Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22–23% of the world's fresh surface water. With 23,615.39 km3 of fresh water, it contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. With a maximum depth of 1,642 m, Baikal is the world's deepest lake, it is considered among the world's clearest lakes and is considered the world's oldest lake – at 25–30 million years. It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area. Like Lake Tanganyika, Lake Baikal was formed as an ancient rift valley, having the typical long, crescent shape with a surface area of 31,722 km2. Baikal is home to thousands of species of plants and animals, many of which exist nowhere else in the world; the lake was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. It is home to Buryat tribes who reside on the eastern side of Lake Baikal, raising goats, cattle and horses, where the mean temperature varies from a winter minimum of −19 °C to a summer maximum of 14 °C.
The region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to as Transbaikalia, the loosely defined region around the lake is sometimes known as Baikalia. Lake Baikal is in a rift valley, created by the Baikal Rift Zone, where the Earth's crust is pulling apart. At 636 km long and 79 km wide, Lake Baikal has the largest surface area of any freshwater lake in Asia, at 31,722 km2, is the deepest lake in the world at 1,642 m; the bottom of the lake is 1,186.5 m below sea level, but below this lies some 7 km of sediment, placing the rift floor some 8–11 km below the surface, the deepest continental rift on Earth. In geological terms, the rift is young and active – it widens about 2 cm per year; the fault zone is seismically active. The lake is divided into three basins: North and South, with depths about 900 m, 1,600 m, 1,400 m, respectively. Fault-controlled accommodation zones rising to depths about 300 m separate the basins; the North and Central basins are separated by Academician Ridge, while the area around the Selenga Delta and the Buguldeika Saddle separates the Central and South basins.
The lake drains into the Angara tributary of the Yenisei. Notable landforms include Cape Ryty on Baikal's northwest coast. Baikal's age is estimated at 25–30 million years, making it the most ancient lake in geological history, it is unique among large, high-latitude lakes, as its sediments have not been scoured by overriding continental ice sheets. Russian, U. S. and Japanese cooperative studies of deep-drilling core sediments in the 1990s provide a detailed record of climatic variation over the past 6.7 million years. Longer and deeper sediment cores are expected in the near future. Lake Baikal is the only confined freshwater lake in which direct and indirect evidence of gas hydrates exists; the lake is surrounded by mountains. The Baikal Mountains on the north shore, the Barguzin Range on the northeastern shore, the taiga are technically protected as a national park, it contains 27 islands. The lake is fed by as many as 330 inflowing rivers; the main ones draining directly into Baikal are the Selenga River, the Barguzin River, the Upper Angara River, the Turka River, the Sarma River, the Snezhnaya River.
It is drained through the Angara River. Baikal is one of the clearest lakes in the world. During the winter in open sections the water transparency can be as much as 30–40 m, but during the summer it is 5–8 m. Baikal is rich in oxygen in deep sections, which separates it from distinctly stratified bodies of water such as Lake Tanganyika and the Black Sea. In Lake Baikal, the water temperature varies depending on location and time of the year. During the winter and spring, the surface freezes for about 4–5 months. On average, the ice reaches a thickness of 0.5 to 1.4 m, but in some places with hummocks, it can be more than 2 m. During this period, the temperature increases with depth in the lake, being coldest near the ice-covered surface at around freezing, reaching about 3.5–3.8 °C at a depth of 200–250 m. After the surface ice breaks up, the surface water is warmed up by the sun, in May–June, the upper 300 m or so becomes homothermic at around 4 °C because of water mixing; the sun continues to heat up the surface layer, at the peak in August can reach up to about 16 °C in the main sections and 20–24 °C in shallow bays in the southern half of the lake.
