Pentecost Island is one of the 83 islands that make up the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu. It lies 190 kilometres due north of capital Port Vila. Pentecost Island is known as Pentecôte in Pentikos in Bislama; the island was known in its native languages by names such as Vanu Aroaroa, although these names are not in common use today. Pentecost has been referred to as Raga or Araga, a tribal name that originated in the north but is now applied to the whole island. In old sources it is referred to as Whitsuntide Island. Pentecost is a mountainous island which stretches north to south over some 60 kilometres, it has an area of 490 square kilometres. The mountain range, of which the highest is Mount Vulmat, marks the dividing line between the humid, rainy eastern coast and the more temperate western coast; the coastal plains, cross-cut by small torrents, are very green and ideally suited for plantations and livestock. It was first sighted by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in April 1606.
Pentecost was again sighted on the day of 22 May 1768, by Louis Antoine de Bougainville. It was sighted by Captain James Cook, during his voyage through the New Hebrides in 1774, it was influenced by successive Christian missionaries but traditional customs there remain strong. Pentecost Island is most famous for being the spiritual birthplace of the extreme sport of bungee jumping, originating in an ages old ritual called the Gol, or land diving. Between April and June every year, men in the southern part of the island jump from tall towers with vines tied to their feet, in a ritual believed to ensure a good yam harvest; the ritual is now used to show acceptance into manhood. Land diving was first given international exposure when David Attenborough and a BBC film crew brought back footage of the ritual during the 1950s, which aired as part of The People of Paradise documentary series. Visitors to Pentecost who witnessed the ceremony include Pope John Paul II and Queen Elizabeth II; the north Pentecost village of Laone was the home of Walter Lini, who led Vanuatu to independence in 1980.
Today, the'father of the nation' is commemorated by a statue at the nearby Lini Memorial College. The Turaga indigenous movement, which rejects the Western economic system and instead promotes an alternative based on the "kastom economy", began on Pentecost and is based at Lavatmanggemu in the north-east of the island; the island has a population of 17,000 at the 2009 census. Pentecost's population centres are concentrated along the west coast, although a number of people live inland. Major settlements along the west coast include: Laone, Loltong, Nambwarangiut, Bwatnapni, Ranwadi, Baravet, Hotwata, Wali and Ranputor. Away from the coast, there are major settlements at Nazareth and Atavtabangga in the north, at Enaa, Tanbok, Naruwa and Tansip in the centre of the island. Most of these places have village telephones and one or two inhabitants who own'trucks' or'speedboats', which the villagers use for transport. A couple of these villages have small banks and post offices; the east coast is wild and inaccessible, with large uninhabited areas, although people are moving into uninhabited areas as the island's population increases.
Major villages on the eastern side of the island include Ranwas and Baie Barrier in the south-east, Renbura and Vanrasini further north. There are no real towns on Pentecost. Most islanders live in small rural villages, surviving by subsistence agriculture and growing cash crops. Taro, a root vegetable well-suited to Pentecost's wet climate, is the staple food. Manioc, bananas, coconuts, island cabbage, nakavika, sugar cane, mangoes, pineapples and European vegetables are grown for local consumption. Vegetables are grated into a paste, wrapped in large leaves, baked in an earthen oven and covered with coconut cream to create'laplap', a savoury pudding. Pigs are important in Pentecost society, not only as food but as a traditional item of value, which may be given as payment during marriage ceremonies or as compensation for transgressions. Boars with long, curved tusks are prized. Woven, red-dyed mats are used as a traditional form of currency. Traditionally, copra was Pentecost's main export, but this has now been overtaken by kava, a narcotic root used to prepare a traditional drink.
