. 1977: The Spink family sells TSN to Times Mirror in 1977.1981: C. C. Johnson Spink sells TSN to Tribune Co; that year, the Baseball Hall of Fame inaugurates the annual J. G. Taylor Spink Award, given to a media member. 1991: The Sporting News transitions to a glossy, full-color all-sports magazine. 1996: The Sporting News comes online, serving as a sports content provider for AOL. The following year, it launches sportingnews.com. 2000: Tribune Co. sells TSN to Vulcan Inc. headed by tech billionaire Paul Allen. The following year, the company acquired the One on One Sports radio network, renaming it Sporting News Radio. 2002: The Sporting News drops the The and becomes just Sporting News. Subsequent magazine covers reflect the change. 2006: Vulcan sells SN to Advance Media, which places the publication under the supervision of American City Business Journals.
2007: Sporting News begins its move from St. Louis, where it had been based since its founding, to ACBJ's headquarters in Charlotte, N. C; the publication leaves St. Louis for good in 2008, when it became a bi-weekly publication. 2012: After 126 years of printing ink on paper with weekly, biweekly or monthly frequency, SN publishes its final print edition and moves to digitally only publishing.2013: ACBJ enters into a joint venture with Perform Group. Perform, which owns Goal.com, Opta Sports and other international sports data properties, buys a 65 percent stake in the company. 2015: Perform buys ACBJ's 35 percent stake and assumes 100 percent ownership of SN. 2015-17: SN expands into international markets, establishing editions in Australia and Japan. In 1962, after J. G. Taylor Spink's death, Baseball Writers' Association of America instituted the J. G. Taylor Spink Award as the highest award given to its members. Spink was the first recipient. From 1968 to 2008, the magazine selected one or more individuals as Sportsman of the Year.
On four occasions, the award was shared by two recipients. Twice, in 1993 and 2000, the award went to a pair of sportsmen within the same organization. In 1999, the honor was given to a whole team. No winner was chosen in 1987. On December 18, 2007, the magazine announced New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady as 2007 Sportsman of the Year, making Brady the first to repeat as a recipient of individual honors. Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals was honored twice, but shared his second award with Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs. In 2009, the award was replaced by two awards: "Pro Athlete of the Year" and "College Athlete of the Year"; these in turn were replaced by a singular "Athlete of the Year" award starting in 2011. 2009 – Mariano Rivera, New York Yankees 2010 – Roy Halladay, Philadelphia Phillies 2009 – Colt McCoy, Texas football 2010 – Kyle Singler, Duke men's basketball Beginning in 2011, the awards were merged back into a singular selection, Athlete of the Year. 2011 – Aaron Rodgers, Green Bay Packers 2012 – LeBron James, Miami Heat SN sponsors its own annual Team, Pitcher, Reliever, Comeback Player and Executive of the Year awards.
Many fans once held the newspaper's baseball awards at equal or higher esteem than those of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. Prior to 2005, the SN Comeback Player Award was recognized as the principal award of its type, as MLB did not give such an award until that year; the Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award (
The Oakland Athletics referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the team plays its home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of all current MLB teams; the 2018 season was the club's 50th while based in Oakland. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the team was founded in Philadelphia in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics, they won three World Series championships from 1910 to 1913 and back-to-back titles in 1929 and 1930. The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack and Hall of Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx, Lefty Grove; the team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics before moving to Oakland in 1968. They won three consecutive World Championships between 1972 and 1974, led by players including Vida Blue, Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, colorful owner Charlie O. Finley.
After being sold by Finley to Walter A. Haas Jr. the team won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind the "Bash Brothers", Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, as well as Hall of Famers Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson and manager Tony La Russa. From 1901 to 2018, the Athletics' overall win–loss record is 8,931–9,387; the history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 and to its current home in Oakland, California, in 1968. The A's made their Bay Area debut on Wednesday, April 17, 1968, with a 4-1 loss to the Baltimore Orioles at the Coliseum, in front of an opening-night crowd of 50,164; the Athletics' name originated in the term "Athletic Club" for local gentlemen's clubs—dates to 1860 when an amateur team, the Athletic of Philadelphia, was formed. The team turned professional through 1875, becoming a charter member of the National League in 1876, but were expelled from the N.
