Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, tannin profile and texture of wine. It can be introduced in the form of a barrel during the fermentation or aging periods, or as free-floating chips or staves added to wine fermented in a vessel like stainless steel. Oak barrels can impart other qualities to wine through evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen. In early wine history, the amphora was the vessel of choice for the storage and transportation of wine. Due to the perishable nature of wood material it is difficult to trace the usage of barrels in history; the Greek historian Herodotus noted that ancient Mesopotamians used barrels made of palm wood to transport wine along the Euphrates. Palm is a difficult material to bend and fashion into barrels and wine merchants in different regions experimented with different wood styles to find a better wood source; the use of oak has been prevalent in winemaking for at least two millennia, first coming into widespread use during the time of the Roman Empire.
In time, winemakers discovered that beyond just storage convenience, wine kept in oak barrels took on properties that improved it by making it softer and, in some cases, better-tasting. The porous nature of an oak barrel allows evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine but not at levels that would cause oxidation or spoilage; the typical 59-gallon barrel can lose anywhere from 51⁄2 to 61⁄2 gallons in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate its aroma compounds. Small amounts of oxygen are allowed to pass through the barrel and act as a softening agent upon the wine's tannins; the chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on wine. Phenols within the wood interact to produce vanilla type flavors and can give the impression of tea notes or sweetness; the degree of "toast" on the barrel can impart different properties affecting the tannin levels as well as the aggressive wood flavors. The hydrolyzable tannins present in wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from lignin structures in the wood.
They help protect the wine from reduction. Wines can be barrel fermented in oak or placed in oak after fermentation for a period of aging or maturation. Wine matured in oak receives more oak flavors and properties than wine fermented in oak because yeast cells present in fermentation interact with and "latch on" to oak components; when dead yeast cells are removed as lees some oak properties go with them. Characteristics of white wines fermented in oak include extra silky texture. White wines fermented in steel and matured in oak will have a darker coloring due to heavy phenolic compounds still present. Flavor notes used to describe wines exposed to oak include caramel, smoke and vanilla. Chardonnay is a varietal with distinct flavor profiles when fermented in oak, which include coconut and cloves notes; the "toastiness" of the barrel can bring out varying degrees of toffee notes in red wine. The length of time a wine spends in the barrel is dependent on the varietal and finished style the winemaker desires.
The majority of oak flavoring is imparted in the first few months the wine is in contact with oak, while longer term exposure adds light barrel aeration, which helps precipitate phenolic compounds and quickens the aging process. New World Pinot noir may spend less than a year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon may spend two years; the tannic Nebbiolo grape may spend four or more years in oak. High end Rioja producers will sometimes age their wines up to ten years in American oak to get a desired earthy cedar and herbal character; the species of oak used for American oak production is the Quercus alba, a white oak species, characterized by its fast growth, wider grains and lower wood tannins. It is found in most of the Eastern United States as well as Missouri and Wisconsin where many wine barrels are from. In Oregon the Quercus garryana white oak has started to gain usage due to its closer similarities to European oak. In France, both the Quercus robur and Quercus petraea are considered apt for wine making, the latter is considered far superior for its finer grain and richer contribution of aromatic components like vanillin and its derivates, methyl-octalactone and tannins, as well as phenols and volatile aldehydes.
French oak comes from one or more primary forests: Allier, Nevers, Tronçais and Vosges. The wood from each of these forests has different characteristics. Many winemakers utilize barrels made from different cooperages and degrees of toasting in blending their wines to enhance the complexity of the resulting wine. Italian winemakers have had a long history of using Slavonian oak from the Quercus robur, known for its tight grain, low aromatics and medium level tannins. Slavonian oak tends to be used in larger barrel sizes with the same barrels reused for many more years before replacement. Prior to the Russian Revolution, Quercus petraea oak from the Baltic/European states from Hungary was the most sought after wood for French winemaking; the trees in the Hungarian Zemplén Mountains grow slower in the volcanic soil and smaller, creating fine tight grain which sequentially lends itself to a delicate extraction. The hemicellulose in the Hungarian oak breaks down more and conveys an exceptional selection of toasted, sugary, woody and caramel-like flavors – imparting these aromas with less intensity, slower than American or French oak.
