A police officer known as an officer, policewoman, cop/copper, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force. In most countries, "police officer" is a generic term not specifying a particular rank. In some, the use of the rank "officer" is reserved for military personnel. Police officers are charged with the apprehension of criminals and the prevention and detection of crime and assistance of the general public, the maintenance of public order. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, have the power to arrest people and detain them for a limited time, along with other duties and powers; some officers are trained in special duties, such as counter-terrorism, child protection, VIP protection, civil law enforcement, investigation techniques into major crime including fraud, rape and drug trafficking. Although many police officers wear a corresponding uniform, some police officers are plain-clothed in order to dissimulate as ordinary. In most countries police officers are given exemptions from certain laws to perform their duties.
For example an officer may use force if necessary to arrest or detain a person when it would ordinarily be assault. Officers can break road rules to perform their duties; the word police comes from the Greek politeia meaning government, which came to mean its civil administration. Police officers are those empowered by government to enforce the laws. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison wrote "If men were pure, no government would be necessary."These words apply to those who serve government, including police. The more general term for the function is peace officer. A sheriff is the top police officer of a county, with that word coming from the person enforcing law over a shire. A person, deputized to serve the function of the sheriff is referred to as the deputy. A common nickname for a police officer is cop; the term copper is used in Britain to mean "someone who captures". The common myth is that it's a term referring to the police officer's buttons which are made of copper; the term County Mountie is used in reference to county police officers or county sheriff's deputies in the United States.
As with Canadian Mounties, the term mountie comes from police. Responsibilities of a police officer are varied, may differ from within one political context to another. Typical duties relate to keeping the peace, law enforcement, protection of people and property and the investigation of crimes. Officers are expected to respond to a variety of situations. Rules and guidelines dictate how an officer should behave within the community, in many contexts, restrictions are placed on what the uniformed officer wears. In some countries and procedures dictate that a police officer is obliged to intervene in a criminal incident if they are off-duty. Police officers in nearly all countries retain their lawful powers while off duty. In the majority of Western legal systems, the major role of the police is to maintain order, keeping the peace through surveillance of the public, the subsequent reporting and apprehension of suspected violators of the law, they function to discourage crimes through high-visibility policing, most police forces have an investigative capability.
Police have the legal authority to arrest and detain granted by magistrates. Police officers respond to emergency calls, along with routine community policing. Police are used as an emergency service and may provide a public safety function at large gatherings, as well as in emergencies, disasters and rescue situations, road traffic collisions. To provide a prompt response in emergencies, the police coordinate their operations with fire and emergency medical services. In some countries, individuals serve jointly as police officers as well as firefighters. In many countries, there is a common emergency service number that allows the police, firefighters, or medical services to be summoned to an emergency; some countries, such as the United Kingdom have outlined command procedures, for the use in major emergencies or disorder. The Gold Silver Bronze command structure is a system set up to improve communications between ground-based officers and the control room Bronze Commander would be a senior officer on the ground, coordinating the efforts in the center of the emergency, Silver Commanders would be positioned in an'Incident Control Room' erected to improve better communications at the scene, a Gold Commander who would be in the Control Room.
Police are responsible for reprimanding minor offenders by issuing citations which may result in the imposition of fines for violations of traffic law. Traffic enforcement is and accomplished by police officers on motorcycles—called motor officers, these officers refer to the motorcycles they ride on duty as motors. Police are trained to assist persons in distress, such as motorists whose car has broken down and people experiencing a medical emergency. Police are trained in basic first aid such as CPR; some park rangers are commissioned as law enforcement officers and carry out a law-enforcement role within national parks and other back-country wilderness and recreational areas, whereas Military police perform law enforcement functions within the military. In most countries, candidates for the police force
Ian Beale is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Adam Woodyatt. He is the longest-serving character and the only remaining original character to have appeared continuously since the first episode on 19 February 1985; the character appeared in his 2000th episode in the show on 26 March 2007, his 3000th on 27 May 2016. Ian is the most-married character in EastEnders history, with five marriages to four women and two aborted engagements, he has fathered three children, acted as a father figure to Peter and Lucy's half-brother and half-sister, Steven Beale and Cindy Williams, respectively. As of 2019, Ian is the current owner of 45 Albert Square, traditionally represented within the series as the family home of the Beale and Fowler family, has been on the show for 34 years; as a teenager, Ian argues with his father Pete Beale over his desire to become a caterer but his grandmother Lou Beale encourages him. He buys a local café soon after graduating from catering college.
