Institute of Technical Education
The Institute of Technical Education is a public vocational education institution agency in Singapore that provides pre-employment training to secondary school graduates, continuing education and training to working adults. ITE offers apprenticeships for the skilled trades and diplomas in vocational education for skilled technicians and workers in support roles in professions such as engineering, business administration, medicine and law. Established by Ministry of Education, it was known as Vocational and Industrial Training Board. ITE has three colleges that offer the National ITE Certificate, Higher NITEC, Master NITEC and Diploma Programmes. During the 1960s and 1970s, vocational training was managed by two separate statutory boards, the Adult Education Board and the Industrial Training Board, they merged in 1979 to become the VITB. The VITB was formed to develop vocational training; the ITE was established as a post-secondary institution to improve the employability of vocational trainees and to restructure the VITB's programmes.
The government decided that every student in Singapore had to have at least 10 years of general education, with technically inclined students filtered to the Normal stream in secondary schools as preparation. These students would attend the ITE after they finished secondary school education. 1992: Establishment of ITE as Post-Secondary Technical Education Institution. 1994: Operation of New ITE Bishan Institute. 1995: Operation of New ITE Headquarters. 1996: Operation of New ITE Dover Institute. 1998: Operation of New ITE Balestier Institute, ITE Tampines Institute and ITE Yishun Institute. 2000: Operation of New ITE Bukit Batok Institute. 2001: Operation of New ITE MacPherson Institute. 2002: Launch of eTutor Learning System, eStudent Administration System and new national ITE Certification System. 2003: Launch of ReNEW Initiative for Adult Learners. 2005: Operation of ITE College East, ITE's first comprehensive college. Establishment of the Info-Comm Centre of Technology, ITE's first centre of technology.
Winning of Singapore Quality Award for World-Class Business Excellence. 2007: Winning of global IBM Innovations Award in Transforming Government. 2010: Operation of ITE College West, ITE's second comprehensive college. 2013: ITE College Central and final regional campus of ITE was operational. Annually, ITE takes in 25% of an annual school cohort, or an intake of about 13,000 students per year, with an annual enrollment of about 25,000. Full-time students are secondary school graduates with the requisite GCE'N' or'O' level qualifications. To refine technical education in Singapore, the "One ITE System, Four Colleges" Model of Education and Governance was introduced in 2005 to merge the 10 ITE's into 3 regional colleges. ITE College West, ITE Headquarters, ITE College West and ITE College West were merged into ITE College West while ITE College Central, ITE College Central, ITE College Central, ITE College Central and ITE College Central were merged into ITE College Central. ITE College Central - ITE East Network ITE College East - ITE Regional Campus ITE College West - ITE West Network ITE has won a number of local awards as well as international awards.
In 2005, it became the first educational institution to be awarded the Singapore Quality Award by Spring Singapore. This award is awarded to world-class organisations that demonstrate the highest standards of business excellence. ITE has won the Public Service Distinguished Award, awarded by the Prime Minister's office in 2010, as well as the Singapore Innovation Class, awarded by Spring Singapore in 2011. In 2007, among 30 countries that participated, ITE won the inaugural Harvard-IBM Innovations Award in Transforming Government; this prestigious award was conferred by the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance and Innovation of Harvard University and recognises ITE's programmes as having a profound impact on the lives of citizens. Jeremy Chan-Singapore actor Jayley Woo-Identical twins who are actresses. Romeo Tan- Singapore actor Fandi Ahmad - Singapore footballer Safuwan Baharudin - Singapore national footballer ITE website
School discipline relates to the actions taken by a teacher or the school organization towards a student when the student's behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a rule created by the teacher or the school system. Discipline can guide the children's behaviour or set limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them. School systems set rules, if students break these rules they are subject to discipline; these rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, social conduct, work ethic. The term "discipline" is applied to the punishment, the consequence of breaking the rules; the aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority students.
