Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II, born Giuliano della Rovere, nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. His nine-year pontificate was marked by an active foreign policy, ambitious building projects, patronage of the arts, his military and diplomatic interventions averted a take-over by France of the Italian States. He proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, was born near Savona in the Republic of Genoa, he was of a noble but impoverished family, the son of Raffaelo della Rovere. and Theodora Manerola, a lady of Greek ancestry. He had: Bartolomeo, a Franciscan friar who became Bishop of Ferrara, he had a sister, Lucina.
Giuliano was educated by Fr. Francesco della Rovere, O. F. M. among the Franciscans, who took him under his special charge. He was sent by this same uncle, to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he could study the sciences at the University. Della Rovere, as a young man, showed traits of being rough and given to bad language. During the late 1490s he became more acquainted with Cardinal Medici and his nephew, the two dynasties became uneasy allies in the context of papal politics. Both houses desired an end to the occupation of Italian lands by the armies of France, he seemed less enthused by theology. After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV on 10 August 1471, Giuliano was appointed Bishop of Carpentras in the Comtat Venaissin on 16 October 1471. In an act of literal nepotism he was raised to the cardinalate on 16 December 1471, assigned the same titular church as that held by his uncle, San Pietro in Vincoli. Guilty of serial simony and pluralism he held several powerful offices at once: in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472, Coutances.
In 1474, Giuliano led an army to Todi and Città di Castello as papal legate. He returned to Rome in May, in the company of Duke Federigo of Urbino, who promised his daughter in marriage to Giuliano's brother Giovanni, subsequently named Lord of Senigallia and of Mondovì. On 22 December 1475, Pope Sixtus IV created the new Archdiocese of Avignon, assigning to it as suffragan dioceses the Sees of Vaison and Carpentras, he appointed Giuliano as the first archbishop. Giuliano held the archdiocese until his election to the papacy. In 1476 the office of Legate was added, he left Rome for France in February. On 22 August 1476 he founded the Collegium de Ruvere in Avignon, he returned to Rome on 4 October 1476. In 1479, Cardinal Giuliano served his one-year term as Chamberlain of the College of Cardinals. In this office he was responsible for collecting all the revenues owed to the cardinals as a group and for the proper disbursements of appropriate shares to cardinals who were in service in the Roman Curia.
Giuliano was again named Papal Legate to France on 28 April 1480, left Rome on June 9. As Legate, his mission was threefold: to make peace between King Louis XI and the Emperor Maximilian of Austria, he reached Paris in September, on 20 December 1480, Louis gave orders that Balue be handed over to the Archpriest of Loudun, commissioned by the Legate to receive him in the name of the Pope. He returned to Rome on 3 February 1482. Shortly thereafter the sum of 300,000 ecus of gold was received from the French in subsidy of the war. On 31 January 1483 Cardinal della Rovere was promoted suburbicarian Bishop of Ostia, in succession to Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville who had died on January 22, it was the privilege of the Bishop of Ostia to consecrate an elected pope a bishop, if he were not a bishop. This occurred in the case of Pius III, ordained a priest on 30 September 1503 and consecrated a bishop on 1 October 1503 by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. Around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere.
On 3 November 1483, Cardinal della Rovere was named Bishop of Bologna and Papal Legate, succeeding Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, who had died on 21 October. He held the diocese until 1502. On 28 December 1484, Giuliano participated in the investiture of his brother Giovanni as Captain-General of the Papal Armies by Pope Innocent VIII. By 1484 Giuliano was living in the new palazzo which he had constructed next to the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, which he had restored. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, it may be that Giuliano was in residence then. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardina
The Sleeping Ariadne, housed in the Vatican Museums in Vatican City, is a Roman Hadrianic copy of a Hellenistic sculpture of the Pergamene school of the 2nd century BCE, is one of the most renowned sculptures of Antiquity. The reclining figure in a chiton bound under her breasts half lies, half sits, her extended legs crossed at the calves, her head pillowed on her left arm, her right thrown over her head. Other Roman copies of this model exist: one, the "Wilton House Ariadne", is unrestored, while another, the "Medici Ariadne" found in Rome, has been "seriously reworked in modern times", according to Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway. Two surviving statuettes attest to a Roman trade in reductions of this familiar figure. A variant Sleeping Ariadne is in the Prado Madrid. A Roman variant found in the Villa Borghese gardens, Rome, is at the Louvre Museum. Purchased from the Roman Angelo Maffei in 1512 by Pope Julius II, it was installed in the Belvedere Courtyard, which links the Vatican Palace with the papal casina called the Belvedere.
Once she had been identified as Cleopatra because of the snake bracelet on the upper left arm, taken for the asp by which she died, supportive narrative could be brought to bear: Ulisse Aldrovandi thought he detected that "she appears to have collapsed and fainted", a sense of fitful uneasiness has been ascribed to her by the modern viewer Sheila McNally. The "Cleopatra" became the main model through which a conventional pose signifying sleep, with one elbow cocked above the head, was transmitted from Antiquity to High Renaissance and painters and sculptors. T. B. L. Webster noted the uneasy pose of the sleeper, between sleep and wakening, a Hellenistic innovation in the sleeping Ariadne motif long known from vase-painting, which now placed greater emphasis on the stress of Ariadne herself. Sheila McNally detected in the sculpture a new "sense of unease that informs the whole" and "an effort to throw off some inner discomfort — a sluggish effort, restrained by a slumber, more oppressive than relaxing.
Her drapery bunches about her legs, imprisoning her loins." Soon she may wake to threaten vengeance on Theseus, as in Catullus' description in "Peleus and Thetis". The Cleopatra, as it was known, was set upon a Roman sarcophagus and fitted as a fountain in a niche at one end of the uppermost terrace of the Cortile del Belvidere, embodying in its setting the description of a Sleeping Nymph found by the far-off Danube, with a suitably Antique-sounding four-line Latin epigram beginning HUIUS NYMPHA LOCI..., making the humanist rounds. The epigram, which passed until modern times for a Roman one, was composed by Giovanni Antonio Campani, a humanist at the court of Pius II who moved in the academic circle of Julius Pomponius Laetus, but the Sleeping Nymph motif and the accompanying inscription applied to it became part and parcel of humanistic and fashionable recreations of paradisal garden spots with classical affinities— loci amoeni— right through the 18th century, all the while assimilated to the "Cleopatra", Leonard Barkan observes, "by a contagion among quite separate narratives that happen to converge in the enigmatic space of the signum/statue".
The niche, if it was not a grotto from the first, was redecorated as a grotto in the 1530s, when Francisco de Holanda made a drawing of it. In the 1550s, under the general direction of Giorgio Vasari the sculpture was reinstalled indoors in an adjoining long gallery, for which, still as a fountain in a shallow grotto niche, it served as the visual focus at one end; when the Museo Pio-Clementino was established, it received its similar new setting, set on a sarcophagus that bears a frieze of the Titanomachy. Poems were dedicated to the sculpture during the 16th century, sometimes expressed as if in the statue's own voice, in the rhetorical device called prosopopoeia; the sculpture was one of a dozen selected by Primaticcio to be molded for plaster copies and cast in bronze for Francis I at the château de Fontainebleau. In the process, the pose was adjusted, the sleeping nymph's limbs were lengthened, to accord better with French Mannerist canons of female beauty. From the bronze at Fontainebleau numerous copies and reductions were made.
In Rome Nicolas Poussin made a small wax copy of the papal sculpture to keep by him, which has come to be preserved in the Louvre Museum. Copies in marble were commissioned by Louis XIV. Pierre Julien sculpted a marble copy during his sojourn at the French Academy in Rome, 1768 to 1773, shipped it to France to demonstrate the progress he was making, as was the expected gesture of the king's pensionnaires. In Henry Hoare's picturesque garden at Stourhead, a lakeside temple contained John Cheere's whited-lead copy of the Vatican Ariadne with the suitably Antique-sounding verses beginning HUIUS NYMPHA LOCI.... In America, not much Thomas Jefferson acquired a small marble copy of the Cleopatra, as he first knew it, for the sculpture gallery he planned at Monticello but, never realised, it was a gift from James Bowdoin, in 1805, remains in Jefferson's hallway. Napoleon's agents in Rome selected the Cleopatra to join the choicest antiquities to be taken to Paris, forming the short-lived Musée Napoléon.
Julius Pomponius Laetus
Julius Pomponius Laetus known as Giulio Pomponio Leto, was an Italian humanist. Laetus was born at Teggiano, near Salerno, the illegitimate scion of the princely house of Sanseverino, the German historian Ludwig von Pastor reported, he studied at Rome under Lorenzo Valla, whom he succeeded in 1457 as professor of eloquence in the Gymnasium Romanum. About this time he founded an academy, the members of which adopted Greek and Latin names, met at the house of Laetus on the Quirinal, filled with fragments and inscriptions and Roman coins collected by this early antiquarian, to discuss classical questions, its constitution resembled that of an ancient priestly college, Laetus was styled pontifex maximus. Bartolomeo Platina and Filippo Buonaccorsi were among the most distinguished members of the circle, which included Giovanni Sulpizio da Veroli, the editor of the first printed De architectura of Vitruvius and organizer of the first production of a Senecan tragedy mounted since Antiquity. In 1466 on his way to take up an appointment at the University of Rome, Laetus stopped for a sojourn in Venice.
