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Angelino Dulcert

Angelino Dulcert also the same person known as Angelino de Dalorto, whose real name was Angelino de Dulceto or Dulceti or Angelí Dolcet, was an Italian-Majorcan cartographer. He is responsible for two notable 14th-century portolan charts, the "Dalorto" chart of 1325 and the "Dulcert" chart of 1339; the latter is the first portolan known to have been produced in Palma, considered the founding piece of the Majorcan cartographic school. He is believed to be the author of a third undated and unsigned chart held in London. Nothing is known of Angelino Dulceti/Dolcet/Dalorto/Dulcert. A common assumption is that he was an Italian of Liguria, who trained in Genoa and subsequently emigrated to Majorca some time in the 1320s or 1330s. Angelino'Dalorto' was once thought connected to the notable Genoese "Dell' Orto" family; the latter were known to be active in the Black Sea and the Asian trade, e.g. in 1340, Pope Benedict XII speaks of receiving a Petraneus da Lorto, former Genoese governor of Caffa and emissary of Uzbeg Khan of the Golden Horde.

It was conjectured that Angelino Dalorto moved to Majorca as a commercial agent for his family's trading house, took up the name'Dulcert' as a more Catalan-sounding version of his surname. However, more recent readings claim the signatures on the maps have been misread, that the'Dalorto' in the 1325 chart should be read as "Dulceto" and the "Dulcert" in the 1339 chart is in fact "Dulceti"; this implies Angelino originates from Dulceto, or Dulcedo, a small Italian town in Liguria, a little down the coast from Genoa. This reinforces the common assumption. However, others have noted the existence of the "Dolcet" surname in earlier Majorcan records; the identity and nationality of Angelino Dulceti/Dolcet/Dalorto/Dulcert has been a longstanding item of contention between scholars attenuated by nationalist sentiments. Scholars who seek to claim Dulcert to be wholly of Catalan, nationality have tended to argue that Dalorto and Dulcert are two different men, that the Catalan Dulcert might have been "inspired" by the Genoese Dalorto.

Pujades, touching only on the controversy, concludes "It strikes me that our protagonist signed his name indiscriminately as Angellinus de Dulceto or Angellinus Dulceti on Latin legends. Whether this was a Latinisation of the Genoese toponym Dulcedo or that of the Catalan surname Dolcet, is a question I shall leave to those who pursue national glory; as far as cartography is concerned, it makes no difference where he was born. What interests us is where he trained as a cartographer and where he engaged in his professional career as such, the toponymy of his charts leaves no room for doubt about the Genoese provenance of his cartographic-toponymic pattern. Angelino "Dalorto" is known for a portolan chart dated 1325 held by the Prince Corsini collection in Florence, its signature was traditionally read as "Hoc opus fecit Angelinus de Dalorto ano dñi MCCXXV de mense martii composuit hoc". In many ways, the 1325 Dalorto portolan marks a transition point in European portolans, between the Genoese and Majorcan cartographic schools.

For the most part, Dalorto follows the restrained coast-focused Italian style, exemplified by the early portolans of his Genoese predecessor Pietro Vesconte, but he begins moving away from its sparseness by illustrating inland details, such as miniature cities, mountain ranges and rivers, a tendency will flourish in the Majorcan school. Indeed, some of Dalorto's details here presage the standard Majorcan stylings. Among its advances in geographic knowledge, the Dalorto map gives a better picture of northern Europe than its predecessors; the Dalorto chart is the first to depict the legendary island of Brasil, as circular disk-shaped island southwest of Ireland. It is denoted by the caption "Insula de monotonis siue de brazile". Angelino "Dulcert" is known for a portolan chart dated 1339 and held by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France in Paris, France, its signature reads: "ano MCCCXXXVIIII mense Augusto Angelino Dulcert in civitate Maioricarum composuit". Unlike its predecessor, it is composed not on a single vellum, but on two parchment pages, joined together as a single map, measuring 75 × 102 cm.