Kava is grown and drunk on many islands in the South Pacific, but Pentecost is well known for it, much of the kava drunk in Vanuatu's towns and abroad originates on Pentecost. Cattle were once exported from Pentecost to the meat-processing factory at Luganville on neighbouring Santo island. However, most are now slaughtered locally instead. Houses are traditionally constructed from local wood and bamboo, thatched with leaves of natanggura. However, wealthier islanders now build their houses instead using imported cement and corrugated metal. Pentecost Island has two airports, Lonorore Airport in the south-west and Sara Airport in the north, at which small airplanes land two or three times a week. Lonorore was upgraded in 2008-2009 with a new tarmacked airstrip capable of handling larger aircraft and operating in wet conditions. Cargo ships travelling between Port Vila and Luganville supply the island's west coast, a
Port Vila VEE-lə is the capital and largest city of Vanuatu and is on the island of Efate. Its population in the last census was an increase of 35 % on the previous census result. In 2009, the population of Port Vila formed 18.8% of the country's population, 66.9% of the population of Efate. On the south coast of the island of Efate, in Shefa Province, Port Vila is the economic and commercial centre of Vanuatu; the mayor is Mambo Albert Sandy Daniel, of the Vanua'aku Pati, elected in January 2018. On March 13, 2015, Port Vila bore extensive damage from Cyclone Pam. Locally the town is most referred to as "Vila"; the name of the area is Efil in the native South Efate language and Ifira in neighbouring Mele-Fila language. Vila is a variant of these names. Ifira is a small island in Vila harbour; the area occupied by Port Vila has been inhabited by Melanesian people for thousands of years. In Autumn of 2004, an archaeological expedition known as Teouma discovered a burial site of 25 tombs containing three dozen skeletons of members of the Lapita culture.
Pieces of ceramics found at the site were dated to the 13th century BC. In May 1606, the first Europeans arrived at the island, led by the Portuguese explorers Pedro Fernandes de Queirós and Luis Vaz de Torres. In the 19th century when the islands were known as the New Hebrides, the British possessed economic control of the zone, though by the end of 1880, the economic balance began to favour the French. French citizen Ferdinand Chevillard began buying and clearing land around Port Vila to be converted into the largest French plantation on the island. Instead, it was converted into the municipality of Franceville, which declared independence on August 9, 1889, though this only lasted until June of the following year, it was the first self-governing nation to practice universal suffrage without distinction of sex or race. Although the population at the time consisted of about 500 native islanders and fewer than fifty whites, only the latter were permitted to hold office. One of the elected presidents was a US citizen by birth, R. D. Polk, a relative of American president James K. Polk.
After 1887, the territory was jointly administered by the British. This was formalized in 1906 as an Anglo-French Condominium. During World War II, Port Vila was an Australian airbase. In 1987, Cyclone Uma damaged the city. A powerful earthquake in January 2002 caused minor damage in surrounding areas; the city suffered massive damage from a category 5 cyclone named Cyclone Pam in March 2015, whose eye wall passed just to the east of Port Vila. Port Vila is the center of the country's trade; the international airport, Bauerfield International is located in the city. Air Vanuatu has its head office in Vanuatu House in Port Vila. Major industries in the city remain fishing. Tourism is becoming important from Australia and New Zealand. There were over 50,000 visitors in 1997. Vanuatu is a tax haven, offshore financing in Port Vila is an important part of the economy. Vanuatu is still dependent on foreign aid, most of which comes from Australia and New Zealand, although in recent years aid has come from the People's Republic of China.
One example was New Zealand paying to train doctors selected from the local community paying part of their wages during the first year after qualification. Australia has paid consultants to work in Port Vila Central Hospital. 35.7% of exports leave from Port Vila and 86.9% of imports arrive in Port Vila. The population is around 45,000. Bislama is spoken by everyone as the day-to-day language. In addition and French are widespread. Other indigenous languages are spoken in the city. Christianity is the predominant religion across Vanuatu, followed by more than 90% of the population; the largest denomination is the Presbyterian Church in Vanuatu, followed by one third of the population. Roman Catholicism and the Church of Melanesia are common, each about 15%. Cathédrale du Sacré-Cœur is a modern Roman Catholic cathedral in Port Vila; the seat of the Diocese of Port Vila, the church is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Port Vila has a tropical climate, more a tropical rainforest climate, with noticeably wetter and drier months.