L. after one season. A version of the Athletics played in the American Association from 1882 to 1891. After New York Giants manager John McGraw told reporters that Philadelphia manufacturer Benjamin Shibe, who owned the controlling interest in the new team, had a "white elephant on his hands", team manager Connie Mack defiantly adopted the white elephant as the team mascot, presented McGraw with a stuffed toy elephant at the start of the 1905 World Series. McGraw and Mack had known each other for years, McGraw accepted it graciously. By 1909, the A's were wearing an elephant logo on their sweaters, in 1918 it turned up on the regular uniform jersey for the first time. In 1963, when the A's were located in Kansas City, then-owner Charlie Finley changed the team mascot from an elephant to a mule, the state animal of Missouri; this is rumored to have been done by Finley in order to appeal to fans from the region who were predominantly Democrats at the time. Since 1988, the Athletics' 21st season in Oakland, an illustration of an elephant has adorned the left sleeve of the A's home and road uniforms.
Beginning in the mid 1980s, the on-field costumed incarnation of the A's elephant mascot went by the name Harry Elephante. In 1997, he took Stomper. Through the seasons, the Athletics' uniforms have paid homage to their amateur forebears to some extent; until 1954, when the uniforms had "Athletics" spelled out in script across the front, the team's name never appeared on either home or road uniforms. Furthermore, neither "Philadelphia" nor the letter "P" appeared on the uniform or cap; the typical Philadelphia uniform had only a script "A" on the left front, the cap had the same "A" on it. In the early days of the American League, the standings listed the club as "Athletic" rather than "Philadelphia", in keeping with the old tradition; the city name came to be used for the team, as with the other major league clubs. After buying the team in 1960, owner Charles O. Finley introduced new road uniforms with "Kansas City" printed on them, as well as an interlocking "KC" on the cap. Upon moving to Oakland, the "A" cap emblem was restored, although in 1970 an "apostrophe-s" was added to the cap and uniform emblem to reflect the fact that Finley was in the process of changing the team's name to the "A's".
While in Kansas City, Finley changed the team's colors from their traditional red and blue to what he termed "Kelly Green, Wedding Gown White and Fort Knox Gold". It was here that he began experimenting with dramatic uniforms to match these bright colors, such as gold sleeveless tops with green undershirts and gold pants; the innovative uniforms only increased after the team's move to Oakland, which came at the time of the introduction of polyester pullover uniforms. During their dynasty years in the 1970s, the A's had dozens of uniform combinations with jerseys and pants in all three team colors, in fact did not wear the traditional gray on the road, instead wearing green or gold, which helped to contribute to their nickname of "The Swingin' A's". After the team's sale to the Haas family, the team changed its primary color to a more subdued forest green and began a move back to more traditional uniforms; the team wears home uniforms with "Athletics" spelled out in script writing and road uniforms wit
Toms River, New Jersey
Toms River is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. Its mainland portion is a census-designated place of the same name, which serves as the county seat of Ocean County. Known as the Township of Dover, in 2006 voters approved a change of the official name to the Township of Toms River, adopting the name of the largest unincorporated community within the township; as of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 91,239, with the township ranking as the 8th-most-populous municipality in the state in 2010 and the second most-populous municipality in Ocean County. The 2010 population increased by 1,533 from the 89,706 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 13,335 from the 76,371 counted in the 1990 Census. In 2006, Toms River was ranked by Morgan Quitno Press as the 15th safest city in the United States, of 369 cities nationwide. In 2007, Toms River was again ranked as the 14th-safest city in the United States of 371 cities nationwide.