Disciplining children is important to create a safe and fun learning environment. Discipline requires knowledge, skill and self-confidence. Many people confuse discipline with classroom management. Discipline can have a positive influence on both the individual as well as classroom environment. Utilizing disciplinary actions can be an opportunity to reflect and learn about consequences, instill collective values, encourage behavior, acceptable for the classroom. Recognition of the diversity of values within communities can increase understanding and tolerance of different disciplinary techniques. Promoting positive correction of questionable behavior within the classroom dynamic, as opposed to out-of-class punishments like detention, suspension, or expulsion, can encourage learning and discourage future misbehavior. Learning to own one’s bad behavior can contribute to positive growth in social emotional learning. Discipline is a set of actions determined by the school district to remedy actions taken by a student that are deemed inappropriate.
Some scholars think students misbehave because of the lack of engagement and stimulation in typical school settings, a rigid definition of acceptable behaviors and a lack of attention and love in a student's personal life. Scholars have begun to explore alternative explanations for why students are being disciplined, in particular the disproportionate rate of discipline towards African American and minority students. Lack of engagement and stimulation – students are curious and searching for meaning and stimulation in the school environment. Classes that are too one-dimensional, that fail to involve students sufficiently, are too challenging or are much information heavy, will not satisfy students' curiosities or needs for authentic intellectual stimulation. A rigid definition of acceptable behavior – Most students older ones, are asked to sit at their desks for many minutes at a time and listen and take notes. Teachers who fail to offer opportunities for movement and interpersonal engagement are likelier to have to use strictness and rules to maintain law and order.
Lack of attention and love – When students fail to receive the attention that they crave, they are likelier to find other ways to get it if it means drawing negative attention to themselves and negative consequences. The more teachers let their students know how much they care about them and value their work, the likelier they are to respect a teacher's request and conform to their expectation. Disproportionate punishment – African-American students boys, are disciplined more in schools than any other demographic. African-American boys are most to receive out-of-school suspensions. African-American boys were the most to be labeled by faculty or school administration as overtly aggressive. Research suggests that when given an opportunity to choose among several disciplinary options for a minor offense and school administrators choose more severe punishment for black students than for white students for the same offense. Researchers who have examined these problems in American schools argue that schools use zero-tolerance discipline policies to, in effect, criminalize misdeeds such as dress code violations or talking back to a teacher.
Disciplinary methods vary based on the student’s socioeconomic status. While high-income students more reported receiving mild and moderate consequences, low-income students reported receiving more severe consequences, sometimes delivered in a less-than-professional manner. School administrators may be implicitly biased towards students of colors and students of low socioeconomic status and need to find more equitable ways of disciplining their students in school. School discipline practices are informed by theory from psychologists and educators. There are a number of theories to form a comprehensive discipline strategy for an entire school or a particular class. Positive approach is grounded in teachers' respect for students. Instills in students a sense of responsibility by using youth/adult partnerships to develop and share clear rules, provide daily opportunities for success, administer in-school suspension for noncompliant students. Based on Glasser's reality therapy. Research is supportive of the PA
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Education in Singapore
Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education, which controls the development and administration of state schools receiving taxpayers' funding, but has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools. For both private and state schools, there are variations in the extent of autonomy in their curriculum, scope of taxpayers' aid and funding, tuition burden on the students, admission policy. Education spending makes up about 20 percent of the annual national budget, which subsidises state education and government-assisted private education for Singaporean citizens and funds the Edusave programme. Non-citizens bear higher costs of educating their children in Singapore government and government-aided schools. In 2000 the Compulsory Education Act codified compulsory education for children of primary school age, made it a criminal offence for parents to fail to enroll their children in school and ensure their regular attendance. Exemptions are allowed for homeschooling or full-time religious institutions, but parents must apply for exemption from the Ministry of Education and meet a minimum benchmark.