During this time, the pattern is inverted compared to the winter and spring, as the water temperature falls with increasing depth. As the autumn begins, the surface temperature falls again and a second homothermic period at around 4 °C of the upper circa 300 m occurs in October–November. In the deepest parts of the lake, from about 300 m, the temperature is stable at 3.1–3.4 °C with only minor annual variations. The average surface temperature has risen by
Irkutsk is the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast and one of the largest cities in Siberia. Many distinguished Russians were sent into exile in Irkutsk for their part in the Decembrist revolt of 1825, the city became an exile-post for the rest of the century; some of the fine wooden houses still survive. When the railway reached Irkutsk, it had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia." The city saw bitter fighting in the Russian Civil War of 1918-20, became a major centre of aircraft manufacture. Trans-Siberian Highway and Trans-Siberian Railway connect Irkutsk to other regions in Russia and Mongolia. Irkutsk was named after the Irkut River, whose name was derived from the Buryat word for "spinning" and was used as an ethnonym among local tribes as Yrkhu, Irkit and Irgyt; the city was known as "Yandashsky" after the local Tuvan chief Yandasha Gorogi. The old spelling of the name of the city was «Иркуцкъ». Before the revolution, the city was called "East Paris", "Siberian Petersburg", "Siberian Athens".
Locals like to think of their city as "middle of earth". In 1652, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovye near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur taxes from the Buryats. In 1661, Yakov Pokhabov built an ostrog nearby; the ostrog gained official town rights from the government in 1686. The first road connection between Moscow and Irkutsk, the Siberian Route, was built in 1760, benefited the town economy. Many new products imported from China via Kyakhta, became available in Irkutsk for the first time, including gold, fur, wood and tea. In 1821, as part of the Mikhail Speransky's reforms, Siberia was administratively divided at the Yenisei River and Irkutsk became the seat of the Governor-General of East Siberia. In the early 19th century, many Russian artists and nobles were sent into exile in Siberia for their part in the Decembrist revolt against Tsar Nicholas I. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them.
By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolsheviks, had been in Irkutsk for many years and had influenced the culture and development of the city; as a result, Irkutsk became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia. In 1879, on July 4 and 6, the palace of the Governor General, the principal administrative and municipal offices and many of the other public buildings were destroyed by fire, the government archives, the library and the museum of the Siberian section of the Russian Geographical Society were ruined. Three-quarters of the city was destroyed, including 4,000 houses. However, the city rebounded, with electricity arriving in 1896, the first theater being built in 1897 and a major train station opened in 1898; the first train arrived in Irkutsk on August 16 of that year. By 1900, the city had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia." During the Russian Civil War, which broke out after the October Revolution, Irkutsk became the site of many furious, bloody clashes between the "Whites" and the "Reds".
In 1920, Aleksandr Kolchak, the once-feared commander of the largest contingent of anti-Bolshevik forces, was executed in Irkutsk, which destroyed the anti-Bolshevik resistance. Irkutsk was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblast, which existed from 1936 to 1937; the city subsequently became the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast after East Siberian Oblast was divided into Chita Oblast and Irkutsk Oblast. During the communist years, the industrialization of Irkutsk and Siberia in general was encouraged; the large Irkutsk Reservoir was built on the Angara River between 1950 and 1959 in order to facilitate industrial development. The Epiphany Cathedral, the governor's palace, a school of medicine, a museum, a military hospital and the crown factories are among the public institutions and buildings; the Aleksandr Kolchak monument, designed by Vyacheslav Klykov, was unveiled in 2004. On July 27, 2004, the Irkutsk Synagogue was gutted by a conflagration. In December 2016, 74 people in Irkutsk died in a mass methanol poisoning.
In 2018, it was reported men in Irkutsk only survive on average to 63. Irkutsk is located about 850 kilometres to the south-east of Krasnoyarsk, about 520 kilometres north of Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia; the city proper lies on the Angara River, a tributary of the Yenisei, 72 kilometers below its outflow from Lake Baikal and on the bank opposite the suburb of Glaskovsk. The river, 580-meter wide, is crossed by the Irkutsk Hydroelectric Dam and three other bridges downstream; the Irkut River, from which the town takes its name, is a smaller river that joins the Angara directly opposite the city. The main portion of the city is separated from several landmarks—the monastery, the fort and the port, as well as its suburbs—by another tributary, the Ida River; the two main parts of Irkutsk are customarily referred to as the "left bank" and the "right bank", with respect to the flow of the Angara River. Irkutsk is situated in a landscape of rolling hills within the thick taiga, typical in Eastern Siberia.