As the trade winds are permanent and cyclones are not rare in Port Vila, the climate is not equatorial but maritime trade-wind tropical climate. Rainfall averages about 2,360 millimetres per year, the wettest month is April; the driest month is September. There are 113 wet days in an average year; the area has south-east trade winds. Temperatures do not vary much at all throughout the year, the record high is 34 C; the coldest month, has an average high of 24 C, an average low of 18 C. The hottest month, has an average high of 29 C and an average low of 23 C; the record low for Port Vila is 12 C. Humidity is high; the capital of Vanuatu has various sights to offer. There are several memorials, e.g. opposite the Parliament where two traditional totem poles and a monument representing a pig's tusk can be seen. The Presbyterian Church of Port Vila is an impressive and sightworthy building opposite the Independence Park. A colourful wall painting can be seen on the administration building opposite the market ha
Ambrym is a volcanic island in Malampa Province in the archipelago of Vanuatu. Volcanic activity on the island includes lava lakes in two craters near the summit. Ambrym was named by Captain Cook, said to have anchored off there in 1774. In fact, his expedition never touched Ambrym. Located near the center of the long Vanuatuan archipelago, Ambrym is triangular in shape, about 50 km wide. With 677.7 square kilometres of surface area, it is the fifth largest island in the country. The summit at the center of the island is dominated by a desert-like caldera, which covers an area of 100 square kilometres. With the exception of human settlements, the rest of the island is covered by thick jungle. Ambrym is a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides volcanic arc; the caldera is the result of a huge plinian explosion, which took place around 50 AD. Its explosive force is rated 6, the third highest in the Smithsonian Institution's Volcanic Explosivity Index ranks of the largest volcanic explosions in recent geological history.
While at higher elevations cinder cones predominate, the western tip of the island is characterized by a series of basaltic tuff rings, of which the largest is about 1 kilometre in diameter. These were produced by phreatic eruptions when magma contacted the water table and water-saturated sediments along the coast; the massive, 1900-year-old, 12 kilometres × 8 kilometres caldera is the site of two active volcanic cones and Marum. Mount Benbow was named by Captain Cook after English Admiral John Benbow. Several times a century, Ambrym volcano has destructive eruptions. Mount Benbow last erupted in 1913, causing the evacuation of the population to Mele, near Port Vila on Efate. Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System, which detects pre-eruptive degassing of rising magmas, improving prediction of volcanic activity. In March 2017, Google added the Marum crater with its lava lakes to Google Streetview. With the neighbor island of Malakula and a few smaller islands, Ambrym forms Malampa Province.
The population of 7,275 inhabitants lives off coconut plantations in the three corners of the island. Like many islands in Vanuatu, Ambrym has its own Austronesian languages. In the north is the North Ambrym language, in the southeast is the Southeast Ambrym language, in the south Daakaka language, in the west Lonwolwol language, in the southwest Port Vato language; these are all spoken by a few hundred to a few thousand speakers each. The kinship system used by natives of Ambrym can be modeled by a non-commutative group. Paama with villages of Liro and Loulep Lopevi with villages of Holen and Halos Fali, Craig Cove, Sesivi, Port Vato, Lalinda, Yaotilie, Emiotungan and Pelibetakever Toak, Uléi, Tavéak, Asé, Pawé, Saméo, Endu Pahakol and Benebo Ranuetlam, Olal, Linboul, Lonwara, Fona and Megham Tourists are attracted by Ambrym's unique features: the active volcanoes, the tropical vegetation, the customs of the local villagers, they stay in traditional bungalows. The island is served by two airports, Ulei Airport in the southeast and Craig Cove Airport in the southwest.