Toms River can be seen in various TV and news media including MTV's Made and Jersey Shore, HBO's Boardwalk Empire and the original The Amityville Horror movie. In 1998, Toms River East Little League won the Little League World Series; the township has. Much of the early history of the settlement of Toms River is obscured by conflicting stories. Various sources list the eponym of the township as either English captain William Tom and ferryman Thomas Luker, or a Native American named Tom. In 1992, as part of celebrations commemorating the township's 225th anniversary, official recognition was granted to the tradition that the "Tom" in "Toms River" was for Thomas Luker, who ran a ferry across Goose Creek. During the 19th century, Toms River became a center for shipbuilding, whaling and iron and lumber production; the settlement and the river were spelled "Tom's River" in its early days, though its current spelling has been standard since the middle of the 19th century. Toms River was located in the southern section of the Township of Shrewsbury that obtained a royal charter to secede in 1767 and form Dover Township.
During the American Revolutionary War, Toms River was home to a strategically important salt works that supplied colonial militias, as well as a base for privateer vessels that plundered British and Tory ships off the coast. In March 1782, a group of British and loyalist soldiers attacked a blockhouse along the river that housed the colonial militia and captured Captain Joshua Huddy, hanged at Sandy Hook. Destroyed were the salt works and most of the houses in the village; the incident complicated the tense relationship between the British and colonial and was a factor in prolonging the peace negotiations that were in progress in Paris until 1783. The village of Toms River is listed on both the national and state registers of historic places. Dover Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's first 104 townships by the Township Act of 1798 of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Jackson Township, Union Township, Brick Township, Manchester Township, Berkeley Township, Island Heights and Seaside Heights.
The township's original name was for Dover and was changed to Toms River Township based on a referendum passed in 2006. In 1850, Toms River became the county seat of the newly created Ocean County when it was formed out of southern Monmouth County. During the second half of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th, many new towns were carved out of Dover Township, including Brick, Jackson and Berkeley; the Village of Toms River attempted twice—in 1914 and 1926—to secede from Dover Township, but residents were unsuccessful. The part of Toms River on the south side of the river stretching down to Berkeley Township incorporated as South Toms River in 1927, but the core of the original village on the north side remains part of the wider township to this day. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, the demographics of the township changed adding over 20,000 residents just in the 1990s. While the village is still the center of municipal and county government, the population in the area exploded in the decades after World War II, due in part to the completion of the Garden State Parkway.
Whereas the village was the largest and most densely populated section of the township for over two centuries, the vast majority of residents now shop and work in other sections of the town. Toms River made international headlines in the 1990s with their Little League Baseball team, nicknamed "Beast from the East", which competed in the Little League World Series three times in five years, winning in 1998 when they defeated Japan by a score of 12–9. More than 40,000 people lined Route 37 for a parade following their victory over Japan. Toms River Little League made it to Williamsport in 2010 giving Toms River its record fourth Mid-Atlantic championship. Toms River is home to many National Champion Pop Warner Football and Cheerleading titles. 1996 Toms River Raider Jr. PeeWee Football team won a National Championship. Cheerleaders from the Toms River Little Indians, Toms River Raiders, the Toms River Angels have won many National Titles; the first National Championship title was won in 1993 by the Toms River Little Indian Midget Cheer squad.
In 2001, 2002, 2003 the Toms Ri
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Los Angeles Angels
The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball franchise based in Anaheim, California. The Angels compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the Angels have played home games at Angel Stadium since 1966. The current MLB franchise was established as an expansion team in 1961 by Gene Autry, the team's first owner. Autry was a famous singing cowboy actor in a series of films in the 1930s to 1950s, was the subject of the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum; the "Angels" name was taken by Autry in tribute to the previous original Los Angeles Angels, a Minor League franchise in the Pacific Coast League, which played in South Central Los Angeles from 1903 to 1957. He bought the rights to the Angels name from Walter O'Malley, the then-Los Angeles Dodgers owner, who acquired the PCL franchise from Philip K. Wrigley the owner of the parent Chicago Cubs at the time, as part of the Dodgers' move to Southern California; the "Los Angeles Angels" name originates from the first Los Angeles-based sports team, the Los Angeles Angels, who took the name "Angels" from the English translation of "Los Angeles", which means "The Angels" in Spanish.