The education system in Singapore is ranked as one of the highest in the world by the OECD. It is believed that this comes from the style of teaching, implemented in Singapore. Teachers focus on making sure that each of their students move through the syllabus before moving on. By doing this teachers in Singapore teach a deeper type of instruction; the main language of instruction in Singapore is English, designated the first language within the local education system in 1987. English is the first language learned by half the children by the time they reach preschool age and becomes the primary medium of instruction by the time they reach primary school. Although Malay and Tamil are official languages, English is the language of instruction for nearly all subjects except the official Mother Tongue languages and the literatures of those languages. Certain schools, such as secondary schools under the Special Assistance Plan, encourage a richer use of the mother tongue and may teach subjects in Mandarin Chinese.
A few schools have been experimenting with curricula that integrates language subjects with mathematics and the sciences, using both English and a second language. Singapore's education system has been described as "world-leading" and in 2010 was among those picked out for commendation by the Conservative former UK Education Secretary Michael Gove. According to PISA, an influential worldwide study on educational systems, Singapore has the highest performance in international education and tops in global rankings. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded the Singapore Institution in 1823, thereby starting education in Singapore under the British rule. Three main types of schools appeared in Singapore: Malay schools and Tamil schools and English schools. Malay schools were provided free for all students by the British, while English schools, which used English as the main medium of instruction, were set up by missionaries and charged school fees. Chinese and Tamil schools taught their respective mother tongues.
Students from Chinese schools in particular were attuned to developments in China in the rise of Chinese nationalism. During World War Two, many students in Singapore dropped out of school, causing a huge backlog of students after the war. In 1947, the Ten Years Programme for Education Policy in the Colony of Singapore was formulated; this called for a universal education system. During the 1950s and 1960s, when Singapore started to develop its own economy, Singapore adapted a "survival-driven education" system to provide a skilled workforce for Singapore's industrialisation programme as well to as to lower unemployment. Apart from being an economic necessity, education helped to integrate the new nation together; the bilingualism policy in schools was introduced in 1960, making English the official language for both national integration and utilitarian purposes. Universal education for children of all races and background started to take shape, more children started to attend schools. However, the quality of schools set up during this time varied considerably.
The first Junior College was opened in 1969. In the 1980s, Singapore's economy started to prosper, the focus of Singapore's education system shifted from quantity to quality. More differentiation for pupils with different academic abilities were implemented, such as revamping vocational education under the new Institute of Technology and splitting of the Normal stream in secondary schools into Normal and Normal streams; the Gifted Education Programme was set up to cater to more academically inclined students. In 1997, the Singapore education system started to change into an ability-driven one after Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong outlined his "Thinking Schools, Learning Nations" vision. Under this policy, more emphasis was given to national education, creative thinking, collaborative learning as well as ICT literacy. Schools became more diverse and were given greater autonomy in deciding their own curriculum and developing their own niche areas. Differences between the various academic streams became.
The Ministry of Education officially acknowledged that "excellence" will not be measured in terms of academics. The school year is divided into two semesters. The
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, level 3 secondary education is the stage before tertiary education; every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19. Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; the terminology has proved difficult, there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education. In classical and mediaeval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood.
As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years; the rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19. Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical and emotional growth, it is at this education level in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
The 1997 International Standard Classification of Education describes seven levels that can be used to compare education internationally. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations; the seven levels are: Level 0 – Pre-primary education Level 1 – Primary education or first stage of basic education Level 2 – Lower secondary or second stage of basic education Level 3 – secondary education Level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education Level 5 – First stage of tertiary education Level 6 – Second stage of tertiary educationWithin this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form basic education. Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone; these level definition were put together for statistical purposes, to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally.
They were approved by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions and remain unchanged in the 2011 update; the start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. Lower secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 6 years of primary education the requirement for more qualified teachers teaching only within their specialism exit to Level 3 courses, or vocational education, or employment after 9 or more total years of education; the end of lower secondary education coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists. Secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, defined as completion of lower secondary education.
The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is voluntary. Secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 9 years of basic education typical age at entry is between 14 and 16 years all teachers have level 5 qualifications in the subject they are teaching exit to Level 4 or 5 courses or to direct employment. More subjects may be dropped, increased specialism occurs. Completion of secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education, or direct entry into the workplace. In 2012 the ISCED published a further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, the transition between two would be when students were allowed some subject choice. Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, the exact meaning of any of these varies.