Ian has several failed romances, including with Sharon Watts. Sharon becomes interested in Simon Wicks, believed to be Ian's half-brother, but they remain close friends; when his cousin Michelle falls pregnant, he is suspected to be the father by Pete and Kathy. He starts a relationship with Tina Hopkins and the pair decide to move in together, renting one of Kelvin Carpenter's father Tony Carpenter's flats. Ian loses his virginity to her, to his glee. Ian and Tina break up when Tina's parents make an unannounced visit and are unhappy with their living conditions, so they take Tina to Ilford. Ian's uncle Kenny Beale and cousin Elizabeth Beale visit from New Zealand and Ian and Elizabeth taking a liking to each other, but they break up when Elizabeth flirts with men and she returns home. Ian begins to develop a relationship with Donna Ludlow, not knowing she is his half-sister until his mother Kathy Beale tells him she was raped as a teenager and gave Donna up for adoption. Ian gets engaged to Cindy Williams in 1989.
Cindy marries Ian and claims that the baby she is expecting, Steven Beale, is his, resulting in Ian attempting suicide when he learns the truth. He recovers and causes Simon to have a car accident in revenge so Simon and Steven leave Walford together. Ian immerses himself in his catering business but his exploitative working practices alienate his friends and family, he and Cindy reconcile and Ian is overjoyed to become a father to twins, Peter Beale and Lucy Beale. After opening a fish and chip shop, Ian becomes so obsessed with building his business empire that he neglects Cindy, who decides to leave him for his half-brother, David Wicks. Ian wins custody of their children, makes Cindy so miserable that she hires John Valecue, a hitman to kill him. Ian is only clipped by the bullet and recovers. Cindy leaves the country with Steven and Peter and spends a year in Italy before Ian traces them and retrieves the boys. Cindy is implicated in Ian's shooting, she is jailed on remand and dies several months in prison during childbirth.
Ian has a serious romance with the manager of his bric-a-brac shop. She proposes to him but cheats on him with Steve Owen. Suspecting that she is planning to leave him, Ian manipulates her by falsely claiming that Lucy is dying from lymphoma, they marry in 1999, but she leaves him during their wedding reception after discovering that Lucy is fine. Ian pursues a new business venture: development of high-market flats, he begins a casual relationship with his nanny, Laura Dunn, but only commits to her after being declared bankrupt. Laura buys back the fish and chip shop and, despite fearing that Ian is only interested in an inheritance she has received, they marry in May 2001, their marriage deteriorates. He refuses to have a child with Laura, who belittles him. Steven learns that Ian has been visiting local prostitute Janine Butcher, tells Laura, before moving to New Zealand to live with Simon. Laura forgives Ian on the condition. Although he agrees, Ian has a secret vasectomy and throws Laura out when she becomes pregnant that year after conning her into signing over control of their businesses.
Laura's son Bobby Beale requires a blood transfusion shortly after his birth, making Laura realise that Ian must be his father, as her lover Garry Hobbs is not a match. Laura dies in 2004. Ian takes custody of Bobby and takes in his half-brother Ben Mitchell, following the death of their mother. Ian fights Ben's father Phil Mitchell for custody, worsening their long-standing enmity which stems from Phil's disastrous marriage to Ian's mother Kathy. Ian meets a new romantic interest, Jane Collins, in 2004, he helps her to come to terms with the death of her husband, David Collins from Huntington's disease, although their relationship is tested when Jane has a brief affair with Phil's brother, Grant Mitchell, they marry in July 2007. Steven returns to Walford and stalks Ian, escalating to holding him hostage for several weeks
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Linda Davidson is a Canadian-British former actress and writer. She played Mary Smith in the BBC soap opera, EastEnders. Mary was one of the serial's original characters. Away from EastEnders, Davidson appeared on stage. However, she stopped performing in the late 1990s, she went on to work in digital media for the BBC and Channel 4, joined Discovery Communications. Davidson began as an dancer, she attended drama school, the Italia Conti Academy in London, moved into television acting. Her big television break came in 1984, when she secured the role of Mary Smith, in the fledgling BBC serial drama, EastEnders. During Davidson's time on the show her character was involved in storylines about prostitution, unemployment and the taking into care of her child, Annie, by social services, she quit EastEnders in 1988. Davidson went on to act in First of the Summer Wine, she appeared in various theatre productions. Despite retiring from acting, Davidson agreed to reprise her role of Mary Smith in EastEnders for a single episode in 2019.