The team name started in 1892. A. through the PCL, now a minor league affiliate of MiLB. The Angels franchise of today was established in MLB in 1961 after former owner Gene Autry bought the rights to continue the franchise name from Walter O'Malley, the former Los Angeles Dodgers owner who had acquired the franchise from Phil Wrigley, the owner of the Chicago Cubs at the time; as stated in the book Under the Halo: The Official History of Angels Baseball, "Autry agreed to buy the franchise name for $350,000, continue the history of the popular Pacific Coast League team as his own expansion team in the MLB." After the Angels joined the Major Leagues, some players from the Angels' PCL team joined the Major League Angels in 1961. As an expansion franchise, the club continued in Los Angeles as the "Los Angeles Angels", played their home games at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field, the home of the PCL Los Angeles Angels; the Angels were one of two expansion teams established as a result of the 1961 Major League Baseball expansion, along with the second incarnation of the Washington Senators.
The team moved in 1962 to newly built Dodger Stadium, which the Angels referred to as Chavez Ravine, where they were tenants of the Los Angeles Dodgers through 1965. The team's founder, entertainer Gene Autry, owned the franchise for its first 36 years. During Autry's ownership, the team never won the pennant; the team has gone through several name changes in their history, first changing their name to the California Angels on September 2, 1965, with a month still left in the season, in recognition of their upcoming move to the newly constructed Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim at the start of the 1966 season. When The Walt Disney Company took control of the team in 1997, it extensively renovated Anaheim Stadium, renamed Edison International Field of Anaheim; the City of Anaheim contributed $30 million to the $118 million renovation with a renegotiated lease providing that the names of both the stadium and team contain the word "Anaheim". The team was renamed the Anaheim Angels and became a subsidiary of Disney Sports, Inc..
Under Disney's ownership and the leadership of manager Mike Scioscia, the Angels won their first pennant and World Series championship in 2002. In 2005, new owner Arturo Moreno added "Los Angeles" to the team's name. In compliance with the terms of its lease with the city of Anaheim, which required "Anaheim" be a part of the team's name, the team was renamed the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Fans and the municipal governments of both Anaheim and Los Angeles all objected to the change, with the City of Anaheim pursuing litigation; the team refers to itself as the Angels or Angels Baseball in its home media market, the words "Los Angeles" do not appear in the stadium, on the Angels' uniforms, or on official team merchandise. Local media in Southern California tend to omit a geographic identifier and refer to the team as the Angels or as the Halos; the Associated Press, the most prominent news service in the U. S. refers to the team as the Angels, or Los Angeles. The team refers to itself as the "Los Angeles Angels" on its social media accounts, including Twitter and Instagram.
In 2013, the team was to drop "of Anaheim" from its name, as part of a new Angel Stadium lease negotiated with the Anaheim city government. The deal was never finalized, though as of 2019, most official sources omit the "of Anaheim" suffix and the official MLB Style Guide has referred to the team as the Los Angeles Angels since the 2016 season; the mantra "Win One for the Cowboy" is a staple, rooted in Angels history for fans. The saying refers to the Angels' founder and previous owner, Gene Autry, who never saw his Angels win a World Series in his 38 years as owner. Years went by. By the Angels' first World Series Championship in 2002, Autry had died, but after winning the World Series, Angels player Tim Salmon ran into the home dugout and brought out one of Autry's signature white Stetson hats in honor of the "singing cowboy". Autry's # 26. Angel Stadium of Anaheim is nicknamed "The Big A." It has a section in