Augustine of Hippo
Saint Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of De doctrina Christiana and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith". In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism and to neoplatonism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory; when the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City.
His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople identified with Augustine's On the Trinity. Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, the Anglican Communion and as a preeminent Doctor of the Church, he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. Protestant Reformers and Martin Luther in particular, held Augustine in preeminence among early Church Fathers. Luther himself was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, his teachings are more disputed, were notably attacked by John Romanides.
But other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant approbation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque, was rejected by the Orthodox Church. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, predestination. Though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, has had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June. Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch has written: " impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated. Augustine of Hippo known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin, is known by various cognomens throughout the Christian world across its many denominations including Blessed Augustine, the Doctor of Grace Hippo Regius, where Augustine was the bishop, was in modern-day Annaba, Algeria. Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in the Roman province of Numidia.
His mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian. Augustine considered the father like a stranger. Scholars agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, but that they were Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. In his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius as "the most notorious of us Africans," to Ponticianus as "a country man of ours, insofar as being African," and to Faustus of Mileve as "an African Gentleman". Augustine's family name, suggests that his father's ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212. Augustine's family had been Roman, for at least a century when he was born, it is assumed that his mother, was of Berber origin, on the basis of her name, but as his family were honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine's first language is to have been Latin.
At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan practices, his first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this story in The Confessions, he remembers that he did not steal the fruit because he was hungry, but because "it was not permitted." His nature, he says, was flawed.'It was foul, I loved it. I loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the error itself." From this incident he concluded the human person is inclined to sin, in need of the grace of Christ. At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus, Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric, though it was above the financial means of his family. In spite of the good warnings of his mother, as a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lif
New King James Version
The New King James Version is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson. The New Testament was published in 1979, the Psalms in 1980, the full Bible in 1982, it took seven years to complete. The anglicized edition was known as the Revised Authorized Version, but the NKJV title is now used universally; the NKJV translation project was conceived by Arthur Farstad. It was inaugurated in 1975 with two meetings of 130 biblical scholars and theologians; the men who were invited prepared the guidelines for the NKJV. The aim of its translators was to update the vocabulary and grammar of the King James Version, while preserving the classic style and literary beauty of the original 1611 KJV; the 130 translators believed in faithfulness to the original Greek and Hebrew texts including the Dead Sea Scrolls. Agreed upon for most New King James Bibles were easier event descriptions, a history of each book, added dictionary and updated concordance. According to its preface, the NKJV uses the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of the Biblia Hebraica for the Old Testament, with frequent comparisons made to the Ben Hayyim edition of the Mikraot Gedolot published by Bomberg in 1524–25, used for the King James Version.
Both the Old Testament text of the NKJV and that of the KJV come from the ben Chayyim text. However, the 1967/1977 Stuttgart edition of the Biblia Hebraica used by the NKJV uses an earlier manuscript than that of the KJV; the New King James Version uses the Textus Receptus for the New Testament, just as the original King James Version had used. As explained in the preface, notes in the center column acknowledge variations from Novum Testamentum Graece and the Majority Text; the translators have sought to follow the principles of translation used in the original King James Version, which the NKJV revisers call "complete equivalence" in contrast to "dynamic equivalence" used by many contemporary translations. The task of updating the English of the KJV involved significant changes in word order, grammar and spelling. One of the most significant features of the NKJV was its replacement of early modern second-person pronouns, such as "thou" and "thine"; the Executive Editor of the NKJV, Arthur L. Farstad, addressed textual concerns in a book explaining the NKJV translation philosophy.