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
School corporal punishment
School corporal punishment refers to inflicting deliberate physical or emotional pain or discomfort in response to undesired behavior by students in schools. It involves striking the student either across the buttocks or palms of their hands or on the hands, with a tool such as a rattan cane, wooden paddle, leather strap or wooden yardstick. Less it could include spanking or smacking the student with the open hand at the primary school and junior secondary school levels. In the English-speaking world, the use by schools of corporal punishment has been justified by the common-law doctrine in loco parentis, whereby teachers are considered authority figures granted the same rights as parents to punish children in their care if they do not adhere to the set rules. Advocates of school corporal punishment argue that it provides an immediate response to indiscipline and that the student is back in the classroom learning, unlike suspension from school. Opponents, including a number of medical and psychological societies, along with human-rights groups, argue that physical punishment is ineffective in the long term, interferes with learning, leads to antisocial behavior as well as various forms of mental distress, disproportionately affects students of color, is a form of violence that breaches the rights of children.
Poland was the first nation to outlaw corporal punishment in schools in 1783. School corporal punishment is no longer legal in any European country; as of 2016, an estimated 128 countries have prohibited corporal punishment in schools, including all of Europe, most of South America and East Asia. 69 countries still allow for corporal punishment in schools, including parts of the United States, some Australian states, a number of countries in Africa and Asia. Corporal punishment in the context of schools in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has been variously defined as: causing deliberate pain to a child in response to the child's undesired behavior and/or language, "purposeful infliction of bodily pain or discomfort by an official in the educational system upon a student as a penalty for unacceptable behavior", "intentional application of physical pain as a means of changing behavior". Corporal punishment used to be prevalent in schools in many parts of the world, but in recent decades it has been outlawed in 128 countries including all of Europe, most of South America, as well as in Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and several other countries.
It remains commonplace in a number of countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Middle East. While most U. S. states have outlawed corporal punishment in state schools, it continues to be allowed in the Southern and Western United States. According to the United States Department of Education, more than 216,000 students were subjected to corporal punishment during the 2008–09 school year. Much of the traditional culture that surrounds corporal punishment in school, at any rate in the English-speaking world, derives from British practice in the 19th and 20th centuries as regards the caning of teenage boys. There is a vast amount of literature on this, in both serious culture. Britain itself outlawed the practice in 1987 for state schools and more for all schools; the doctrine of in loco parentis lets school officials stand in for parents as comparable authority figures. The doctrine has its origins in an English common-law precedent of 1770. Many schools in Singapore and Malaysia use caning as a routine official punishment for misconduct, as some African countries.
In some Middle Eastern countries whipping is used. In most of continental Europe, school corporal punishment has been banned for several decades or longer, depending on the country. From the 1917 Russian revolution onwards, corporal punishment was outlawed in the Soviet Union, because it was deemed contrary to communist ideology. Communists in other countries such as Britain took the lead in campaigning against school corporal punishment, which they viewed as a symptom of the decadence of capitalist education systems. In the 1960s, Soviet visitors to western schools expressed shock at the caning of boys there. Other communist regimes followed suit: for instance, corporal punishment was "unknown" by students in North Korea in 2007. In mainland China, corporal punishment in schools was outlawed in 1986, although the practice remains common in rural areas. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, there are three broad rationales for the use of corporal punishment in schools: beliefs, based in traditional religion, that adults have a right, if not a duty, to physically punish misbehaving children.
School teachers and policymakers rely on personal anecdotes to argue that school corporal punishment improves students' behavior and achievements. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence showing that corporal punishment leads to better control in the classrooms. In particular, evidence does not suggest that it enhances moral character development, increases students' respect for teachers or other authority figures, or offers greater security for teachers. A number of medical, pediatric or psychological societies have issued statements opposing all forms of corporal punishme