Ambrym is featured in the 2016 Werner Herzog documentary, Into the Inferno. "West Ambrym". Documentation of Endangered Languages. Max Planck Institute. Hosni, Soraya. "Wer_spricht_noch_Daakaka". Science Movies. Project. Center for General Linguistics Berlin: Humboldt University of Berlin. Parker, G. J. "South-East Ambrym word list". Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database. University of Auckland. "Climbing A Volcanic Crater ". Educated Earth. Sep 20, 2010
Malakula Island spelled Malekula, is the second-largest island in the nation of Vanuatu, in the Pacific Ocean region of Melanesia. It is separated from the islands of Espiritu Malo by the Bougainville Strait. Lakatoro, capital of Malampa Province, is situated on its northeastern shore and is the largest settlement in the island. On the northeastern side of the island there is a group of islands called Small Islands, amongst them Vao, Wala, Norsup and Uri. Off the southwestern coast is Tomman Island, in the south Akhamb Island and at the southeastern point the Maskelynes Islands are found, among them Sakao Island and Uluveo, it has a maximum elevation of 879 m. It is called Mt. Liambele. In 1768, Louis Antoine de Bougainville gave his name to the straits which separate Malakula from Santo. Discovered by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernández de Quirós in 1606. During 1914 and 1915 the British anthropologist John Layard lived on the island taking anthropological notes as well as phonographic and photographic records during his fieldwork.
On his return to Britain he donated copies of the more than 400 photographs on plates to the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge. According to the latest census information, from 2009, Malakula has a population of around 23,000 inhabitants.. There are nearly thirty different languages spoken on the island; the two tribes living are Big Nambas in the North and the Small Nambas in the central part of the southern area, whose names stem from the size of the penis sheath they wear, made out of banana or pandanus leaves. It was, until the culture to bind infants' skulls to alter the shape of their heads. Cone-shaped skulls were said to be a sign of higher social status. Malakula's economy is based on agriculture with extensive copra plantations on the eastern coastal plains around Norsup and Lakatoro. In 1939, a copra cooperative was set up at Matanvat in northern Malakula. In no time, it took on some of the cargo cult traits, up until 1950, after which it returned to its original purpose, copra production.
Today, the largest copra-producing plantation in Vanuatu is located at Norsup. Lakatoro has more stores, a market house, a National Bank of Vanuatu branch, an Air Vanuatu office, the main wharf and it is the administrative centre for Malampa province. Norsup has the provincial hospital. Both Norsup and Lakatoro have 24-hour electricity; the interior of Malekula is mountainous and forest-covered with good walking and bird watching. There are old cannibal sites hidden in the bush on north Malekula, but at many the bones and skulls have been removed or buried; the Maskelynes and the small offshore islands along the east coast of Malekula have sand beaches and coral reefs with good snorkeling and diving. There are airports on Malekula at Norsup in the north, Lamap in Southwest Bay. Norsup has a tarmac surface. Air Vanuatu operates daily to Malekula. Lakatoro is Malekula's road transport hub; the best place to find trucks is at the Lakatoro Trading Centre. There are several trucks along the northeast coast as far as Vao.
Maskelynes Islands Malekula languages Haidy Geismar and Anita Herle: Moving images. John Layard and photography on Malakula since 1914, Crawford House Publishing Australia, South Australia, 2009 ISBN 978-1-86333-319-1in Bislama language John Layard long Malakula 1914–1915, Vanuatu Cultural Centre Malakula Flag Malekula Island Hiking & Tourism Malekula Images Malekula Interactive Map
Paama is a small island in the Malampa Province, Vanuatu. The island is about 8 km from north to only 5 km or so at its widest point; the island is dominated by hills. Paama lies a short distance south of Ambrym, a little further east of Malakula, about 7 km west of the large active volcano Lopevi (Ulvae, in the vernacular, a short distance north of the island of Epi. During daylight, all of Paama's neighbouring islands are visible from various locations on the island. Indeed, on a clear night the red glow of Ambrym's twin volcanos can be seen from the black sand beach at Liro; the now uninhabited island of Lopevi dominates the view east from the village of Lulep, on the northeast coast of the island. This active volcano is reasonably regular, erupting every two years or so, causing quite serious problems for those living in the villages of Lulep and Luli in the northeast of the island; the acidic volcanic ash falls onto gardens, ruining crops, onto the natangura thatched roofs, rotting it. Today the majority of people living on Paama live in villages close to the coast of the island and make their gardens on the hillsides nearby.
Agricultural produce is by and large for subsistence although some is exported for sale in Port Vila and Luganville. Liro, the island's council and administrative centre is the most populated village on the island; the council building, standing a hundred or so metres up from the shore is said to have been the house of the Rev. Maurice Frater, the Presbyterian missionary resident on the island in the early 1900s. Frater arrived on the island in 1900, when outsiders were treated with great hostility, stayed for 39 years, building 21 churches and converting the majority of the population to Christianity. Today the island's population rests at around 1,600, with the vast majority dwelling on the west coast of the island. However, the number of people claiming to be Paamese is much greater than this. Around 7,000 people living throughout Vanuatu claimed to be Paamese in the 1999 census. Indeed, Paama has the highest outmigration rate of any of Vanuatu's 83 or so islands The inhabitants speak the Paama language, termed Paamese by the linguist Terry Crowley, though the residents have no term for the language themselves.
It is a close cognate of the Southeast Ambrym language. However, they are not so close. In addition to speaking Paamese, the majority of Paamese people speak Bislama, one of the three national languages of Vanuatu. In the northern part of the island there is the grass strip of Paama Airport, based at the village of Tavie. Landing and taking off from this airport is not for the faint-hearted – it is one of the shortest airstrips in the whole of Vanuatu
Maewo is an island in Vanuatu in Penama province, 105 km to the east of Espiritu Santo. It is 47 km long, 6 km wide, with an area of 269 km², its highest point is 795 m above sea level. In 2009 the island had a population of 3,600. First recorded sighting of Maewo Island by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernández de Quirós at the end of April 1606, they charted it as Aurora. Maewo is the island with the highest rainfall in greater than 2500 mm per year; the island is covered in lush vegetation. The heavy rainfall provides waterfalls. There are hot springs in the centre of Maewo; the largest of these waterfalls is a series of cascades located near Maewo-Naone Airport on the north end of the island near the village of Naone. This series of cascades is referred to as Big Wota
Tafea is the southernmost of the six provinces of Vanuatu. The name is an acronym for the five main islands that make up the province: Tanna, Futuna and Aniwa. Unlike the other provinces of Vanuatu, the territorial integrity of this administrative unit has been unchanged since the times of the Condominium, when it was called Southern District, or Tanna after the main island. Only the capital moved from Lenakel than two kilometers more southeast. A secessionist movement began in the 1970s, the Nation of Tanna was proclaimed on March 24, 1974. While the British were more open to allowing its holdings in Vanuatu independence, it was opposed by the French colonists and suppressed by the Anglo-French Condominium authorities on June 29, 1974. In 1980, there was another attempt to secede, declaring the Tafea Nation on January 1, 1980, its name coming from the initials of the five islands that were to be part of the nation. British forces intervened on May 26, 1980, allowing the islands to become part of the newly independent nation of Vanuatu on July 30, 1980.
The province has a population of 32,540 people and an area of 1,628 km². The main island, though second to Erromango in area, is Tanna, with some 80 percent of the province population, with the provincial capital of Isangel, the largest village of Lenakel, both close together on the southwest coast; the three larger islands are Melanesian, but the smaller two and Futuna known under the collective term Erronan Islands, are Polynesian outliers. Futuna is sometimes called West Futuna to distinguish it from Futuna Island and Futuna; the island of Tanna has the world's most accessible volcano, Mount Yasur, with 1,084 meters the highest peak of the province. Aniwa Island is the only coral island, the other four are volcanic and reach much higher elevations than Aniwa. Anatom is the southernmost island of Vanuatu, its southeastern cape Nétchan Néganneaing is the southernmost point of land in Vanuatu, more southerly than the southern satellite islet Inyeug. The latter, however, is surrounded Intao Reef, that extends further south, albeit submerged, thus being the southernmost feature of Vanuatu.
Media related to Tafea Province at Wikimedia Commons