The population has been shrinking: 587,891 .
Upper Angara River
The Upper Angara River is a river in Siberia to the north of Lake Baikal. It is 320 kilometres long and rises north-east of Lake Baikal, flowing south-west through the Buryat Republic and into the lake, it is navigable. The Baikal Amur Mainline runs along the north side of the river northeast up its valley, crossing between Anamakit and Novy Uoyan and crossing the river a second time upstream before heading into the mountains. Angara River known as the Lower Angara or Upper Tunguska "Upper and Lower Angara",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 26
Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third-largest city in Siberia after Novosibirsk and Omsk, with a population of 1,035,528 as of the 2010 Census. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of aluminium; the city is known for its nature landscapes. The total area of the city, including suburbs and the river, is 348 square kilometers; the Yenisei River flows from west to east through the city. Due to the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam 32 kilometers upstream, the Yenisei never freezes in winter and never exceeds +14 °C in summer through the city. Near the city center, its elevation is 136 meters above sea level. There are several islands in the river, the largest of which are Tatyshev and Otdyha Isles, used for recreation. To the south and west, Krasnoyarsk is surrounded by forested mountains averaging 410 meters in height above river level; the most prominent of them are Nikolayevskaya Sopka, Karaulnaya Gora, Chornaya Sopka, the latter being an extinct volcano.
The gigantic rock cliffs of the Stolby Nature Reserve rise from the mountains of the southern bank of the Yenisei, the western hills form the Gremyachaya Griva crest extending westwards up to the Sobakina River, the north is plain, except for the Drokinskaya Sopka hill, with forests to the northwest and agricultural fields to the north and east. The major rivers in and near Krasnoyarsk are the Yenisei, Mana and Kacha Rivers, the latter flowing throughout the historical center of the city. Due to the nature of the terrain, a few natural lakes exist in the vicinity of Krasnoyarsk; the forests close to the city are pine and birch. The moss-covered fir and Siberian pine replaces other wood in the mountains westward of the Karaulnaya River, in about 15 kilometers to the west from the city, the forests to the south are pine and aspen; the city was founded on August 19, 1628 as a Russian border fort when a group of service class people from Yeniseysk led by Andrey Dubenskoy arrived at the confluence of the Kacha and Yenisei Rivers and constructed fortifications intended to protect the frontier from attacks of native peoples who lived along the Yenisei and its tributaries.
Along with Kansk to the east, it represented the southern limit of Russian expansion in the Yenisei basin during the seventeenth century. In the letter to Tsar Michael I the Cossacks reported:... The town of trunks we have constructed and around the place of fort, we the servants of thee, our lord, have embedded posts and fastened them with double bindings and the place of fort have strengthened mightily... The fort was named Krasny Yar after the Yarin name of the place it was built, Kyzyl Char, translated as Krasny Yar. An intensive growth of Krasnoyarsk began with the arrival of the Siberian Route in 1735 to 1741 which connected the nearby towns of Achinsk and Kansk with Krasnoyarsk and with the rest of Russia. In 1749, a meteorite with a mass of about 700 kilograms was found 230 km south of Krasnoyarsk, it was excavated by Peter Simon Pallas in 1772 and transported to Krasnoyarsk and subsequently to St. Petersburg; the Krasnoyarsk meteorite is important because it was the first pallasite studied and the first meteorite etched.