Made in Palma, the Dulcert 1339 map is considered the founding piece of the Majorcan cartographic school. Although some of its features were presaged in the Dalorto map, it goes further in the inland illustrations, in particular including miniature illustrations of people. In many ways, the Dulcert 1339 map is similar to the 1325 Dalorto map. On the other hand, the portolan's keys and legends are written in Latin, it contains features not found on Genoese or Venetian portolans; the 1339 Dulcert map is notable for giving the first modern depiction of the island of Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands, as Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus, a reference to the Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, affixes a Genoese shield to mark the island. Dulcert introduces what seems like the Madeira islands, named here as Capraria and Canaria; the oldest heraldic representation connected with Macedonia surviving to the present time, or discovered so far, is the banner

Nikolay Milyutin

Nikolay Alexeyevich Milyutin was a Russian statesman remembered as the chief architect of the great liberal reforms undertaken during Alexander II's reign, including the emancipation of the serfs and the establishment of zemstvo. Peter Kropotkin, the Anarchist, described him as "the soul of the emancipation of the Serfs in bureaucratic circles." Nikolay Milyutin was born in Moscow on June 6, 1818, the scion of an influential, but impoverished, aristocratic Russian family. He was the nephew of Count Pavel Kiselyov, the most brilliant Russian reformer of Nicholas I's reactionary reign. Milyutin's brothers were Vladimir Milyutin, a social philosopher and economist, Dmitry Milyutin, who served as Minister of War under Alexander II. Milyutin's formative years were spent on Titovo, in Kaluga Oblast. Serfs worked the land at Titovo, while Milyutin's father occupied most of his time hunting and carousing with friends. Milyutin's mother was left to oversee most aspects of life on their estate. According to Milyutin, there were so many serfs at Titovo that "to list all would be impossible."

While Milyutin omitted the more unsavory aspects regarding life at Titovo from his published memoirs, an unpublished draft, detailing his childhood, discusses the brutality with which his father treated his serfs. On one occasion Milyutin witnessed his father "mercilessly" flog one their serfs, as he explained: "But thus were the mores in those times: a good landowner considered unavoidable to keep his serfs in line." Afterwards, as was common practice, the serf was made to come and "thank the master" for having administered his "lesson." The incident left an indelible impression on Milyutin's young mind. Milyutin graduated from Moscow University and joined the Ministry of the Interior in 1835. A man of liberal views who sympathized with the Slavophile cause, Milyutin helped reform the municipal administration in St Petersburg and Odessa during the 1840s; as an Assistant Minister of Interior since 1859, he succeeded in defending his vision of ambitious liberal reforms against attacks by conservatives and disconcerted nobility.

The Emancipation Manifesto of 1861 was drafted by him. Up to the passage of the act, Milyutine had served as Adjunct of the Minister of the interior, Sergey Lanskoy. However, Milyutine was distrusted by the Czar as "a restless and uncompromising reformer." After passage of this act, Milutine was dismissed from office. In regards to the Liberal Party, "As you know, the hopes of the party were dashed to the ground by the dismissal -- one might say disgrace -- of Nicholas Milutine the day after the Edict was published..."During the January Uprising he was dispatched to Poland in order to implement reforms there. He devised a program which involved the emancipation of the peasantry at the expense of the nationalist landowners and the expulsion of Roman Catholic priests from schools. Over seven hundred thousand Polish peasants were granted freehold land to farm as the result of Milyutin's reforms. A Russian university was established at Warsaw, all secondary school lessons were required to be given in Russian, not Polish.

The property of the Catholic Church was confiscated and sold. Although Milyutin had opposed the "direct and outright Russification" of Poland, according to one biographer, historian W. Bruce Lincoln, Milyutin's reforms "hastened the coming of stern Russification policies" in Poland. Milyutin resigned his office in December 1866, after having suffered a paralytic stroke, spent the rest of his life in seclusion, he died on January 1872 in Moscow. Government reforms of Alexander II of Russia Leslie, Robert Frank. Reform and insurrection in Russian Poland, 1856-1865. Lincoln, W. Bruce. "The Makings of a New Polish Policy: N. A. Milyutin and the Polish Question, 1861-1863." Polish Review: 54-66. Online Zyzniewski, Stanley J. "The Russo-Polish Crucible of the 1860's: A Review of Some Recent Literature." The Polish Review: 23-46. Online "Milyutin, Nikolai". New International Encyclopedia. 1905

