In golf, a caddie is the person who carries a player's bag and clubs, gives insightful advice and moral support like a coach. A good caddie is aware of the challenges and obstacles of the golf course being played, along with the best strategy in playing it; this includes knowing pin placements and club selection. A caddie is not an employee of a private club or resort, they are classified as an "independent contractor", meaning that he or she is self-employed and does not receive any benefits or perks from his association with the club. Some clubs and resorts do have caddie programs, although benefits are offered. In Europe, the vast majority of clubs do not offer caddies, amateur players will carry or pull their own bags; the Scots word caddie or cawdy was derived in the 17th century from the French word cadet and meant a student military officer. It came to refer to someone who did odd jobs. By the 19th century, it had come to mean someone who carried clubs for a golfer, or in its shortened form, cad, a man of disreputable behaviour.
Traditional caddying involves both the caddie walking the course. The caddie is in charge of carrying the player's bag, walks ahead of the golfer to locate his ball and calculate the yardage to the pin and/or hazards; this is the most common method used in golf clubs and is the only method allowed in the PGA and LPGA. The three "ups" of caddying are: show up, shut up, keep up. Fore-Caddying entails the caddie walking; the fore-caddie will give a hole description and walk ahead to spot the players' tee shots. The caddie gets the player's yardage while the players drive their carts from the tee to their shots; the caddie walks ahead again to spot the golfer's next shots. This process is continued. Once on the green the caddie will read greens, clean golf balls, fix ball marks, attend the flag; the caddie is responsible for raking traps on the course. Caddies will help with club selection, reading greens, weather variables, marking balls on the green but should do so only if asked by the player. More than anything else, the caddie is there to make the player's round enjoyable by taking care of menial tasks, speeding up play, providing mental support if asked.
Many clubs use a ranking system. Caddies will start as a trainee, be promoted through the ranks of Intermediate, Captain and Championship. Many courses start their caddies off at the B level, after a year move them to A, on their fourth year, they will receive the title of Honor caddie; the intermediate and captain ranks can be obtained within the first year of caddying, the honor rank is obtained in the second or third year of caddying. Championship takes at least 6 years and as many as 10 years to obtain. An alternative ranking system used in the American Mid-West proceeds as B level, A level, AA level, Honor level, Evans Scholar. Caddies obtain a promotion in rank once a year, while Honor takes two years to achieve and Evans Scholars are only produced by winning the venerable Evans Scholarship for university. However, in many American clubs, caddies are divided between "B" caddies, "A" caddies. Caddies are most employed at clubs on weekends, when the majority of country club golf takes place.
Some opportunities to caddie exist during the week, as well. Additionally, caddies are allowed to play the course at which they caddie for free on a Monday. On pro golf tours, professional caddies accompany their player to all events, which take place from Thursday through Sunday. Additionally, the player may hire their caddie to carry their bag for them during training sessions and practice rounds. At most clubs, caddies are paid at the end of the round by cash, or receive a payment ticket for which they can redeem their wages in the clubhouse; the player will tip the caddie based on their performance during the round, with extra money given for exemplary work. Most American club caddies earn between $80 and $120 per bag, though newer caddies will earn less than more experienced caddies. Caddies working during a tournament, high-stakes match, or 4-Day member-guest will earn more, upwards of $150 per round, per bag, at times, it is common for experienced caddies to carry two bags at a time. It is considered acceptable to ask a professional at the course what the average pay for a caddie is, as courses differ.
In a professional golf tour setting, a player pays their caddie a percentage of their winnings, which can be as high as 10%. A common pay scale is 5% for making the cut, 7% for a top 10, 10% for a win; the caddie usually receives a salary, as the player is not guaranteed to win money at every tournament. Caddies have been depicted in films and books, including: The Caddy, a 1953 musical comedy film starring Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. McAuslan in the Rough, a 1974 short story by George MacDonald Fraser in which a disreputable Scottish soldier caddies for his regimental sergeant major. Caddyshack, a 1980 comedy film featuring Bill Murray, who worked as a caddie while in high school. Brown's Requiem, a 1981 crime novel by James Ellroy, who worked as
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
The Masters Tournament is one of the four major championships in professional golf. Scheduled for the first full week of April, the Masters is the first major of the year, unlike the others, it is always held at the same location, Augusta National Golf Club, a private course in the southeastern United States, in the city of Augusta, Georgia; the Masters was started by noted amateur champion Bobby Jones and investment banker Clifford Roberts. After his grand slam in 1930, Jones acquired the former plant nursery and co-designed Augusta National with course architect Alister MacKenzie. First played 85 years ago in 1934, the tournament is an official money event on the PGA Tour, the European Tour, the Japan Golf Tour; the field of players is smaller than those of the other major championships because it is an invitational event, held by the Augusta National Golf Club. The tournament has a number of traditions. Since 1949, a green jacket has been awarded to the champion, who must return it to the clubhouse one year after his victory, although it remains his personal property and is stored with other champions' jackets in a specially designated cloakroom.