The name Krasnoyarsk was given in 1822 when the village of Krasny Yar was granted town status and became the administrative center of Yeniseysk Governorate. In the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk was the center of the Siberian Cossack movement. By the end of the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk had several manufacturing facilities and railroad workshops and an engine-house. Growth continued with the discovery of gold and the arrival of a railroad in 1895. In the Russian Empire, Krasnoyarsk was one of the places. For example, eight Decembrists were deported from St. Petersburg to Krasnoyarsk after the failure of the revolt. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, during the periods of centralized planning numerous large plants and factories were constructed in Krasnoyarsk: Sibtyazhmash, the dock yard, the paper factory, the hydroelectric power station, the river port. In 1934, Krasnoyarsk Krai, was formed, with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center. During Stalinist times, Krasnoyarsk was a major center of the gulag system.
The most important labor camp was the Kraslag or Krasnoyarsky ITL with the two units located in Kansk and Reshyoty. In the city of Krasnoyarsk itself, the Yeniseylag or Yeniseysky ITL labor camp was prominent as well during World War II. During World War II, dozens of factories were evacuated from Ukraine and Western Russia to Krasnoyarsk and nearby towns, stimulating the industrial growth of the city. After the war additional large plants were constructed: the aluminum plant, the metallurgic plant, the plant of base metals and many others. In the late 1970s, the Soviet Union began constructing a phased array radar station at Abalakova, near Krasnoyarsk, which violated the ABM Treaty. Beginning in 1983, the United States demanded its removal, until the Soviet Union admitted the radar station was a violation in 1989. Equipment was removed from the site and by 1992 it was declared to be dismantled, though the
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East. With a length of 9,289 kilometres, from Moscow to Vladivostok, it is the longest railway line in the world. There are connecting branch lines into Mongolia and North Korea, it has connected Moscow with Vladivostok since 1916, is still being expanded. It was built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas. Before it had been completed, it attracted travellers who wrote of their adventures; the railway is associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At a Moscow–Vladivostok track length of 9,289 kilometres, it spans a record eight time zones. Taking eight days to complete the journey, it is the third-longest single continuous service in the world, after the Moscow–Pyongyang 10,267 kilometres and the Kiev–Vladivostok 11,085 kilometres services, both of which follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes.
The main route of the Trans-Siberian Railway begins in Moscow at Yaroslavsky Vokzal, runs through Yaroslavl, Omsk, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok via southern Siberia. A second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian east of Chita as far as Tarskaya, about 1,000 km east of Lake Baikal. From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin and Mudanjiang in China's Northeastern Provinces, joining with the main route in Ussuriysk just north of Vladivostok; this is the oldest railway route to Vladivostok. While there are no traverse passenger services on this branch, it is still used by several international passenger services between Russia and China; the third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan-Ude on Lake Baikal's eastern shore. From Ulan-Ude the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaan-Baatar before making its way southeast to Beijing. In 1991, a fourth route running further to the north was completed, after more than five decades of sporadic work.
Known as the Baikal Amur Mainline, this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal and passes the lake at its northernmost extremity. It crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-na-Amure, reaches the Tatar Strait at Sovetskaya Gavan. On 13 October 2011, a train from Khasan made its inaugural run to North Korea. In the late 19th century, the development of Siberia was hampered by poor transport links within the region, as well as with the rest of the country. Aside from the Great Siberian Route, good roads suitable for wheeled transport were rare. For about five months of the year, rivers were the main means of transport. During the cold half of the year and passengers travelled by horse-drawn sledges over the winter roads, many of which were the same rivers, but ice-covered; the first steamboat on the River Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. But early beginnings were difficult, it was not until 1857 that steamboat shipping started developing on the Ob system in a serious way.
Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei in 1863, on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. While the comparative flatness of Western Siberia was at least well served by the gigantic Ob–Irtysh–Tobol–Chulym river system, the mighty rivers of Eastern Siberia—the Yenisei, the upper course of the Angara River, the Lena—were navigable only in the north-south direction. An attempt to remedy the situation by building the Ob-Yenisei Canal was not successful. Only a railway could be a real solution to the region's transport problems; the first railway projects in Siberia emerged after the completion of the Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway in 1851. One of the first was the Irkutsk–Chita project, proposed by the American entrepreneur Perry Collins and supported by Transport Minister Constantine Possiet with a view toward connecting Moscow to the Amur River, to the Pacific Ocean. Siberia's governor, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was anxious to advance the colonisation of the Russian Far East, but his plans could not materialise as long as the colonists had to import grain and other food from China and Korea.
