An aneurysm is an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon, caused by a localized, weak spot on a blood vessel wall. Aneurysms are a result of a weakened blood vessel wall, may be a result of a hereditary condition or an acquired disease. Aneurysms can be a nidus for clot formation and embolization; the word is from Greek: ἀνεύρυσμα, aneurysma, "dilation", from ἀνευρύνειν, aneurynein, "to dilate". As an aneurysm increases in size, the risk of rupture increases. Although they may occur in any blood vessel lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, abdominal aortic aneurysms. Aneurysms can arise in the heart itself following a heart attack, including both ventricular and atrial septal aneurysms. There are congenital a rare heart defect. Aneurysms are classified by morphology, or location. A true aneurysm is one. True aneurysms include atherosclerotic and congenital aneurysms, as well as ventricular aneurysms that follow transmural myocardial infarctions.

A false aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm, is a collection of blood leaking out of an artery or vein, but confined next to the vessel by the surrounding tissue. This blood-filled cavity will either thrombose enough to seal the leak, or rupture out of the surrounding tissue. Pseudoaneurysms can be caused by trauma that punctures the artery, such as knife and bullet wounds, as a result of percutaneous surgical procedures such as coronary angiography or arterial grafting, or use of an artery for injection. Aneurysms can be classified by their macroscopic shape and size and are described as either saccular or fusiform; the shape of an aneurysm is not specific for a specific disease. The size of the base or neck is useful in determining the chance of for example endovascular coiling. Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the vessel wall. Fusiform aneurysms are variable in both length, they involve large portions of the ascending and transverse aortic arch, the abdominal aorta, or less the iliac arteries.

Aneurysms can be classified by their location: Arterial and venous, with arterial being more common. The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, aneurysms following cardiac surgery; the aorta, namely aortic aneurysms including thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms. The brain, including cerebral aneurysms, berry aneurysms, Charcot–Bouchard aneurysms; the legs, including the popliteal arteries. The kidney, including renal artery aneurysm and intraparechymal aneurysms. Capillaries capillary aneurysms. Cerebral aneurysms known as intracranial or brain aneurysms, occur most in the anterior cerebral artery, part of the circle of Willis; this can cause severe strokes leading to death. The next most common sites of cerebral aneurysm occurrence are in the internal carotid artery. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are divided according to their size and symptomatology. An aneurysm is defined as an outer aortic diameter over 3 cm, or more than 50% of normal diameter that of a healthy individual of the same sex and age.

If the outer diameter exceeds 5.5 cm, the aneurysm is considered to be large. The common iliac artery is classified as: Aneurysm presentation may range from life-threatening complications of hypovolemic shock to being found incidentally on X-ray. Symptoms will differ by the site of the aneurysm and can include: Symptoms can occur when the aneurysm pushes on a structure in the brain. Symptoms will depend on. There may be no symptoms present at all. For an aneurysm that has not ruptured the following symptoms can occur: Fatigue Loss of perception Loss of balance Speech problems Double visionFor a ruptured aneurysm, symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may present: Severe headaches Loss of vision Double vision Neck pain or stiffness Pain above or behind the eyes Abdominal aortic aneurysm involves a regional dilation of the aorta and is diagnosed using ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. A segment of the aorta, found to be greater than 50% larger than that of a healthy individual of the same sex and age is considered aneurysmal.

Abdominal aneurysms are asymptomatic but in rare cases can cause lower back pain or lower limb ischemia. Flank pain and tenderness Hypertension Haematuria Signs of hypovolemic shock Risk factors for an aneurysm include diabetes, hypertension, tobacco use, high cholesterol, copper deficiency, increasing age, tertiary syphilis infection. Connective tissue disorders such as Loeys-Dietz Syndrome, Marfan Syndrome, certain forms of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome are associated with aneurysms. Aneurysms and ruptures in individuals under 40 years of age are a major diagnostic criteria of the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Specific infective causes associated with aneurysm include: Advanced syphilis infection resulting in syphilitic aortitis and an aortic aneurysm Tuberculosis, causing Rasmussen's aneurysms Brain infections, causing infectious intracranial aneurysmsA minor

Burlington, Wisconsin

Burlington is a city in Racine and Walworth counties in the U. S. state with the majority of the city located in Racine County. The population of the city was 10,464 as of the 2010 census. Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the area, Native American mounds were constructed near the present location of Burlington. For example, around 1830, a small Potawatomi village stood in what is now the Town of Burlington, though it wasn't larger than the present-day city; the earliest certain European presence in what is now Burlington was in the fall of 1799, when a group of French explorers and missionaries led by Francis Morgan de Vereceones made a portage from the Root River to the Fox River, reaching the Fox at Burlington's present location. The first European settlers in Burlington were William Whiting. Smith and Whiting had been in the area making a so-called "jackknife claim" to the land on December 15, 1835; the men left the encampment and returned with Lemuel Smith as well as Benjamin Perce, another member of the group.