Here he was brought under investigation by the Council of Ten on suspicion of having seduced his students, whom he was said to have praised with excessive ardour in some Latin poems. Charged with sodomy he was imprisoned. At the same time in Rome, Pope Paul II began viewing Laetus's academy with suspicion, as savouring of paganism and republicanism. In 1468 twenty of the academicians were arrested during Carnival, on charges of conspiracy against the Pope. Laetus, still in Venice at the time the supposed conspiracy was discovered, was sent back to Rome and put to the torture, but refused to plead guilty to the charges of infidelity and immorality. For want of evidence, he was allowed to resume his professorial duties, he decided not to set foot in Venice again, for greater security, soon married. In the meantime, Laetus received from Frederick III a dispensation to grant the laurel wreath: the young poet Publio Fausto Andrelini from Forlì was the first to receive it. Laetus continued to teach at the University of Rome until his death in 1498.
Pope Sixtus IV permitted the resumption of the Academy meetings, which continued to be held until the sack of Rome in 1527. Laetus's importance in cultural history lies in his role as a teacher. On his death he was buried in the church of San Salvatore in Lauro in Rome. Laetus, called the first head of a philological school, was extraordinarily successful as a teacher. Among those put under his charge to be educated were Alexander Farnese pope Paul III, his works, written in sophisticated classicizing Latin, were published in a collected form. They contain treatises on the Roman magistrates and lawyers, a compendium of Roman history from the death of the younger Gordian to the time of Justin III. Laetus wrote commentaries on classical authors, promoted the publication of the editio princeps of Virgil at Rome in 1469; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Laetus, Julius Pomponius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 63–64.
Catholic Encyclopedia article Pastor, The History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages vol. IV p 41ff. For articles on Pomponius Laetus and his humanist circle, see "The Repertorium Pomponianum," with bibliographies including: Accame, Maria. Pomponio Leto: vita e insegnamento and other recent publications
The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture. Many examples of the most famous Greek sculptures, such as the Apollo Belvedere and Barberini Faun, are known only from Roman Imperial or Hellenistic "copies". At one time, this imitation was taken by art historians as indicating a narrowness of the Roman artistic imagination, but, in the late 20th century, Roman art began to be reevaluated on its own terms: some impressions of the nature of Greek sculpture may in fact be based on Roman artistry; the strengths of Roman sculpture are in portraiture, where they were less concerned with the ideal than the Greeks or Ancient Egyptians, produced characterful works, in narrative relief scenes. Examples of Roman sculpture are abundantly preserved, in total contrast to Roman painting, widely practiced but has all been lost. Latin and some Greek authors Pliny the Elder in Book 34 of his Natural History, describe statues, a few of these descriptions match extant works. While a great deal of Roman sculpture in stone, survives more or less intact, it is damaged or fragmentary.
Most statues were far more lifelike and brightly colored when created. Early Roman art was influenced by the art of Greece and that of the neighbouring Etruscans, themselves influenced by their Greek trading partners. An Etruscan speciality was near life size tomb effigies in terracotta lying on top of a sarcophagus lid propped up on one elbow in the pose of a diner in that period; as the expanding Roman Republic began to conquer Greek territory, at first in Southern Italy and the entire Hellenistic world except for the Parthian far east and patrician sculpture became an extension of the Hellenistic style, from which Roman elements are hard to disentangle as so much Greek sculpture survives only in copies of the Roman period. By the 2nd century BCE, "most of the sculptors working at Rome" were Greek enslaved in conquests such as that of Corinth, sculptors continued to be Greeks slaves, whose names are rarely recorded. Vast numbers of Greek statues were imported to Rome, whether as booty or the result of extortion or commerce, temples were decorated with re-used Greek works.
A native Italian style can be seen in the tomb monuments of prosperous middle-class Romans, which often featured portrait busts, portraiture is arguably the main strength of Roman sculpture. There are no survivals from the tradition of masks of ancestors that were worn in processions at the funerals of the great families and otherwise displayed in the home, but many of the busts that survive must represent ancestral figures from the large family tombs like the Tomb of the Scipios or the mausolea outside the city; the famous "Capitoline Brutus", a bronze head of Lucius Junius Brutus is variously dated, but taken as a rare survival of Italic style under the Republic, in the preferred medium of bronze. Stern and forceful heads are seen in the coins of the consuls, in the Imperial period coins as well as busts sent around the Empire to be placed in the basilicas of provincial cities were the main visual form of imperial propaganda; the Tomb of Eurysaces the Baker, a successful freedman has a frieze, an unusually large example of the "plebeian" style.
The Romans did not attempt to compete with free-standing Greek works of heroic exploits from history or mythology, but from early on produced historical works in relief, culminating in the great Roman triumphal columns with continuous narrative reliefs winding around them, of which those commemorating Trajan and Marcus Aurelius survive in Rome, where the Ara Pacis represents the official Greco-Roman style at its most classical and refined. Among other major examples are the earlier re-used reliefs on the Arch of Constantine and the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Campana reliefs were cheaper pottery versions of marble reliefs and the taste for relief was from the imperial period expanded to the sarcophagus. All forms of luxury small sculpture continued to be patronized, quality could be high, as in the silver Warren Cup, glass Lycurgus Cup, large cameos like the Gemma Augustea, Gonzaga Cameo and the "Great Cameo of France". For a much wider section of the population, moulded relief decoration of pottery vessels and small figurines were produced in great quantity and considerable quality.
After moving through a late 2nd century "baroque" phase, in the 3rd century, Roman art abandoned, or became unable to produce, sculpture in the classical tradition, a change whose causes remain much discussed. The most important imperial monuments now showed stumpy, large-eyed figures in a harsh frontal style, in simple compositions emphasizing power at the expense of grace; the contrast is famously illustrated in the Arch of Constantine of 315 in Rome, which combines sections in the new style with roundels in the earlier full Greco-Roman style taken from elsewhere, the Four Tetrarchs from the new capital of Constantinople, now in Venice. Ernst Kitzinger found in both monuments the same "stubby proportions, angular movements, an ordering of parts through symmetry and repetition and a rendering of features and drapery folds through incisions rather than modelling... The hallmark of the style
An engraved gem referred to as an intaglio, is a small and semi-precious gemstone, carved, in the Western tradition with images or inscriptions only on one face. The engraving of gemstones was a major luxury art form in the Ancient world, an important one in some periods. Speaking, engraving means carving in intaglio, but relief carvings are covered by the term; this article uses cameo in its strict sense, to denote a carving exploiting layers of differently coloured stone. The activity is called gem carving and the artists gem-cutters. References to antique gems and intaglios in a jewellery context will always mean carved gems. Vessels like the Cup of the Ptolemies and heads or figures carved in the round are known as hardstone carvings. Glyptics or glyptic art covers the field of small carved stones, including cylinder seals and inscriptions in an archaeological context. Though they were keenly collected in antiquity, most carved gems functioned as seals mounted in a ring. A finely carved seal was practical, as it made forgery more difficult – the distinctive personal signature did not exist in antiquity.
Gems were cut by using abrasive powder from harder stones in conjunction with a hand-drill often set in a lathe. Emery has been mined for abrasive powder on Naxos since antiquity; some early types of seal were cut by hand, rather than a drill. There is no evidence. A medieval guide to gem-carving techniques survives from Theophilus Presbyter. Byzantine cutters used a flat-edged wheel on a drill for intaglio work, while Carolingian ones used round-tipped drills. In intaglio gems at least, the recessed cut surface is very well preserved, microscopic examination is revealing of the technique used; the colour of several gemstones can be enhanced by a number of artificial methods, using heat and dyes. Many of these can be shown to have been used since antiquity – since the 7th millennium BC in the case of heating; the technique has an ancient tradition in the Near East, is represented in all or most early cultures from the area, the Indus Valley civilization. The cylinder seal, whose design only appears when rolled over damp clay, from which the flat ring type developed, was the usual form in Mesopotamia and other cultures, spread to the Minoan world, including parts of Greece and Cyprus.
These were made in various types of stone, not all hardstone. The Greek tradition emerged in Ancient Greek art under Minoan influence on mainland Helladic culture, reached an apogee of subtlety and refinement in the Hellenistic period. Pre-Hellenic Ancient Egyptian seals tend to have inscriptions in hieroglyphs rather than images; the Biblical Book of Exodus describes the form of the hoshen, a ceremonial breastplate worn by the High Priest, bearing twelve gems engraved with the names of the Twelve tribes of Israel. Round or oval Greek gems are found from the 8th and 7th centuries BC with animals in energetic geometric poses with a border marked by dots or a rim. Early examples are in softer stones. Gems of the 6th century are more oval, with a scarab back, human or divine figures as well as animals; the forms are sophisticated for the period, despite the small size of the gems. In the 5th century gems became still only 2-3 centimetres tall. Despite this fine detail is shown, including the eyelashes on one male head a portrait.