It was on Muravyov's initiative. Before 1880, the central government had ignored these projects, because of the weakness of Siberian enterprises, a clumsy bureaucracy, fear of financial risk. By 1880, there were a large number of rejected and upcoming applications for permission to construct railways to connect Siberia with the Pacific, but not Eastern Russia; this made connecting Siberia with Central Russia a pressing concern. The design process lasted 10 years. Along with the route constructed, alternative projects were proposed: Southern route: via Kazakhstan, Barnaul and Mongolia. Northern route: via Tyumen, Tomsk and the modern Baikal Amur Mainline or through Yakutsk; the line was divided into seven sections, on all or mo
A boat lift, ship lift, or lift lock is a machine for transporting boats between water at two different elevations, is an alternative to the canal lock and the canal inclined plane. It may be either vertically moving, like the ship lifts in Germany, the lift at "Les Fontinettes" in France or the Anderton boat lift in England, or rotational, like the Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. A precursor to the canal boat lift, able to move full-sized canal boats, was the tub boat lift used in mining, able to raise and lower the 2.5 ton tub boats in use. An experimental system was in use on the Churprinz mining canal in Halsbrücke near Dresden, it lifted boats 7 m using a moveable hoist rather than caissons. The lift operated between 1789 and 1868, for a period of time after its opening engineer James Green reporting that five had been built between 1796 and 1830, he credited the invention to Dr James Anderson of Edinburgh. The idea of a boat lift for canals can be traced back to a design based on balanced water-filled caissons in Erasmus Darwin's Commonplace Book dated 1777–1778In 1796 an experimental balance lock was designed by James Fussell and constructed at Mells on the Dorset and Somerset Canal, though this project was never completed.
A similar design was used for lifts on the tub boat section of the Grand Western Canal entered into operation in 1835 becoming the first non experimental boat lifts in Britain. And pre-dating the Anderton Boat Lift by 40 years. In 1904 the Peterborough Lift Lock designed by Richard Birdsall Rogers opened in Canada; this 19.8-metre high lift system is operated by gravity alone, with the upper bay of the two bay system loaded with an additional 30 cm of water as to give it greater weight. Before the construction of the Three Gorges Dam Ship Lift, the highest boat lift, with a 73.15-metre height difference and European Class IV capacity, was the Strépy-Thieu boat lift in Belgium opened in 2002. The ship lift at the Three Gorges Dam, completed in January 2016, is 113 m high and able to lift vessels of up to 3,000 tons displacement; the boat lift at Longtan is reported to be higher in total with a maximum vertical lift of 179 m in two stages when completed. List of boat lifts Lock Balance lock Canal inclined plane – another technique for lifting boats.
Caisson lock: a submerged boat lift. Shiplift – used for raising vessels in shipyards Marine railway inclined plane for shipyards Water slope Saint-Louis-Arzviller boat lift, France –, a canal inclined plane Portable boat lift Patent slip Tew, David. Canal Lifts. Sutton Books. ISBN 0-86299-031-9. Uhlemann, Hans-Joachim. Canal inclines of the world. Internat. ISBN 0-9543181-1-0. "The lift-locks on the Canal du Centre, at Houdeng and Strépy-Thieu, Belgium". 2005-05-14. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2007-09-14. Source mentions its own sources The International Canal Monuments List ^ Three Gorges Dam Big Chute, Ontario – in fact an inclined plane Twin Ship Elevator Lüneburg - Technical data of the Scharnebeck twin ship lift near Lüneburg, Germany Dutch boat lift page
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly