SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anesthesia

Anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness, induced for medical purposes. It may include analgesia, amnesia, or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient, or would otherwise be technically unfeasible. Three broad categories of anesthesia exist: General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation. A patient receiving general anesthesia can lose consciousness with either intravenous agents or inhalation agents. Sedation suppresses the central nervous system to a lesser degree, inhibiting both anxiety and creation of long-term memories without resulting in unconsciousness. Regional and local anesthesia, which blocks transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body.

Depending on the situation, this may be used either on its own, or in combination with general anesthesia or sedation. Drugs can be targeted at peripheral nerves to anesthetize an isolated part of the body only, such as numbing a tooth for dental work or using a nerve block to inhibit sensation in an entire limb. Alternatively, spinal anesthesia, or a combined technique can be performed in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing all incoming sensation from nerves outside the area of the block. In preparing for a medical procedure, the clinician chooses one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient; the types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs and analgesics. The risks of complications during or after anesthesia are difficult to separate from those of the procedure for which anesthesia is being given, but in the main they are related to three factors: the health of the patient, the complexity of the procedure itself, the anaesthetic technique.

Of these factors, the health of the patient has the greatest impact. Major perioperative risks can include death, heart attack, pulmonary embolism whereas minor risks can include postoperative nausea and vomiting and hospital readmission; some conditions, like local anesthetic toxicity, airway trauma or malignant hyperthermia, can be more directly attributed to specific anesthetic drugs and techniques. The purpose of anesthesia can be distilled down to three basic endpoints: hypnosis. Analgesia muscle relaxationDifferent types of anesthesia affect the endpoints differently. Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; the goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the patient. To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system. Hypnosis, for instance, is generated through actions on the nuclei in the brain and is similar to the activation of sleep; the effect is to make people less reactive to noxious stimuli.

Loss of memory is created by action of drugs on multiple regions of the brain. Memories are created as either declarative or non-declarative memories in several stages the strength of, determined by the strength of connections between neurons termed synaptic plasticity; each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics will reliably produce amnesia through general suppression of the nuclei at doses below those required for loss of consciousness. Drugs like midazolam produce amnesia through different pathways by blocking the formation of long-term memories. Tied to the concepts of amnesia and hypnosis is the concept of consciousness. Consciousness is the higher order process. For instance, the "sun" conjures up feelings, memories and a sensation of warmth rather than a description of a round, orange warm ball seen in the sky for part of a 24‑hour cycle. A person can have dreams during anesthetic or have consciousness of the procedure despite having no indication of it under anesthetic.

It is estimated that 22% of people dream during general anesthesia and 1 or 2 cases per 1000 have some consciousness termed "awareness during general anesthesia". Anesthesia is unique in; the best anesthetic, therefore, is the one with the lowest risk to the patient that still achieves the endpoints required to complete the procedure. The first stage in anesthesia is the pre-operative risk assessment consisting of the medical history, physical examination and lab tests. Diagnosing a person's pre-operative physical status allows the clinician to minimize anesthetic risks. A well completed medical history will arri

Tanka movement

The Tanka movement was a militant agrarian struggle on behalf of the Hajong tribal people in Mymensingh District, East Bengal 1942-1950. The movement was distinct from, the Tebhaga movement in other parts of Bengal; the Hajong movement was inspired by the struggles of Moni Singh. Bengali communist cadres had arrived in the Hajong areas in the 1930s, helped to organise the Hajong peasants. During the period of 1942 and 1945, Hajong sharecroppers organized in the Kisan Sabha struggled against feudal domination of Bengali Hindu landlords. There was a severe crackdown against the movement in 1946; the Hajong turned to guerrilla struggles. By the time of independence of Pakistan, the Hajong guerrillas operating along the Indo-Pakistani border were well organised. Hajong armed communist rebels captured control over a number of villages and set up their own administration there; the Hajong rebels were led by Podmolohchon Surkuhr Hajong. After being confronted by the Pakistani Army, the rebels built up a base in Baghmara, Garo Hills on the Indian side of the border.

For some time they conducted frequent cross-border raids against Pakistani police parties. Additional Pakistani police forces were sent to the area, patrolling the entire border area of the Mymensingh District; the Pakistani state forces conducted a violent campaign of repression against the Hajong people, most Hajongs left Pakistan for India. Pakistani authorities claimed that "almost all" of the Hajong refugees were communist sympathizers, a claim, used to motivate the expropriation of their households and lands; these lands were sold to Bengali Muslim refugees from India at low rates. The rebels settled down permanently in India. Lulit Surkuhr Hajong founded a branch of the Communist Party of India in the Garo Hills, whilst Podmolohchon Surkuhr Hajong founded a branch of the same party in the Khasi Hills along with Ruh'imohon Hajong and Chondromohan Hajong

Emily Cook (skier)

Emily Cook is an American freestyle skier who has competed since 1995. Her first World Cup victory was in an aerials event in Russia in 2008, she has eight career World Cup podiums, over 30 World Cup top tens and five National Championships wins. Cook missed the 2002 Winter Olympics in her home of Salt Lake City after breaking both feet on a jump in Lake Placid, New York two weeks earlier. At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Cook finished 19th in the aerials event, her best finish at the FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships was fourth in the aerials at Inawashiro in 2009. Cook was named to the U. S. team for the 2010 Winter Olympics in January 2010 and competed on the 2014 U. S. Olympic team in Sochi, Russia, she is coached by Todd Ossian. Sochi 2014 was Emily's third Olympic games. On February 14, 2014, Cook completed the Freestyle Skiing Ladies' Aerials Qualification with a score of 80.01 for 5th place and the finals with a score of 64.50 for 8th place. Her finals score went down from her qualifying score.

Her 8th-place finish was her best placing in her Olympic career. Born in Belmont, Emily's mother died when she was two years old, she moved on to freestyle at age fourteen. She attended a private skiing school in Maine, Carrabassett Valley Academy, she made the U. S. Freestyle team at age seventeen, when she moved to Park City, Utah. Emily attended the University of Utah. Emily supports many non-profit organizations which include The Speedy Foundation, Kids Play International, Right To Play, Women's Sports Foundation, The Youth Winter Sports Alliance, she created a mentorship program, the Visa Champions Creating Champions. In November 2014, Cook received the Athletes in Excellence Award from The Foundation for Global Sports Development, in recognition of her community service efforts and work with youth. Emily Cook at the International Ski Federation "The Concierge Questionnaire-Emily Cook Interview" www.conciergequestionnaire.com 2009-09-17 retrieved 2010-02-02 Personal Website Twitter