In most instances, only a first-time and reigning champion may remove his jacket from the club grounds. A golfer who wins the event multiple times uses the same green jacket awarded upon his initial win; the Champions Dinner, inaugurated by Ben Hogan in 1952, is held on the Tuesday before each tournament, is open only to past champions and certain board members of the Augusta National Golf Club. Beginning in 1963, legendary golfers past champions, have hit an honorary tee shot on the morning of the first round to commence play; these have included Fred McLeod, Jock Hutchinson, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Byron Nelson, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, Gary Player. Since 1960, a semi-social contest at the par-3 course has been played on Wednesday, the day before the first round. Nicklaus has the most Masters wins, with six between 1963 and 1986. Palmer and Tiger Woods won four each, five have won three titles at Augusta: Jimmy Demaret, Sam Snead, Gary Player, Nick Faldo, Phil Mickelson. Player, from South Africa, was the first non-American player to win the tournament, in 1961.
The Augusta National course first opened 86 years ago in 1933 and has been modified many times by different architects. Among the changes: greens have been reshaped and, on occasion re-designed, bunkers have been added, water hazards have been extended, new tee boxes have been built, hundreds of trees have been planted, several mounds have been installed; the idea for Augusta National originated with Bobby Jones, who wanted to build a golf course after his retirement from the game. He sought advice from Clifford Roberts, who became the chairman of the club, they came across a piece of land in Augusta, Georgia, of which Jones said: "Perfect! And to think this ground has been lying here all these years waiting for someone to come along and lay a golf course upon it." The land had been an indigo plantation in the early nineteenth century and a plant nursery since 1857. Jones hired Alister MacKenzie to help design the course, work began in 1931; the course formally opened in 1933, but MacKenzie died before the first Masters Tournament was played.
The first "Augusta National Invitational" Tournament, as the Masters was known, began on March 22, 1934, was won by Horton Smith, who took the first prize of $1,500. The present name was adopted in 1939; the first tournament was played with current holes 10 through 18 played as the first nine, 1 through 9 as the second nine reversed permanently to its present layout for the 1935 tournament. The Augusta National Invitational field was composed of Bobby Jones' close associates. Jones had petitioned the USGA to hold the U. S. Open at Augusta but the USGA denied the petition, noting that the hot Georgia summers would create difficult playing conditions. Gene Sarazen hit the "shot heard'round the world" in 1935, holing a shot from the fairway on the par 5 15th for a double eagle; this tied Sarazen with Craig Wood, in the ensuing 36-hole playoff Sarazen was the victor by five strokes. The tournament was not played from 1943 to 1945, due to World War II. To assist the war effort and turkeys were raised on the Augusta National grounds.
The Big Three of Arnold Palmer, Gary Player, Jack Nicklaus dominated the Masters from 1960 through 1978, winning the event 11 times among them during that span. After winning by one stroke in 1958, Palmer won by one stroke again in 1960 in memorable circumstances. Trailing Ken Venturi by one shot in the 1960 event, Palmer made birdies on the last two holes to prevail. Palmer would go on to win another two Masters in 1962 and 1964. Jack Nicklaus emerged in the early 1960s, served as a rival to the popular Palmer. Nicklaus won his first green jacket in 1963. Two years he shot a then-course record of 271 for his second Masters win, leading Bobby Jones to say that Nicklaus played "a game with which I am not familiar." The next year, Nicklaus won his third green jacket in a grueling 18-hole playoff against Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer. This made Nicklaus the first player to win consecutive Masters, he won again in 1972 by three strokes. In 1975, Nicklaus won by one stroke in a close contest with Tom Weiskopf and Johnny Miller in one of the most exciting Masters to date.