While defending the Majority Text, claiming that the Textus Receptus is inferior to the Majority Text, he noted that the NKJV references significant discrepancies among text types in its marginal notes: "None of the three traditions on every page of the New Testament... is labeled'best' or'most reliable.' The reader is permitted to make up his or her own mind about the correct reading." The NKJV translation has become one of the best-selling Bibles. As of July 2012 it is listed as the third best selling Bible after the New International Version and KJV by the CBA. An unabridged audiobook version called "The Word of Promise Audio Bible" has been produced by the publisher, it is narrated by well-known celebrities and dramatized with music and sound effects. Gideons International, an organization that places Bibles in hotels and hospitals, at one stage used the NKJV translation along with the KJV, offering the KJV as the default translation and offering the NKJV when an organization asked for a Bible in newer English to be used.
As of 2013, the Gideons have chosen to start using the English Standard Version instead of the NKJV. 21st Century King James Version Thomas Nelson, Inc. Publisher's website
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was adopted by an Egyptian princess, in life became the leader of the Israelites and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew, he is the most important prophet in Judaism, he is an important prophet in Christianity, the Bahá'í Faith, a number of other Abrahamic religions. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Israelites, an enslaved minority, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally themselves with Egypt's enemies. Moses' Hebrew mother, secretly hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed in order to reduce the population of the Israelites. Through the Pharaoh's daughter, the child was adopted as a foundling from the Nile river and grew up with the Egyptian royal family.
After killing an Egyptian slavemaster, Moses fled across the Red Sea to Midian, where he encountered The Angel of the Lord, speaking to him from within a burning bush on Mount Horeb. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Moses said that he could not speak eloquently, so God allowed Aaron, his brother, to become his spokesperson. After the Ten Plagues, Moses led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they based themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses received the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses died within sight of the Promised Land on Mount Nebo. Jerome gives 1592 BCE, James Ussher 1571 BCE as Moses' birth year. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses was called "the man of God". Several etymologies have been proposed. An Egyptian root msy, "child of", has been considered as a possible etymology, arguably an abbreviation of a theophoric name, as for example in Egyptian names like Thutmoses and Ramesses, with the god's name omitted.
Abraham Yahuda, based on the spelling given in the Tanakh, argues that it combines "water" or "seed" and "pond, expanse of water", thus yielding the sense of "child of the Nile". The Biblical account of Moses' birth provides him with a folk etymology to explain the ostensible meaning of his name, he is said to have received it from the Pharaoh's daughter: "he became her son. She named him Moses, saying,'I drew him out of the water.'" This explanation links it to a verb mashah, meaning "to draw out", which makes the Pharaoh's daughter's declaration a play on words. The princess made a grammatical mistake, prophetic of his future role in legend, as someone who will "draw the people of Israel out of Egypt through the waters of the Red Sea."The Hebrew etymology in the Biblical story may reflect an attempt to cancel out traces of Moses' Egyptian origins. The Egyptian character of his name was recognized as such by ancient Jewish writers like Philo of Alexandria and Josephus. Philo linked Mōēsēs to the Egyptian word for water, while Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, claimed that the second element, -esês, meant'those who are saved'.
The problem of how an Egyptian princess, known to Josephus as Thermutis and in Jewish tradition as Bithiah, could have known Hebrew puzzled medieval Jewish commentators like Abraham ibn Ezra and Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hezekiah suggested she either took a tip from Jochebed; the Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel. At this time Moses was born to his father Amram, son of Kehath the Levite, who entered Egypt with Jacob's household. Moses had one older sister and one older brother, Aaron; the Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born would be drowned in the river Nile, but Moses' mother placed him in an ark and concealed the ark in the bulrushes by the riverbank, where the baby was discovered and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, raised as an Egyptian. One day after Moses had reached adulthood he killed an Egyptian, beating a Hebrew. Moses, in order to escape the Pharaoh's death penalty, fled to Midian.