Many winemakers favor the softer, creamier texture that Hungarian oak offers their wines. French winema
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape most gets its name from the French words sauvage and blanc due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France, it is a descendant of Savagnin. Sauvignon blanc is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp and refreshing white varietal wine; the grape is a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc is cultivated in France, Romania, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the states of Washington and California in the US; some New World Sauvignon blancs from California, may be called "Fumé Blanc", a marketing term coined by Robert Mondavi in reference to Pouilly-Fumé. Depending on the climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. In cooler climates, the grape has a tendency to produce wines with noticeable acidity and "green flavors" of grass, green bell peppers and nettles with some tropical fruit and floral notes.
In warmer climates, it can develop more tropical fruit notes but risk losing a lot of aromatics from over-ripeness, leaving only slight grapefruit and tree fruit notes. Wine experts have used the phrase "crisp and fresh" as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc, when chilled, pairs well with fish or cheese chèvre, it is known as one of the few wines that can pair well with sushi. Along with Riesling, Sauvignon blanc was one of the first fine wines to be bottled with a screwcap in commercial quantities by New Zealand producers; the wine is consumed young, as it does not benefit from aging, as varietal Sauvignon blancs tend to develop vegetal aromas reminiscent of peas and asparagus with extended aging. Dry and sweet white Bordeaux, including oak-aged examples from Pessac-Léognan and Graves, as well as some Loire wines from Pouilly-Fumé and Sancerre are some of the few examples of Sauvignon blancs with aging potential; the first Friday in May is International Sauvignon Blanc Day.
The Sauvignon blanc grape traces its origins to western France in the Loire Valley and Bordeaux Regions. As noted above, it is not clear. Ongoing research suggests, it has been associated with the Carmenere family. At some point in the 18th century, the vine paired with Cabernet Franc to parent the Cabernet Sauvignon vine in Bordeaux. In the 19th century, plantings in Bordeaux were interspersed with Sauvignon vert as well as the Sauvignon blanc pink mutation Sauvignon gris. Prior to the phylloxera epidemic, the insect plague which devastated French vineyards in the 19th century, these interspersed cuttings were transported to Chile where the field blends are still common today. Despite the similarity in names, Sauvignon blanc has no known relation to the Sauvignon rosé mutation found in the Loire Valley of France; the first cuttings of Sauvignon blanc were brought to California by Charles Wetmore, founder of Cresta Blanca Winery, in the 1880s. These cuttings came from the Sauternes vineyards of Château d'Yquem.
The plantings produced well in Livermore Valley. The wine acquired the alias of "Fumé Blanc" in California by promotion of Robert Mondavi in 1968; the grape was first introduced to New Zealand in the 1970s as an experimental planting to be blended with Müller-Thurgau. The Sauvignon blanc vine buds late but ripens early, which allows it to perform well in sunny climates when not exposed to overwhelming heat. In warm regions such as South Africa and California, the grape flourishes in cooler climate appellations such as the Alexander Valley area. In areas where the vine is subjected to high heat, the grape will become over-ripe and produce wines with dull flavors and flat acidity. Rising global temperatures have caused farmers to harvest the grapes earlier than they have in the past; the grape originated in the regions of Bordeaux and the Loire Valley. Plantings in California, Australia and South Africa are extensive, Sauvignon blanc is increasing in popularity as white wine drinkers seek alternatives to Chardonnay.
The grape can be found in Italy and Central Europe. In France, Sauvignon blanc is grown in the maritime climate of Bordeaux as well as the continental climate of the Loire Valley; the climates of these areas are favorable in slowing the ripening on the vine, allowing the grape more time to develop a balance between its acidity and sugar levels. This balance is important in the development of the intensity of the wine's aromas. Winemakers in France pay careful attention to the terroir characteristics of the soil and the different elements that it can impart to the wine; the chalk and Kimmeridgean marl of Sancerre and Pouilly produces wines of richness and complexity while areas with more compact chalk soils produces wines with more finesse and perfume. The gravel soil found near the Loire River and its tributaries impart spicy and mineral flavors while in Bordeaux, the wines have a fruitier personality. Vines planted in flint tend to produce the longest lasting wines. Pouilly Fumé originate from the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, located directly across the Loire River from the commune of Sancerre.
The soil here is flinty with deposits of limestone which the locals believed imparted a smoky, gun flint flavor
Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit brandy, is added. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including Port, Madeira, Commandaria wine, the aromatised wine Vermouth. One reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it. Though other preservation methods now exist, fortification continues to be used because the process can add distinct flavors to the finished product. Although grape brandy is most added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may be neutral spirit, made from grapes, sugar beets or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit. For example, in the U. S. only spirits from fruit may be used. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavour of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still; when added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind.
The end result is a wine, both sweeter and stronger containing about 20% alcohol by volume. During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine; the earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation. In the case of some fortified wine styles, a high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast; this causes fermentation to stop. Commandaria is made in Cyprus' unique AOC region north of Limassol from high altitude vines of Mavro and Xynisteri, sun dried and aged in oak barrels. Recent developments have produced different styles of Commandaria. Madeira is a fortified wine made in the Madeira Islands.
The wine is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif, to sweet wines more consumed with dessert. Madeira is deliberately heated and oxidised as part of its maturation process, resulting in distinctive flavours and an unusually long lifespan once a bottle is opened. Marsala wine is a wine from Sicily, available in both fortified and unfortified versions, it was first produced in 1772 by an English merchant, John Woodhouse, as an inexpensive substitute for sherry and port, gets its name from the island's port, Marsala. The fortified version is blended with brandy to make two styles, the younger weaker Fine, at least 17% abv and aged at least four months; the unfortified Marsala wine is aged in wooden casks for five years or more and reaches a strength of 18% by evaporation. Mistelle is sometimes used as an ingredient in fortified wines Vermouth and Sherry, though it is used as a base for apéritifs such as the French Pineau des Charentes.
It is produced by adding alcohol to non-fermented or fermented grape juice. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation and, as a consequence Mistelle is sweeter than fermented grape juice in which the sugars turn to alcohol. Moscatel de Setúbal is a Portuguese wine produced around the Setúbal Municipality on the Península de Setúbal; the wine is made from the Muscat of Alexandria grape and fortified with aguardente. The style was believed to have been invented by José Maria da Fonseca, the founder of the oldest table wine company in Portugal dating back to 1834. Port wine is a fortified wine from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal, it is a sweet red wine, but comes in dry, semi-dry and white varieties. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Spain; the word "sherry" itself is an anglicisation of Jerez. In earlier times, sherry was known as sack. In the European Union "sherry" is a protected designation of origin. After fermentation is complete, sherry is fortified with brandy.
Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol. Sherry is produced in a variety of styles, ranging from dry, light versions such as finos to much darker and sometimes sweeter versions known as olorosos. Cream sherry is always sweet. Vermouth is a fortified wine flavoured with aromatic herbs and spices using guarded recipes; some of the herbs and spices used may include cardamom, cinnamon and chamomile. Some vermouth is sweetened; the person credited with the second vermouth recipe, Antonio
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue, harvested for commercial use from Quercus suber, endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Cork is composed of a hydrophobic substance; because of its impermeable, buoyant and fire retardant properties, it is used in a variety of products, the most common of, wine stoppers. The montado landscape of Portugal produces half of cork harvested annually worldwide, with Corticeira Amorim being the leading company in the industry. Cork was examined microscopically by Robert Hooke, which led to his discovery and naming of the cell. There are about 2,200,000 hectares of cork forest worldwide. Annual production is about 200,000 tons. Once the trees are about 25 years old the cork is traditionally stripped from the trunks every nine years, with the first two harvests producing lower quality cork; the trees live for about 300 years. The cork industry is regarded as environmentally friendly. Cork production is considered sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down to obtain cork.
The tree continues to grow. The sustainability of production and the easy recycling of cork products and by-products are two of its most distinctive aspects. Cork oak forests prevent desertification and are a particular habitat in the Iberian Peninsula and the refuge of various endangered species. Carbon footprint studies conducted by Corticeira Amorim, Oeneo Bouchage of France and the Cork Supply Group of Portugal concluded that cork is the most environmentally friendly wine stopper in comparison to other alternatives; the Corticeira Amorim’s study, in particular, was developed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, according to ISO 14040. Results concluded that, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases, each plastic stopper released 10 times more CO2, whilst an aluminium screw cap releases 26 times more CO2 than does a cork stopper; the cork oak is unrelated to the "cork trees", which have corky bark but are not used for cork production. Cork is extracted only from early May to late August, when the cork can be separated from the tree without causing permanent damage.
When the tree reaches 25–30 years of age and about 24 in in circumference, the cork can be removed for the first time. However, this first harvest always produces poor quality or "virgin" cork. Bark from initial harvests can be used to make flooring, shoes and other industrial products. Subsequent extractions occur at intervals of 9 years, though it can take up to 13 for the cork to reach an acceptable size. If the product is of high quality it is known as "gentle" cork, ideally, is used to make stoppers for wine and champagne bottles; the workers who specialize in removing the cork are known as extractors. An extractor uses a sharp axe to make two types of cuts on the tree: one horizontal cut around the plant, called a crown or necklace, at a height of about 2–3 times the circumference of the tree, several vertical cuts called rulers or openings; this is the most delicate phase of the work because though cutting the cork requires significant force, the extractor must not damage the underlying phellogen or the tree will be harmed.
To free the cork from the tree, the extractor pushes the handle of the axe into the rulers. A good extractor needs to use a firm but precise touch in order to free a large amount of cork without damaging the product or tree; these freed portions of the cork are called planks. The planks are carried off by hand since cork forests are accessible to vehicles; the cork is stacked in piles in the forest or in yards at a factory and traditionally left to dry, after which it can be loaded onto a truck and shipped to a processor. Cork's elasticity combined with its near-impermeability makes it suitable as a material for bottle stoppers for wine bottles. Cork stoppers represent about 60% of all cork based production. Cork has an zero Poisson's ratio, which means the radius of a cork does not change when squeezed or pulled. Cork is an excellent gasket material; some carburetor float bowl gaskets are made for example. Cork is an essential element in the production of badminton shuttlecocks. Cork's bubble-form structure and natural fire retardant make it suitable for acoustic and thermal insulation in house walls, floors and facades.
The by-product of more lucrative stopper production, corkboard is gaining popularity as a non-allergenic, easy-to-handle and safe alternative to petrochemical-based insulation products. Sheets of cork often the by-product of stopper production, are used to make bulletin boards as well as floor and wall tiles. Cork's low density makes it a suitable material for fishing floats and buoys, as well as handles for fishing rods. Granules of cork can be mixed into concrete; the composites made by mixing cork granules and cement have lower thermal conductivity, lower density and good energy absorption. Some of the property ranges of the composites are density, compressive strength and flexural strength; as late as the mid-17th century, French vintners did not use cork stoppers, using instead oil-soaked rag
White wine is a wine, fermented without skin contact. The colour can be yellow-green, or yellow-gold, it is produced by the alcoholic fermentation of the non-coloured pulp of grapes, which may have a skin of any colour. White wine has existed for at least 2500 years; the wide variety of white wines comes from the large number of varieties, methods of winemaking, ratios of residual sugar. White wine is from "white" grapes, which are green or yellow in colour, such as the Chardonnay and Riesling; some white wine is made from grapes with coloured skin, provided that the obtained wort is not stained. Pinot noir, for example, is used to produce champagne. Among the many types of white wine, dry white wine is the most common. More or less aromatic and tangy, it is derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines, on the other hand, are produced by interrupting the fermentation before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol; the methods of enriching wort with sugar are multiple: on-ripening on the vine, passerillage, or the use of noble rot.
Sparkling wines, which are white, are wines where the carbon dioxide from the fermentation is kept dissolved in the wine and becomes gas when the bottle is opened. White wines are used as an apéritif before a meal, with dessert, or as a refreshing drink between meals. White wines are considered more refreshing, lighter in both style and taste than the majority of their red wine counterparts. In addition, due to their acidity and ability to soften meat and deglaze cooking juices, white wines are used in cooking; the first trace of wine, found dates to 7500 years ago, in present-day Iran but the results of archaeological excavations have not been able to determine from which time wine began to be produced. Epigraphy tells us about the presence of wine in the Middle East: it was produced in the "High Country" and imported into Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC; the tablets of Hattusa describes wine with the term wiyana in the Hittite language, GEŠTIN in Sumerian, karânu in Akkadian. It could be red, good wine, honeyed new, or sour.
In Ancient Greece wine had been developed and used since Hippocrates, a physician born around 460 BC who prescribed it to patients. "Vinous white wine" and "bitter white wine" were used among his remedies – a sign of diversity in production at that time. In Roman times the type of viticulture practiced by the Greeks was their model for a long time and production included white wine. Rich Roman patricians organized banquets. In the range of expensive products wine played a predominant role; the richest citizens built sumptuous villas in the Bay of Naples where the vine had been cultivated since its introduction by the Greeks. The aminum or ancient grape produced a sweet white wine produced as mulled wine resembling modern-day Madeira; the conquering of regions more and more to the north encouraged the Romans to cultivate the vine and to produce lighter and less sweet wines. It encouraged them to seek new wild varieties adaptable to these distant areas where the Mediterranean varieties showed their limits.
For example, vines were planted on the banks of the Rhine to provide the Legions with a healthy drink as opposed to water, drinkable. The wine was drunk cool in summer and warm in winter a practice which still continues in the 21st century. Wine merchants failed to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire and viticulture declined dramatically; the Germanic tribes did not see the value of the wine trade. The decline of viticulture was intensified. In the south the Saracens were making raids; these campaigns in southern Europe caused Languedoc, Southern Italy, the Douro Valley to become depopulated – the people being taken into slavery or fleeing the threat. Knowledge about the culture of grapevines was conserved by the Catholic Church: wine was necessary for the celebration of Mass and the monks planted vines at high latitudes and increased the monastic acreages. Difficult to transport and store, wine long remained a product for local consumption; the trade was re-established after the enrichment of the nobles and prelates because, as with the Romans, the art of the table reflected the reputation of the host.
River trade was of great importance in the development of vineyards. The Germanic countries benefited from the navigability of the Rhine and the Danube so they could export their production. Charlemagne contributed to this growth by enacting his Capitulare de villis which included a set of rules on the cultivation of the vine in all areas, it was an era of great development of the culture of white wine in Austria. The Central European vineyards reached 100,000 hectares, three and a half times the area in the 1990s. From the 13th century traders distinguished vinum hunicum, drunk by the people, from vinum francium, the wine for the wealthy aristocracy. There was recognition of varieties of Sylvaner from the late Middle Ages. Part of European trade was by sea along the Atlantic coast; the English the Dutch and Scandinavians from their demand for wine, created a craze for planting between Bordeaux and La Rochelle. Little dry white wine was produced for export from La Rochelle while Bordeaux exported wines from the hinterland received via the Garonne.
When wine production w