Davidson developed an interest in writing and worked as a TV sit-com writer and voiceover actress. Some of her stories were published and she had several scripts for film and television optioned, but the projects did not go ahead, her interest in writing and the internet signified the next stage of her career. She wrote for BBC Online, making contributions to Tomorrow's Good Homes online. In the mid 90s she was including the EastEnders website, she worked as the editor of E4 Interactive in the 2000s. Davidson, daughter of Alan Davidson, emigrated from Canada to England as a child, she now resides in London. During the 1980s, she dated her co-star on EastEnders who played Ali Osman, she now has a partner with. Linda Davidson on IMDb
East End of London
The East End of London called the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, north of the River Thames. It does not have universally accepted boundaries, though the various channels of the River Lea are considered to be the eastern boundary, it comprises areas of East London and London Docklands. The East End began to emerge in the Middle Ages with slow urban growth outside the eastern walls, which accelerated in the 19th century, to absorb pre-existing settlements; the first known written record of the East End as a distinct entity, as opposed its component parts, comes from John Strype's 1720 Survey of London, which describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Southwark, "That Part beyond the Tower". The relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical; the East End was the urbanised part of an administrative area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London since time immemorial.
As London grew further, the urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London grew further still, east of the River Lea and into Essex. The area was notorious for its deep poverty and associated social problems; this led to the East End's history of intense political activism and association with some of the country's most influential social reformers. Another major theme of East End history has been migration, both outward; the area had a strong pull on the rural poor from other parts of England, attracted waves of migration from further afield, notably Huguenot refugees, who created a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century, Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews, and, in the 20th century, Sylheti Bangladeshis. The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands Development Corporation; the Canary Wharf development improved infrastructure, the Olympic Park mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some parts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.
The East End lies east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London, north of the River Thames. Aldgate Pump, on the edge of the City, is regarded as the symbolic start of the East End. On the river, Tower Bridge is sometimes described in these terms. Beyond these reference points, the East End has no official or accepted boundaries, views vary as to how much of wider East London lies within it; the narrowest definition restricts the East End to the modern London Borough of Tower Hamlets. A more common preference is to add to Tower Hamlets the former borough of Shoreditch. Other commentators prefer a definition still broader, encompassing districts east of the River Lea, such as West Ham, East Ham, Leyton and Ilford; the East End began with the medieval growth of London beyond its walls, along the Roman roads leading from Bishopsgate and Aldgate and alongside the Thames. Growth was much slower in the east, the modest extensions on this side were separated from the much larger extensions in the west by the marshy open area of Moorfields adjacent to the wall on the north side, which discouraged development in that direction.
Building accelerated in the 16th century, the area that would become known as the East End began to take shape. In 1720 John Strype gives us our first record of the East End as a distinct entity when he describes London as consisting of four parts: the City of London, Southwark, "That Part beyond the Tower"; the relevance of Strype's reference to the Tower was more than geographical. The East End was the urbanised part of an administrative area called the Tower Division, which had owed military service to the Tower of London since time immemorial, having its roots in the Bishop of London's historic Manor of Stepney; as London grew further, the urbanised Tower Division became a byword for wider East London, before East London grew further still, east of the River Lea and into Essex. For a long time the East End was physically separated from London's western growth by the open space known as Moorfields. Shoreditch's boundary with the parish of St Luke's ran through the Moorfields, which became, on urbanisation, the boundary of east and north London.