Four gems signed by Dexamenos of Chios are the finest of two showing herons. Relief carving became common in 5th century BC Greece, most of the spectacular carved gems in the Western tradition were in relief, although the Sassanian and other traditions remained faithful to the intaglio form. A relief image is more impressive than an intaglio one; however inscriptions are still in reverse so they only read on impressions. This aspect partly explains the collecting of impressions in plaster or wax from gems, which may be easier to appreciate than the original; the cameo, rare in intaglio form, seems to have reached Greece around the 3rd century. The conquests of Alexander the Great had opened up new trade routes to the Greek world and increased the range of gemstones available. Roman gems continued Hellenistic styles, can be hard to date, until their quality declines at the end of the 2nd century AD. Philosophers are sometime
Antiquities are objects from antiquity the civilizations of the Mediterranean: the Classical antiquity of Greece and Rome, Ancient Egypt and the other Ancient Near Eastern cultures. Artifacts from earlier periods such as the Mesolithic, other civilizations from Asia and elsewhere may be covered by the term; the phenomenon of giving a high value to ancient artifacts is found in other cultures, notably China, where Chinese ritual bronzes, three to two thousand years old, have been avidly collected and imitated for centuries, the Pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica, where in particular the artifacts of the earliest Olmec civilization are found reburied in significant sites of cultures up to the Spanish Conquest. The definition of the term is not always precise, institutional definitions such as museum "Departments of Antiquities" cover periods, but in normal usage Gothic objects, for example, would not now be described as antiquities, though in 1700 they might well have been, as the cut-off date for antiquities has tended to retreat since the word was first found in English in 1513.
Non-artistic artifacts are now less to be called antiquities than in earlier periods. Francis Bacon wrote in 1605: "Antiquities are history defaced, or some remnants of history which have casually escaped the shipwreck of time"; the art trade reflects modern usage of the term. Bonhams use a similar definition: "...4000 B. C to the 12th Century A. D. Geographically they originate from Egypt, the Near East and Europe..." Official cut-off dates are later, being unconcerned with precise divisions of art history, using the term for all historical periods they wish to protect: in Jordan it is 1750, in Hong Kong 1800, so on. The term is no longer much used in formal academic discussion, because of this imprecision. However, a recent attempt to standardise this and other terms has been carried out. Most, but not all, antiquities have been recovered by archaeology. There is little or no overlap with antiques, which covers objects, not discovered as a result of archaeology, at most about three hundred years old, far less.
The sense of antiquitates, the idea that a civilization could be recovered by a systematic exploration of its relics and material culture, in the sense used by Varro and reflected in Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews was lost during the Middle Ages, when ancient objects were collected with other appeals, the rarity or strangeness of their materials or because they were thought to be endowed with magical or miraculous powers. Precious cameos and other antique carved gems might be preserved when incorporated into crowns and diadems and liturgical objects, consular ivory diptychs by being used as gospel covers. Roman columns could be re-erected in churches. Sarcophagi could receive new occupants and cinerary urns could function as holy water stoups. Sculptural representations of the human form and reviled as "idols" could be rehabilitated by reidentifying their subjects: the equestrian bronze Marcus Aurelius of the Campidoglio was respected as a representation of the Christian emperor Constantine, in Pavia the Regisole acquired a civic role that preserved it.
In Rome the Roman bronze Spinario was admired for itself by the guidebook writer Magister Gregorius. The classicism of the Carolingian renaissance was in part inspired by appreciation of Late Antique manuscripts: the Utrecht Psalter attempts to recreate such a Late Antique original, both in its handwriting and its illustrations. Many museums hold these artifacts and keep them safe so that we have access to the knowledge they hold about the past. On September 2nd the National Museum of Brazil was engulfed in flames; this event caused many artifacts to be lost forever. The export of antiquities is now controlled by law in all countries and by the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, but a large and increasing trade in Illicit antiquities continues; the Euphronios krater is an apparent example. Another example is the ambiguous legal case concerning the Getty Museum's "Bronze Statue of a Victorious Youth".
The field has been further complicated by the trade in Archaeological forgeries, such as the Etruscan terracotta warriors, the Persian Princess, the Getty kouros. Ancient art