The Forbidden Fountain of Oz

The Forbidden Fountain of Oz is a 1980 children's novel written by Eloise Jarvis McGraw and her daughter Lauren Lynn Mcgraw, illustrated by Dick Martin. As its title indicates, the book is one entry in the long-running series of Oz books written by L. Frank Baum and his many successors; the McGraws and daughter, wrote an earlier Oz book, Merry Go Round in Oz, published in 1963. In their collaboration, the elder McGraw, a veteran children's book author, did the actual writing. In Forbidden Fountain, the text is prefaced with an address to "Dear Fans of Oz, Old, In-Between," which calls Lauren Lynn McGraw "Assistant Inventor and Head Trouble-Shooter," while Eloise Jarvis McGraw signs herself as "Chief of Bureau of Extraordinary Communications." A child named Emeralda Ozgood, a native of the Emerald City, prepares a concoction of limeade to celebrate the annual Clover Fair — but she naively uses water from the Forbidden Fountain. She only has one customer before she breaks her pitcher. Wandering off and losing her crown, Ozma falls in with a series of new acquaintances, including the Monarch of the Butterflies and a talking hedgebird who advises her.

Outfitted in boy's clothes and hat, Ozma/Poppy meets a lamb named Lambert, ostracized from his Gillikin flock for his unnatural white color. The two stumble into Camouflage Creek, undergo a bewildering string of transformations into bugs and beasts. Back in their own forms, they are confronted by an inept would-be highwayman named Tobias Bridlecull Jr. who becomes the third member of their rambling trio. He carries a Suggestion Box that volunteers suggestions instead of receiving them — as in "Suggest lunch" and "Suggest oil for Suggestion Box." Returning home to Pumperdink from the Clover Fair, Kabumpo the Elegant Elephant falls into adventures of his own. The elephant dumps into "Poppy" and company among the bubblegum and mucilage geysers of Gozzerland National Park; the four travelers combine, for further adventures in Pristinia. It is only. Ozma uses the Magic Belt to restore her memory and return to normal; the Forbidden Fountain is sealed off forever, as a threat. The McGraws, like other Oz authors, have to make choices among the vast and sometimes contradictory details of life in Oz.

They choose to give Oz a currency. Baum, was not wholly consistent in this detail, the early books in the series do feature Oz currency. Animals talk in the book, yet animals eat each other: while transformed into talking dragonflies, "Poppy" and Lambert eat their fill of "what-gnats." A Purple Wolf wants to eat Lambert. This raises the vexing question of death in Oz; some of the book's action is set in a border region between the Gillikin Country and the Winkie Country, which allows a blending of the two regions' characteristic colors and yellow. Lauren McGraw provided the book with a map that situates the Winkie Country in the western quadrant of Oz, as in Baum's original scheme; the forbidden fountain of the title is the same created by Baum in his sixth Oz book, The Emerald City of Oz — an enchanted fountain that purges the memories of all who drink its Water of Oblivion. In that book, the fountain provides the resolution of the plot conflict, through which the invading hordes of a barbarian army are defeated without violence.

The fountain appears in Oz books by Baum and his followers. A rich imaginative heritage lies behind Baum's fountain. There is a "forbidden fountain" in Welsh mythology, though instead of effecting drinkers' memories it expels them from fairyland, where it is located; the idea of forbidden drink is related to that of forbidden food, which occurs most famously in the "forbidden fruit" of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil in the Book of Genesis, but in other contexts too. The idea of water that purges the drinker's memory is ancient. In Greek mythology it occurs as the river Lethe: the souls of the dead lose their memories of their earthly lives by drinking its water; the same idea can be found in Eastern and other literatures, as in the "Well of the Waters of Forgetfulness" and other guises. "The'Drink of Forgetfulness' is found in Greek, Hindu and other mythologies." The concept received an eighteenth-century expression in James Ridley's The Tales of the Genii, from there made its way into drama and to the visual arts, in John Martin's Sadak in Search of the Waters of Oblivion.

Baum, made a noteworthy innovation in giving his Water of Oblivion a moral dimension. In his fantasy universe, those who drink from the Forbidden Fountain not only lose their recollections but become benign, "as innocent as babes." On The Forbidden Fountain of Oz