There, on Mount Horeb, God appeared to Moses as a burning bush, revealed to Moses his name YHWH and commanded him to return to Egypt and bring his chosen people out of bondage and into the Promised Land. During the journey, God tried to kill Moses because he had not circumcised his son, but Zipporah saved his life. Moses returned to carry out God's command, but God caused the Pharaoh to refuse, only after God had subjected Egypt to ten plagues did the Pharaoh relent. Moses led the Israelites to the border of Egypt, but there God hardened the Pharaoh's heart once more, so that he could destroy the Pharaoh and his army at the Red Sea Crossing as a sign of his power to Israel and the nations. After defeating the Amalekites in Rephidim, Moses led the Israelites to biblical Mount Sinai, where he was given the Ten Commandments from God, written on stone tablets. However, since Moses remained a long time on the mountain, some of the people feared that he might be dead, so they made a statue of a golden calf and worshiped it, thus disobeying and angering God and Moses.
Moses, out of anger, bro
A Christophany is an appearance or non-physical manifestation of Christ. Traditionally the term refers to visions of Christ after his ascension, such as the bright light of the Damascus Christophany. Following the example of Justin Martyr who identified the Angel of the Lord with the Logos, some appearances of angels in the Hebrew Bible are identified by some Christians as preincarnate appearances of Christ; the etymology is from the Greek Χριστός and the Greek ending "phany" from the verb phaneroō, to be revealed or to manifest. This noun is derived by direct comparison with the term theophany. Academics use the term in relation to the New Testament visions of Christ. George Balderston Kidd popularised the term in relation to the identification of angels in the Old Testament as Christ; the term was used by Albert Joseph Edmunds in relation to the revealing of Christ in Christianity and Buddhism. Since the work of James Borland usage of the term in conservative Christian publications related to Old Testament appearances of Christ has multiplied exponentially.
A New Testament Christophany is Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus, the subsequent one of Ananias. Another New Testament example is John's vision of the Son of Man, recounted in Revelation 1:12-18. Genesis 3:8 was regarded by most Church Fathers and medieval commentators as an appearance by the Logos, or pre-existent Christ, in art God was always given the features of Jesus until about 1400. A popular Christian understanding of the relationship between Melchizedek and Jesus is that Melchizedek is an Old Testament Christophany. Romanos the Melodist interpreted the figure with whom Abraham spoke in Genesis 18:1–8 as being Christ himself. J. Douglas MacMillan suggests that angel with whom Jacob wrestles is a "pre-incarnation appearance of Christ in the form of a man."Some church fathers such as Origen and theologians such as Martin Luther believed another example is the "Man" who appears to Joshua, identifies himself as "the commander of the army of the LORD.". The standard argument that this was in fact Christ is that he accepted Joshua's prostrate worship, whereas angels refuse such worship.
Additionally, he declared the ground to be holy. Jewish commentators reading the same text do not accept that this figure was Christ, but rather the Archangel Michael. Jonathan Edwards identified an example in Daniel 3:25, when the fourth man in the furnace is described as “… and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God" or "like a son of the gods." The "Suffering servant", from the Book of Isaiah is believed by many Christians to be Jesus. The vision of Isaiah may be regarded as a Christophany, it appears to have been seen as such by John the evangelist, following a quote from this chapter, adds'Isaiah said this because he saw His glory and spoke of Him'.. A vision is not described as a Christophany. Saint Jerome is believed to have had a precise vision of the Blessed Trinity, as is illustrated by Andrea del Castagno. Magdalena de Pazzi was a deep mystic. Lúcia dos Santos of Fatima claimed to have seen Jesus in the Trinity in Tui in 1926. Mary Faustina Kowalska claimed to have had recorded her visions of Jesus.
Joseph Smith claimed to have seen both Jesus Christ and God the Father in an event known as the First Vision. Pre-existence of Christ
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld was a German painter, associated with the Nazarene movement. Schnorr was born in Leipzig, the son of Veit Hanns Schnorr von Carolsfeld, a draughtsman and painter, from whom he received his initial artistic education, his earliest known works being copies of the Neoclassical drawings of John Flaxman. In 1811 he entered the Vienna Academy, from which Johann Friedrich Overbeck and others who rebelled against the old conventional style had been expelled about a year before. There he studied under Friedrich Heinrich Füger, became friends with Joseph Anton Koch and Heinrich Olivier, both of whom would have an important influence on his style. Schnorr followed Overbeck and the other founders of the Nazarene movement to Rome in 1815; this school of religious and romantic art tended to reject modern styles, attempting to revert to and revive the principles and practice of earlier periods. At the beginning of his time in Rome, Schnorr was influenced by his close study of fifteenth-century Italian painting the works of Fra Angelico.
Soon however, he abandoned this refined simplicity, began to look towards more elaborate High Renaissance models. From its outset the Nazarene movement made an effort to recover fresco painting and monumental art, Schnorr found opportunity of demonstrating his powers when commissioned to decorate the entrance hall of the Villa Massimo near the Lateran with frescoes illustrating the works of Ariosto. Other cycles in the house were begun by Johann Friedrich Overbeck. Schnorr married Maria Heller, the stepdaughter of Ferdinand Olivier, in 1827, their son Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld was an operatic tenor who died at the age of 29. He had just begun to gain renown as the first to sing Wagner's Tristan. Schnorr's brother, Ludwig Ferdinand was a painter. Schnorr died in Munich in 1872; the second period of Schnorr's artistic output began in 1825, when he left Rome, settled in Munich, entered the service of Ludwig I of Bavaria, transplanted to Germany the art of wall-painting which he had learned in Italy.
He showed. He painted a series of scenes from the lives of Charlemagne, Frederick Barbarossa and Rudolph of Habsburg. Schnorr had wanted to create a complex symbolic programme in which these German historical subjects were combined with scenes from the Old Testament; this however was rejected by Ludwig, leaving Schnorr to complain that he was left with the task of painting a mere "newspaper report of the Middle Ages". Critics considered these compositions to be creative, learned in composition, masterly in drawing, but exaggerated in thought and extravagant in style. In 1846 Schnorr moved to Dresden to become a professor at the academy there; the next year he was appointed director of the Gemäldegalerie. Schnorr's third period was marked by his Biblical illustrations, he was a Lutheran, took a broad and un-sectarian view. His Picture Bible was published in Leipzig in 30 parts in 1852–60, an English edition followed in 1861; the Picture Bible illustrations were complex and cluttered. His style differs from the simplicity and severity of earlier times, exhibiting instead the floridity of the Renaissance.
Schnorr's biblical drawings and cartoons for frescoes formed a natural prelude to designs for church windows, his renown in Germany secured commissions in Great Britain. Schnorr was one of ten artists who provided designs for a scheme of stained-glass for Glasgow Cathedral, commissioned in 1856–7 and manufactured at the royal factory in Munich, he designed windows for St Paul's Cathedral in London; this Munich glass provoked controversy: medievalists objected to its lack of lustre, stigmatized the windows as mere coloured blinds and picture transparencies. The opposing party, claimed for these modern revivals "the union of the severe and excellent drawing of early Florentine oil-paintings with the colouring and arrangement of the glass-paintings of the latter half of the 16th century." Four windows by Schnorr were installed at St Paul's: one at the west end. Most of the Munich glass at Glasgow was removed during the 20th century. Paintings This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Schnorr von Karolsfeld, Julius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. German masters of the nineteenth century: paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany, a full text exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld Media related to Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld at Wikimedia Commons
Balaam /ˈbeɪlæm/ is a diviner in the Torah, his story begins in Chapter 22 in the Book of Numbers. Every ancient reference to Balaam considers him a non-Israelite, a prophet, the son of Beor, though Beor is not identified. Though some sources may only describe the positive blessings he delivers upon the Israelites, he is reviled as a "wicked man" in both the Torah and the New Testament. Balaam refused to speak what God did not speak and would not curse the Israelites though King Balak of Moab offered him money to do so, but Balaam's error and the source of his wickedness came from sabotaging the Israelites as they entered the Promised Land. According to Revelation, Balaam told King Balak how to get the Israelites to commit sin by enticing them with sexual immorality and food sacrificed to idols; the Israelites fell into transgression due to these traps and God sent a deadly plague to them as a result. The main story of Balaam occurs during the sojourn of the Israelites in the plains of Moab, east of the Jordan River, at the close of 40 years of wandering, shortly before the death of Moses and the crossing of the Jordan.
The Israelites have defeated two kings in Transjordan: Sihon, king of the Amorites, Og, king of Bashan. Balak, king of Moab becomes alarmed, sends elders of Midian and his Moabite messengers, to Balaam, son of Beor, to induce him to come and curse Israel. Balaam's location, Pethor, is given as "which is by the river of the land of the children of his people" in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint, though the Samaritan Pentateuch and Peshitta all identify his land as Ammon. Balaam sends back word that he can only do what YHWH commands, God has, via a nocturnal dream, told him not to go. Balak sends higher-ranking priests and offers Balaam honours. Balaam sets out in the morning with the princes of Moab. God becomes angry that he went, sends the Angel of the Lord to prevent him. At first, the angel is seen only by the donkey which tries to avoid the angel. After Balaam starts punishing the donkey for refusing to move, it is miraculously given the power to speak to Balaam, it complains about Balaam's treatment.
At this point, Balaam is allowed to see the angel, who informs him that the donkey is the only reason the angel did not kill Balaam. Balaam repents, but is told to go on. Balak meets with Balaam at Kirjat Huzoth, they go to the "high places of Baal", offer sacrifices on seven altars, leading to Balaam being given a prophecy by Yahweh, which he speaks to Balak. However, the prophecy blesses Israel. Building another seven altars here, making sacrifices on each, Balaam provides another prophecy blessing Israel. Balaam gets taken by a now frustrated Balak to Peor, after the seven sacrifices there, decides not to "seek enchantments" but instead looks upon the Israelites from the peak; the Spirit of God comes upon Balaam and he delivers a third positive prophecy concerning Israel. Balak's anger rises to the point where he threatens Balaam, but Balaam offers a prediction of fate. Balaam looks upon the Kenites, Amalekites and offers two more predictions of their fates. Balak and Balaam go to their respective homes.
Numbers 25:1-9 describes how Israel engaged in sexual immorality and idolatry with the women of Moab, resulting in God's anger and a deadly plague. Numbers 31:16 attributes this to the advice of Balaam: "Behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the LORD in the matter of Peor, there was a plague among the congregation of the LORD." Book of Deuteronomy 23:3–6 summarises these incidents, further states that the Ammonites were associated with the Moabites. Joshua, in his farewell speech makes reference to it. With God's protection taken from him, Balaam is listed among the Midianites who were killed in revenge for the "matter of Peor". Joshua 13:22 records that Balaam died "by the sword" during a battle for the Reubenite occupation of Moabite land. Revelation states that Balaam "taught Balak to cast a stumbling block before the children of Israel." All the prophecies which Balaam makes take the form of poems: The first, Numbers 23:7–10, prophesies the unique exaltation of the Kingdom of Israel, its countless numbers.
The second, Numbers 23:18–24, celebrates the moral virtue of Israel, its monarchy, military conquests. The third, Numbers 24:3–9, celebrates the glory and conquests of Israel's monarchy; the fourth, Numbers 24:14 -- 19, prophesies the coming of a king who will conquer Moab. The fifth, Numbers 24:20, concerns the ruins of Amalek; the sixth, Numbers 24:21–22, concerns the destruction of the Kenites by Assyria. The seventh, Numbers 24:23–24, concerns "ships of Kittim" coming from the west to attack Assyria and Eber; the poems fall into three groups. The first group consists of two poems; the third group of three poems start but are much shorter. The second group, consists of two poems which both start: Balaam the son of Beor hath said, the man whose eyes are open hath said: He hath said, which heard the words of God, which saw the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open... Of these, the fir
Codex Sinaiticus or "Sinai Bible" is one of the four great uncial codices, handwritten copies of the Greek Bible. The codex is a celebrated historical treasure; the codex is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in uncial letters on parchment in the 4th century. Scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament, along with the Codex Vaticanus; until Constantin von Tischendorf's discovery of the Sinaiticus text, the Codex Vaticanus was unrivaled. The Codex Sinaiticus came to the attention of scholars in the 19th century at Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula, with further material discovered in the 20th and 21st centuries. Although parts of the codex are scattered across four libraries around the world, most of the manuscript is held today in the British Library in London, where it is on public display. Since its discovery, study of the Codex Sinaiticus has proven to be useful to scholars for critical studies of biblical text.
While large portions of the Old Testament are missing, it is assumed that the codex contained the whole of both Testaments. About half of the Greek Old Testament survived, along with a complete New Testament, the entire Deuterocanonical books, the Epistle of Barnabas and portions of The Shepherd of Hermas; the codex consists of parchment in double sheets, which may have measured about 40 by 70 cm. The whole codex consists, with a few exceptions, of quires of eight leaves, a format popular throughout the Middle Ages; each line of the text has some twelve to fourteen Greek uncial letters, arranged in four columns with chosen line breaks and ragged right edges. When opened, the eight columns thus presented to the reader have much the same appearance as the succession of columns in a papyrus roll; the poetical books of the Old Testament are written stichometrically, in only two columns per page. The codex has 4,000,000 uncial letters; the work was written in scriptio continua with neither polytonic accents.
Occasional points and a few ligatures are used, though nomina sacra with overlines are employed throughout. Some words abbreviated in other manuscripts, are in this codex written in both full and abbreviated forms; the following nomina sacra are written in abbreviated forms: ΘΣ ΚΣ ΙΣ ΧΣ ΠΝΑ ΠΝΙΚΟΣ ΥΣ ΑΝΟΣ ΟΥΟΣ ΔΑΔ ΙΛΗΜ ΙΣΡΛ ΜΗΡ ΠΗΡ ΣΩΡ. A plain iota is replaced by the epsilon-iota diphthong, e.g. ΔΑΥΕΙΔ instead οf ΔΑΥΙΔ, ΠΕΙΛΑΤΟΣ instead of ΠΙΛΑΤΟΣ, ΦΑΡΕΙΣΑΙΟΙ instead of ΦΑΡΙΣΑΙΟΙ, etc. Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91. If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page's proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a "subtle piece of craftsmanship"; the folios are made of vellum parchment from calf skins, secondarily from sheep skins. Most of the quires or signatures contain four sheets, save two containing five, it is estimated that the hides of about 360 animals were employed for making the folios of this codex.
As for the cost of the material, time of scribes and binding, it equals the lifetime wages of one individual at the time. The portion of the codex held by the British Library consists of 346½ folios, 694 pages, constituting over half of the original work. Of these folios, 199 belong to the Old Testament, including the apocrypha, 147½ belong to the New Testament, along with two other books, the Epistle of Barnabas and part of The Shepherd of Hermas; the apocryphal books present in the surviving part of the Septuagint are 2 Esdras, Judith, 1 and 4 Maccabees and Sirach. The books of the New Testament are arranged in this order: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the General Epistles, the Book of Revelation; the fact that some parts of the codex are preserved in good condition while others are in poor condition implies they were separated and stored in several places. The text of the Old Testament contains the following passages: Genesis 23:19 – Genesis 24:46 – fragments Leviticus 20:27 – Leviticus 22:30 Numbers 5:26–Numbers 7:20 – fragments 1 Chronicles 9:27–1 Chronicles 19:17 Ezra-Nehemiah.
Book of Psalms–Wisdom of Sirach Book of Esther Book of Tobit Book of Judith Book of Joel–Book of Malachi Book of Isaiah Book of Jeremiah Book of Lamentations 1 Maccabees–4 Maccabees The text of the New Testament lacks several passages: Omitted verses Gospel of Matthew 12:47, 16:2b-3, 17:21, 18:11, 23:14, 24:35. Ἀ