Gary Player became the first non-American to win the Masters in 1961, beating Palmer, the defending champion. In 1974, he won again by two strokes. After no
Jack William Nicklaus, nicknamed The Golden Bear, is a retired American professional golfer. Many observers regard him as the greatest golfer of all time. During a span of more than 25 years, he won a record 18 major championships. Nicklaus focused on the major championships—Masters Tournament, U. S. Open, Open Championship and PGA Championship—and played a selective schedule of regular PGA Tour events, he finished with 73 victories, third on the all-time list behind Tiger Woods. Nicklaus won the U. S. Amateur in 1959 and 1961 and challenged for the 1960 U. S. Open, where he finished in second place, two shots behind Arnold Palmer. Nicklaus turned professional at age 21 toward the end of 1961, he earned his first professional win at the 1962 U. S. Open; this win over Palmer began the on-course rivalry between the two golf superstars. In 1966, Nicklaus won the Masters Tournament for the second year in a row, becoming the first golfer to achieve this distinction, won The Open Championship, completing his career slam of major championships.
At age 26, he became the youngest to do so at the time. He won another Open Championship in 1970. Between 1971 and 1980, he won an additional nine major championships, overtook Bobby Jones' record of 13 majors, became the first player to complete double and triple career slams of golf's four professional major championships; when Nicklaus claimed his 18th and final major championship at age 46 at the 1986 Masters, he became the tournament's oldest winner. Nicklaus joined the Senior PGA Tour when he became eligible in January 1990, by April 1996 had won 10 tournaments, including eight major championships despite playing a limited schedule, he continued to play at least some of the four regular Tour majors until 2005, when he made his final appearances at the Masters Tournament and The Open Championship. Nicklaus has taken part in various other activities, including golf course design, charity work and book writing, he is a member of the American Society of Golf Course Architects and has helped design courses such as Harbour Town Golf Links.
Nicklaus runs his own event on the PGA Tour, the Memorial Tournament. His golf course design company is one of the largest in the world. Nicklaus' books vary from instructional to autobiographical, with his Golf My Way considered one of the best instructional golf books of all time. Nicklaus was born in Columbus and grew up in the suburb of Upper Arlington, he is of German descent, the son of Helen and Charlie Nicklaus, a pharmacist who ran several businesses named Nicklaus Drug Store. Charlie was a skilled all-round athlete who had played football for the Ohio State Buckeyes and had gone on to play semi-professional football under an assumed name for the Portsmouth Spartans. Charlie had been a scratch golfer and local tennis champion in his youth. Charlie Nicklaus died of pancreatic cancer at age fifty six. Nicklaus was raised in Upper Arlington and attended Upper Arlington High School, whose nickname and mascot are coincidentally the Golden Bears. In his senior year, Nicklaus was an honorable mention All-Ohio selection in basketball as a shooting guard, he received some recruiting interest from college basketball programs, including Ohio State.
During his youth, he competed in football, baseball and track and field. Nicklaus took up golf at the age of 10, scoring a 51 at Scioto Country Club for his first nine holes played. Charlie Nicklaus had joined Scioto that same year, returning to golf to help heal a volleyball injury. Jack Nicklaus was coached at Scioto by club pro Jack Grout, a Texas-developed contemporary of golf greats Byron Nelson and Ben Hogan. Nicklaus overcame a mild case of polio as a 13-year-old. Nicklaus won the first of five straight Ohio State Junior titles at the age of 12. At 13, he broke 70 at Scioto Country Club for the first time, became that year's youngest qualifier into the U. S. Junior Amateur, he had earned a handicap of +3 at the lowest in the Columbus area. Nicklaus won the Tri-State High School Championship at the age of 14 with a round of 68, recorded his first hole-in-one in tournament play the same year. At 15, Nicklaus shot a 66 at Scioto Country Club, the amateur course record, qualified for his first U.
S. Amateur, he won the Ohio Open in 1956 at age 16, highlighted by a phenomenal third round of 64, competing against professionals. In all, Nicklaus won 27 events in the Ohio area from age 10 to age 17. In 1957, Nicklaus won the International Jaycee Junior Golf Tournament, having lost the previous year in a playoff. Nicklaus competed in his first of 44 consecutive U. S. Opens that year, but missed the cut. In 1958 at age 18, he competed in his first PGA Tour event, the Rubber City Open, at Akron, tying for 12th place after being just one out of the lead at the 36-hole mark, made the cut in the U. S. Open, tying for 41st place. Nicklaus won two Trans-Mississippi Amateurs – in 1958 at Prairie Dunes Country Club and 1959 at Woodhill Country Club, with final match victories of 9 & 8 and 3 & 2, respectively. In 1959, Nicklaus won the North and South Amateur at Pinehurst, North Carolina and competed in three additional PGA Tour events, with his best finish being another 12th place showing at the Buick Open.
While attending Ohio State, he won the U. S. Amateur twice, an NCAA C
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