The four men searched for arable land and built a cabin on the east side of the Fox River Other settlers arrived in the spring and summer of 1836 from New England. That year, the residents of Foxville unanimously decided to change their settlement's name to "Burlington" after the city Burlington, Vermont. Since its establishment, Foxville had been in Michigan Territory. On July 3, 1836, however, an act of Congress organizing the Wisconsin Territory went into effect, Foxville fell within the borders of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Territory, which at that time included the present-day county of Racine; the two counties separated on December 7, 1836, Foxville ended up in Racine County. The first post office in Foxville was created on March 21, 1837, with Moses Smith, one of the four founders of the city, as the first postmaster. In May 1837, a sawmill and a dam on the Fox River were completed. On January 2, 1838, Rochester township, which included Foxville as well as all of Racine County west of Mount Pleasant, was established.

On March 9, 1839, Burlington township and much of Brighton were separated from Rochester. Burlington was a major New England settlement; the original founders of Burlington consisted of settlers from New England, inherited "Yankee" culture, that is, they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. They were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal; when they arrived in the area, there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie. The settlers laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their "Yankee" New England values, such as staunch support for abolitionism as well as a passion for education and the subsequent construction of many schools. They were members of the Congregationalist Church, though some were Episcopalian.

Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism before moving to what is now Burlington. Burlington, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally similar to early New England for most of its early history. From 1844 to 1850, the town of Voree, just to the west of Burlington, was the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, one of many sects founded during the LDS succession crisis following the death of Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith. Although James Strang's group relocated to Beaver Island, Michigan in 1850, his parents remained in Voree. After Strang was shot by two disgruntled members in 1856, he was taken to Voree, he is buried in a cemetery in Burlington. Strang's church still maintains a congregation in Voree to this day, the local historical society has erected a monument to the Mormon settlement there. Burlington was incorporated as a village in 1886. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.73 square miles, of which, 7.50 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water.

Burlington is located at 42°40′40″N 88°16′41″W. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,464 people, 4,240 households, 2,702 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,395.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,529 housing units at an average density of 603.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.8% White, 0.9% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 3.4% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.6% of the population. There were 4,240 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.3% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 38.6 years.

25.4% of residents were under the age of 18.

Zemgus Girgensons

Zemgus Girgensons is a Latvian professional ice hockey centre playing for the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League. He was selected 14th overall in the 2012 NHL Entry Draft by the Buffalo Sabres. With this selection, Girgensons became the highest-drafted Latvian in NHL history, 16 spots higher than previous highest selection, Sandis Ozoliņš, in 1991. In the previous year, Girgensons was selected in the second round, 28th overall, in the 2011 Kontinental Hockey League Junior Draft by CSKA Moscow. Girgensons become playing hockey in EVHS hockey school and was coached by former Dinamo Rīga player Edmunds Vasiļjevs, he played in Latvian minor and youth leagues. In 2009, Girgensons moved to North America and played in the Eastern Junior Hockey League for the Green Mountain Glades; the next season, he moved to the United States Hockey League and played for the Dubuque Fighting Saints. In 2011, he became a USHL champion with the Fighting Saints, he participated in the USHL All-Star Game. In the 2011–12 season, his last as a junior, Girgensons was named as the captain of the Fighting Saints.

Girgensons entered his draft eligibility year. He was selected by the Buffalo Sabres in the first round, 14th overall; the Sabres had used their own first-round pick, selecting Mikhail Grigorenko 12th overall, but traded a first-round pick, which Calgary used to select Mark Jankowski, a second-round pick, to move up seven spots to draft Girgensons. Before attending the Sabres' prospects' summer camp, Girgensons had committed to going to the University of Vermont Catamounts of the NCAA. Girgensons began the 2012–13 season in the American Hockey League with the Rochester Americans, he had a slow start to the season and, at the beginning of 2013, he suffered an injury from a late hit by Richard Pánik of the Syracuse Crunch. However, he finished the season scoring three goals in the Americans' first-round defeat in the Calder Cup playoffs. After scoring three goals and adding one assist in five pre-season games, Girgensons began the 2013–14 season in the NHL with the Sabres, he scored his first career NHL goal in the Sabres' season opener against Jimmy Howard of the Detroit Red Wings on 2 October 2013.

Girgensons was the runaway leader in fan voting for the 2015 All-Star Game, buoyed in large part by votes from his native Latvia. On 1 September 2016 Girgensons, as restricted free agent re-signed with the Sabres, agreeing to a one-year, $1.15 million contract extension. The following season, on 17 August 2017, Girgensons re-signed with the Sabres again, agreeing to a two-year contract worth $3.2 million Girgensons participated at the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships as a member of the Latvian junior team and at the 2010 IIHF World U18 Championships. He made his senior national team debut in 2013 World Championships against the United States and scored his first international goal against Slovakia, he was suspended for one game for spearing Branislav Mezei in the first period of the match in retaliation for an earlier hit. On 7 January 2014, it was announced that Latvia Head Coach Ted Nolan had included Girgensons on his national team roster for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Girgensons scored his first Olympic goal in Latvia's third tournament game, coming versus Sweden off of a power play goal against Henrik Lundqvist.

Girgensons comes from a hockey family. His father, Aldis Girgensons, played defence for Dinamo Riga. Zemgus Girgensons got married on July 27th 2019 with Katie Sullivan. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile on Fighting Saints website