That line, with slight modifications became part of the boundary between the modern London Boroughs of Hackney and Islington. Moorfields remained open until 1812, the longstanding presence of that open space separating the emerging East End from the western urban expansion of London must have helped shape the different economic character of the two parts and perceptions of their distinct identity; the East End has always contained some of London's poorest areas. The main reasons for this include: The medieval system of copyhold, which prevailed throughout the East End into the 19th century. There was little point in developing land, held on short leases; the siting of noxious industries, such as tanning and fulling downwind outside the boundaries of the City, therefore beyond complaints and official controls. The foul-smelling industries preferred the East End because the prevailing winds in London traveled from west to east, so that most odours from their busines
Phil Mitchell is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Steve McFadden. Phil was introduced to the soap opera on 20 February 1990, was followed by his brother, sister Sam and mother Peggy. Phil is one of the major introductions made by executive producer Michael Ferguson, who wanted to bring in some macho, male leads. Phil and his brother Grant became popularly known as the Mitchell brothers in the British media with Phil portrayed as the more level-headed of the two thugs. Storylines featuring the Mitchell family dominated the soap opera throughout the 1990s, with Phil becoming a popular and long-running male protagonist into the 2000s and the 2010s. McFadden temporarily left the series in late 2003 returned in April 2005 for a brief stint, before making a permanent return in October 2005. McFadden took a hiatus from the series at the end of Phil's liver cirrhosis storyline with the character departing on 6 February 2017, he returned on 24 July the same year. He was absent from the show from August 2018 but returned in November 2018.
Phil's most prominent storylines include his battles with addiction. In 2016, Phil was revealed to be the father of Denise Fox's baby. One of the most culturally significant storylines featuring the character aired in 2001 and was dubbed "Who Shot Phil?". The plot saw Phil shot in a whodunit mystery, with the assailant revealed as his former girlfriend Lisa Fowler; the storyline captured viewer and media interest and the culprit-reveal episode was watched by 22 million viewers. Phil and Grant arrive in Walford to open an automobile repair shop, known as The Arches. Two years Phil goes into partnership at The Queen Victoria public house with Grant and his wife Sharon Watts, moves in with them. Phil grows close to Sharon. Sharon and Phil have sex but she stays with Grant, unaware of their betrayal. Sharon and Grant's reconciliation is brief, amidst more rowing and physical violence, Grant is arrested and imprisoned. In his absence and Sharon continue their affair but when Grant is released, Sharon reconciles with him, leaving Phil heartbroken.
On the rebound, Phil enters into a marriage of convenience with Nadia Borovac, a Romanian refugee, enabling her to stay in Britain, with Nadia departing after the wedding. Phil begins a relationship with Kathy Beale, but Nadia returns, needing Phil to prove he is her husband to prevent deportation, she moves in with him. Nadia sleeps with a drunken Phil, he regrets it, denying it to Kathy so Grant threatens to kill her to make her leave but Phil bribes her into agreeing to a divorce. Kathy agrees to marry Phil in 1994, despite discovering that he torched Frank Butcher's car lot in an insurance scam, accidentally killing a homeless boy trapped inside. Intent on winning him back, Sharon kisses Phil but he ends things there. During Phil and Kathy's engagement party, Grant listens to a cassette of Sharon admitting to the affair and plays it at the party. Kathy is incensed, Grant beats Phil so badly that he has to go to hospital, due to a blood clot in his brain. Phil undergoes surgery, he pressures Phil into blaming Sharon for their affair and Grant forces her to leave Walford.
Phil and Grant make peace but things between them are not the same. Kathy and Phil sort out their differences and have a son, making Phil feel neglected and depressed so he turns to alcohol and develops an addiction; this makes him abusive and neglectful towards Kathy and Ben, so Kathy takes Ben and moves out. Realising what he has lost, Phil gives up alcohol and attends Alcoholics Anonymous, which helps reveal the basis of his problem – the physical abuse he received from his father when he was a boy, his fear that he may abuse Ben, he and Kathy reconcile when he attends counselling until he begins an affair with fellow alcoholic Lorna Cartwright, who starts stalking him. With his marriage in jeopardy, Phil takes Kathy to Paris and admits his affair with Lorna so Kathy throws her wedding ring into the river. Phil begins sleeping rough and blaming Kathy for his decline so she decides to leave Walford for South Africa, letting it be known that an offer of reconciliation from Phil would make her reconsider
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal