The Neches River begins in Van Zandt County west of Rhine Lake and flows for 416 miles through east Texas to its mouth on Sabine Lake near the Rainbow Bridge. Two major reservoirs, Lake Palestine and B. A. Steinhagen Reservoir are located on the Neches. Several cities are located along the Neches River Basin, including Tyler, Silsbee, Beaumont, Port Neches, Nederland and Port Arthur. With the exception of the manmade lakes, much of the river is in a natural state. For example, from Lake B. A. Steinhagen down to the Neches River flows through the Big Thicket National Preserve; this important ecosphere preserves the area where several ecosystems converge - an event that harkens back to the last glacial period. The Big Thicket Visitor Center is off U. S. Highway 69 several miles north of Kountze; the Lower Neches Valley Authority is the river authority which oversees the Neches River in Tyler, Liberty and Jefferson counties of Texas. Beginning in 2006, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service purchased land along the Neches River for the creation of the Neches River National Wildlife Refuge.
The refuge includes land on which the city of Dallas had proposed to build a reservoir to meet the water needs of the city and its surrounding suburbs. Tentatively named Lake Fastrill, this reservoir was not scheduled to be built until 2050; the city of Dallas and the Texas Water Development Board filed a lawsuit in 2007 against the U. S Fish and Wildlife Service, claiming the wildlife refuge was established without considering the economic and environmental impacts. However, in February 2010 the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, paving the way for the acquisition of lands for the wildlife refuge; the lower forty miles of the river is industrialized, from the Beaumont Interstate 10 bridge to Sabine Lake. The river is maintained as a deep water ship channel running between the Port of Beaumont to Sabine Lake. 40 feet deep and 400 ft wide, the river is being deepened to 48 feet. The total estimated cost of the Sabine-Neches Waterway project is $1.1 billion.
Several petro-chemical plants are located in the river's southern section. The Sabine-Neches Navigation District, formed in 1909, has management responsibilities of the portion of the river, part of the Sabine-Neches Waterway. Lake PalestineNeches River National Wildlife RefugeB. A. Steinhagen ReservoirBig Thicket National PreserveThe Port of Beaumont is located on the Neches River at Beaumont, Texas, it begins near the mouth of the Rainbow Bridge. List of Texas rivers USS Neches — a fleet oiler built in 1920. Sabine-Neches Waterway Lower Neches Valley Authority Neches River from the Handbook of Texas Online Fun365Days.com -- regional tourism web site Partnership of Southeast Texas -- regional economic development site Big Thicket National Preserve Lower Neches Valley Authority Historic photos of Army Corps of Engineers projects on the Neches River from 1910-20s Salt Lick Agreement, March 19, 1835 From Texas Tides Angelina & Neches River Authority Upper Neches River Municipal Water Authority
San Augustine County, Texas
San Augustine County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 8,865, its county seat is San Augustine. San Augustine County was formed in 1837, it was named after the Saint, Augustine of Hippo. However, it seems plausible that the county was named for the town of San Augustine, established five years earlier and whose name was based upon an 18th-century Spanish presidio. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 531 square miles is land and 62 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 96 State Highway 21 State Highway 103 State Highway 147 Shelby County Sabine County Jasper County Angelina County Nacogdoches County Angelina National Forest Sabine National Forest Mission Dolores State Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 8,946 people, 3,575 households, 2,520 families residing in the county; the population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 5,356 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 69.26% White, 27.95% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 1.64% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 3.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,575 households out of which 26.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 23.00% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 21.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 92.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,025, the median income for a family was $32,772.
Males had a median income of $28,395 versus $18,925 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,548. About 15.60% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.70% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. At the presidential level, San Augustine County has voted for the Republican candidate in every election since 2000, having been carried by Democratic candidates up until that point. Like many areas of the South, while Republicans win federal and state elections, Democrats tend to perform better in down-ballot races for local offices. Identification with the Democratic Party is strong in San Augustine County. In 2012 24 percent of eligible voters participated in the Democratic primary, while less than 6 percent participated in the Republican primary, despite there being a competitive presidential primary on the Republican ballot. At the Federal level, San Augustine County is part of the 1st Congressional District, represented by Louie Gohmert, a Republican from Tyler.
In the Texas Legislature, the county is represented by State Representative Trent Ashby, by State Senator Robert Nichols. San Augustine Broaddus Black Ankle White Rock Sunrise Macune Norwood White City Anthony Harbor Benina American photographer John Vachon took a series of photographs of rural schoolchildren in San Augustine County, for the Farm Security Administration in 1943. National Register of Historic Places listings in San Augustine County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in San Augustine County San Augustine County government's website San Augustine County from the Handbook of Texas Online San Augustine County Collection at the Autry National Center "San Augustine"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Pinus taeda known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from central Texas east to Florida, north to Delaware and southern New Jersey. The wood industry classifies the species as a southern yellow pine. U. S. Forest Service surveys found that loblolly pine is the second-most common species of tree in the United States, after red maple. For its timber, the pine species is regarded as the most commercially important tree in Southeastern US; the common name loblolly is given because the pine species is found in lowlands and swampy areas. Loblolly pine is the first among over 100 species of Pinus to have its complete genome sequenced; as of March 2014, it was the organism having the largest sequenced genome size. Its genome, with 22 billion base pairs, is seven times larger than that of humans; as of 2018, assembly of the Axolotl genome displaced loblolly pine as the largest assembled genome. Loblolly pine can reach a height of 30–35 m with a diameter of 0.4–1.5 m.
Exceptional specimens may reach 50 m tall, the largest of the southern pines. Its needles are in bundles of three, sometimes twisted, measure 12–22 cm long, an intermediate length for southern pines, shorter than those of the longleaf pine or slash pine, but longer than those of the shortleaf pine and spruce pine; the needles last up to two years before they fall, which gives the species its evergreen character. Although some needles fall throughout the year due to severe weather, insect damage, drought, most needles fall during the autumn and winter of their second year; the seed cones are green, ripening pale buff-brown, 7–13 cm in length, 2–3 cm broad when closed, opening to 4–6 cm wide, each scale bearing a sharp spine 3 to 6 mm long. The tallest loblolly pine known, 51.4 m tall, the largest, which measures 42 m3 in volume, are in Congaree National Park. The word "loblolly" is a combination of "lob", referring to thick, heavy bubbling of cooking porridge, "lolly", an old British dialect word for broth, soup, or any other food boiled in a pot.
In the southern United States, the word is used to mean "a mudhole. Hence, the pine is named as it is found in lowlands and swampy areas. Loblolly pines grow well in acidic, clay soil, common throughout the South, thus are found in large stands in rural places. Other old names, now used, include oldfield pine, due to its status as an early colonizer of abandoned fields. For the scientific name, Pinus is the Latin name for the pines and taeda refers to the resinous wood. With the advent of wildfire suppression, loblolly pine has become prevalent in some parts of the Deep South that were once dominated by longleaf pine and in northern Florida, slash pine; the rate of growth is rapid among the fast-growing southern pines. The yellowish, resinous wood is prized for lumber, but is used for wood pulp; this tree is commercially grown in extensive plantations. Loblolly pine is the pine of the Lost Pines Forest around Bastrop, in McKinney Roughs along the Texas Colorado River; these are isolated populations on areas of acidic sandy soil, surrounded by alkaline clays that are poor for pine growth.
A study using loblolly pines showed that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may help the trees to endure ice storms better. The famous "Eisenhower Tree" on the 17th hole of Augusta National Golf Club was a loblolly pine. U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, an Augusta National member, hit the tree so many times that at a 1956 club meeting, he proposed that it be cut down. Not wanting to offend the President, the club's chairman, Clifford Roberts adjourned the meeting rather than reject the request outright. In February 2014, an ice storm damaged the Eisenhower Tree; the opinion of arborists was that the tree should be removed. The "Morris Pine" is located in southeastern Arkansas. Loblolly pine seeds were carried aboard the Apollo 14 flight. On its return, the seeds were planted in several locations in the US, including the grounds of the White House; as of 2016, a number of these moon trees remain alive. Pines are the genus Pinus consists of more than 100 species. Sequencing of their genomes remained a huge challenge because of the high size.
Loblolly pine became the first species with its complete genome sequenced. This was the largest genome assembled until 2018; the loblolly pine genome is made up of 22.18 billion base pairs, more than seven times that of humans. Conifer genomes are known to be full of repetitive DNA, which make up 82% of the genome in loblolly pine; the number of genes is estimated at about 50,172, of which 15,653 are confirmed. Most of the genes are duplicates; some genes have the longest introns observed among 24 sequenced plant genomes. Gymnosperms lack genetic self-incompatibility. Loblolly pine, like most gymnosperms, exhibits high levels of inbreeding depression in the embryonic stage; the loblolly pine harbors an average load of at least eight lethal equivalents. A lethal equivalent is the number of deleterious genes per h
The mourning dove is a member of the dove family, Columbidae. The bird is known as the American mourning dove or the rain dove, erroneously as the turtle dove, was once known as the Carolina pigeon or Carolina turtledove, it is one of the most widespread of all North American birds. It is a leading gamebird, with more than 20 million birds shot annually in the U. S. both for meat. Its ability to sustain its population under such pressure is due to its prolific breeding; the wings make an unusual whistling sound upon a form of sonation. The bird is a strong flier, capable of speeds up to 88 km/h, it is the national bird of the British Virgin Islands. Mourning doves are light grey and brown and muted in color. Males and females are similar in appearance; the species is monogamous, with two squabs per brood. Both parents care for the young. Mourning doves eat exclusively seeds, but the young are fed crop milk by their parents; the mourning dove is related to the eared dove and the Socorro dove. Some authorities describe them as forming a superspecies and these three birds are sometimes classified in the separate genus Zenaidura, but the current classification has them as separate species in the genus Zenaida.
In addition, the Socorro dove has at times been considered conspecific with the mourning dove, although several differences in behavior and appearance justify separation as two different species. While the three species do form a subgroup of Zenaida, using a separate genus would interfere with the monophyly of Zenaida by making it paraphyletic. There are five subspecies of mourning dove: Eastern Z. m. carolinensis Clarion Island Z. m. clarionensis West Indian Z. m. macroura Western Z. m. marginella Panama Z. m. turturilla The ranges of most of the subspecies overlap a little, with three in the United States or Canada. The West Indian subspecies is found throughout the Greater Antilles, it has invaded the Florida Keys. The eastern subspecies is found in eastern North America, as well as Bermuda and the Bahamas; the western subspecies is found including parts of Mexico. The Panamanian subspecies is located in Central America; the Clarion Island subspecies is found only on Clarion Island, just off the Pacific coast of Mexico.
The mourning dove is sometimes called the "American mourning dove" to distinguish it from the distantly related mourning collared dove of Africa. It was formerly known as the "Carolina turtledove" and the "Carolina pigeon"; the genus name was bestowed in 1838 by French zoologist Charles L. Bonaparte in honor of his wife, Princess Zénaide, macroura is from Ancient Greek makros, "long" and oura, "tail"; the "mourning" part of its common name comes from its call. The mourning dove was thought to be the passenger pigeon's closest living relative based on morphological grounds until genetic analysis showed Patagioenas pigeons to be more related; the mourning dove was suggested to belong to the same genus and was listed by some authors as E. carolinensis. The mourning dove has a large range of nearly 11,000,000 km2; the species is resident throughout the Greater Antilles, most of Mexico, the Continental United States, southern Canada, the Atlantic archipelago of Bermuda. Much of the Canadian prairie sees these birds in summer only, southern Central America sees them in winter only.
The species is a vagrant in northern Canada and South America. It has been spotted as an accidental at least seven times in the Western Palearctic with records from the British Isles, the Azores and Iceland. In 1963, the mourning dove was introduced to Hawaii, in 1998 there was still a small population in North Kona; the mourning dove appeared on Socorro Island, off the western coast of Mexico, in 1988, sixteen years after the Socorro dove was extirpated from that island. The mourning dove is a medium-sized, slender dove 31 cm in length. Mourning doves weigh 112–170 g closer to 128 g; the elliptical wings are broad, the head is rounded. Its tail is tapered. Mourning doves have perching feet, with three toes forward and one reversed; the legs are short and reddish colored. The beak is short and dark a brown-black hue; the plumage is light gray-brown and lighter and pinkish below. The wings have black spotting, the outer tail feathers are white, contrasting with the black inners. Below the eye is a distinctive crescent-shaped area of dark feathers.
The eyes are dark, with light skin surrounding them. The adult male has bright purple-pink patches on the neck sides, with light pink coloring reaching the breast; the crown of the adult male is a distinctly bluish-grey color. Females are similar in appearance, but with more brown coloring overall and a little smaller than the male; the iridescent feather patches on the neck above the shoulders are nearly absent, but can be quite vivid on males. Juvenile birds have a scaly appearance, are darker. All five subspecies of the mourning dove look similar and are not distinguishable; the nominate subspecies possesses shorter wings, is darker and more buff-colored than the "average" mourning dove. Z. m. carolinensis has longer wings and toes, a shorter beak, is darker in color. The western subspecies has longer wings, a longer beak, sh
National Wilderness Preservation System
The National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States protects federally managed wilderness areas designated for preservation in their natural condition. Activity on formally designated wilderness areas is coordinated by the National Wilderness Preservation System. Wilderness areas are managed by four federal land management agencies: the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management; the term "wilderness" is defined as "an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain" and "an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions." As of 2016, there are 765 designated wilderness areas, totaling 109,129,657 acres, or about 4.5% of the area of the United States. During the 1950s and 1960s, as the American transportation system was on the rise, concern for clean air and water quality began to grow.
A conservation movement began to take place with the intent of establishing designated wilderness areas. Howard Zahniser created the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956, it took nine years and 65 rewrites before the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which established the NWPS, was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 3, 1964; the Wilderness Act mandated that the National Park Service, U. S. Forest Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service review all federal lands under their jurisdiction for wilderness areas to include in the NWPS; the first national forest wilderness areas were established by the Wilderness Act itself. The Great Swamp in New Jersey became the first National Wildlife Refuge with formally designated wilderness in 1968. Wilderness areas in national parks followed, beginning with the designation of wilderness in part of Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho in 1970. A dramatic spike in acreage added to the wilderness system in 1980 was due in large part to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on December 2, 1980.
A smaller spike in 1984 came with the passage of many bills establishing national forest wilderness areas identified by the Forest Service's Roadless Area Review and Evaluation process. The Bureau of Land Management was not required to review its lands for inclusion in the NWPS until after October 21, 1976, when the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 was signed into law. Over 200 wilderness areas have been created within Bureau of Land Management administered lands since consisting of 8.71 million acres in September 2015. As of August 2008, a total of 704 separate wilderness areas, encompassing 107,514,938 acres, had become part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. With the passage of the Omnibus Public Lands Act in March 2009, there were 756 wilderness areas; as of September 2015, the system includes 765 wilderness areas totaling 109,129,657 acres. On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate an area as wilderness under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Multiple agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the U. S. Forest Service, are responsible for the submission of new areas that fit the criteria to become wilderness to congress. Congress reviews these cases on a state by state basis and determines which areas and how much land in each area will become part of the WPS. There have been multiple occasions in which congress designated more federal land than had been recommended by the nominating agency. Whereas the Wilderness Act stipulated that a wilderness area must be "administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness", the Eastern Wilderness Act, which added 16 National Forest areas to the NWPS, allowed for the inclusion of areas, modified by human interference; the Wilderness Act provides criteria for lands being considered for wilderness designation. Though there are some exceptions, the following conditions must be present for an area to be included in the NWPS: the land is under federal ownership and management, the area consists of at least five thousand acres of land, human influence is "substantially unnoticeable," there are opportunities for solitude and recreation, the area possesses "ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, scenic, or historical value."
Wilderness areas are subject to specific management restrictions. During these activities, patrons are asked to abide by the "Leave No Trace" policy; this policy sets guidelines for using the wilderness responsibly, leaving the area as it was before usage. These guidelines include: Packing all trash out of the wilderness, using a stove as opposed to a fire, camping at least 200 feet from trails or water sources, staying on marked trails, keeping group size small; when observed, the "Leave No Trace" ethos ensures that wilderness areas remain untainted by human interaction. In general, the law prohibits logging, mechanized vehicles, road-building, other forms of development in wilderness areas, though pre-existing mining claims and grazing ranges are permitted through grandf
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti