Gelderland is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces and Germany; the capital is Arnhem. Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Zutphen, Tiel, Wageningen and Winterswijk. Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2018; the province dates from states of the Holy Roman Empire and takes its name from the nearby German city of Geldern. According to the Wichard saga, the city was named by the Lords of Pont who fought and killed a dragon in 878 AD, they named the town they founded after the death rattle of the dragon: "Gelre!"The County of Guelders arose out of the Frankish pagus Hamaland in the 11th century around castles near Roermond and Geldern. The counts of Gelre acquired the Betuwe and Veluwe regions and, through marriage, the County of Zutphen, thus the counts of Guelders laid the foundation for a territorial power that, through control of the Rhine, Meuse and IJssel rivers, was to play an important role in the Middle Ages.
The geographical position of their territory dictated the external policy of the counts during the following centuries. Further enlarged by the acquisition of the imperial city of Nijmegen in the 13th century, the countship was raised to a duchy in 1339 by the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV. After 1379, the duchy was ruled by the counts of Egmond and Cleves; the duchy resisted Burgundian domination, but William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was forced to cede it to Charles V in 1543, after which it formed part of the Burgundian-Habsburg hereditary lands. The duchy revolted with the rest of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain and joined the Union of Utrecht. After the deposition of Philip II, its sovereignty was vested in the States of Gelderland, the princes of Orange were stadtholders. In 1672, the province was temporarily occupied by Louis XIV and, in 1713, the southeastern part including the ducal capital of Geldern fell to Prussia. Part of the Batavian Republic, of Louis Bonaparte’s Kingdom of Holland, of the French Empire, Gelderland became a province of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
During the Second World War, it saw heavy fighting between Allied Paratroopers, British XXX Corps and the German II SS Panzer Corps, at the Battle of Arnhem. Gelderland can be divided into four geographical regions: the Veluwe in the north, the Rivierenland including the Betuwe in the southwest, the Achterhoek or Graafschap in the east and the city-region of Arnhem and Nijmegen in the centre-south. In 2015, the 54 municipalities in Gelderland were divided into four COROPs: These municipalities were merged with neighbouring ones: Angerlo was merged into Zevenaar Dinxperlo was merged into Aalten Gorssel was merged into Lochem Hoevelaken was merged into Nijkerk Lichtenvoorde was merged into Groenlo Warnsveld was merged into Zutphen Wehl was merged into Doetinchem Millingen aan de Rijn and Ubbergen were merged into Groesbeek These municipalities were merged and given a new name: Borculo, Eibergen and Ruurlo have become Berkelland Hengelo, Hummelo en Keppel, Steenderen and Zelhem have become Bronckhorst Bergh and Didam has become Montferland Gendringen and Wisch have become Oude IJsselstreek In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist, William Thatcher pretends to be a knight known as "Ulrich von Lichtenstein from Gelderland".
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Doesburg is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Gelderland. Doesburg received city rights in 1237 and had a population of 11,309 in 2017; the city is situated at the confluence of river Oude IJssel. The municipality of Doesburg is part of the Arnhem-Nijmegen agglomeration region. Doesburg received city rights in 1237, this was one year than the neighbouring town of Doetinchem; because of its strategic position along the Oude IJssel and Gelderse IJssel, Doesburg has been an important fortified city for a long time. The fortification of the city made Doesburg an important administrative city; the Martinikerk, the main church in Doesburg is 94 meters tall. For many reasons, many of which have to do with the IJssel decreasing in depth, the prosperity in Doesburg settled after the 15th century. Doesburg changed into a sleepy provincial town and so it would remain until after the second world war; the city was protected in 1974, designated as a historic town. As Doesburg was a fortified city up to 1923, town extension was not possible.
After the second world war the city was extended. In the fifties on the Eastern side of the city the borough Molenveld was built. At south of the Oude IJssel followed in the seventies and eighties the borough Beinum. At south of Beinum the borough Campstede has been built. At the beginning of the 21st century the construction of a new area at the IJsselkade was started with 44 houses and 124 apartments designed by the Italian architect Adolfo Natalini. In 2007, construction of a hotel was started called "Noabers". After a few months the hotel was taken over and reopened a year later. In the north of Doesburg there are several camp-sites where in the high season 4000 visitors stay each year; the historical inner city with several museums and many monuments draw thousands of tourists every year. Large tourist attractions are the Main court, the Doesburgse mustard factory and'De Waag', which according to reports is the oldest public place in the Netherlands. On the north side of the city, parallel to N317, lies.
Here the international transport company Rotra and the construction material manufacturer Ubbink are established. To the east of the borough Beinum, along the provincial road N338, are the company areas Beinum-Oost and Beinum-West. Here various small and large ventures were established, among which are the manufacturer/wholesale company of gedistilleerd, a houtverwerkende company, a plastic company and a builder's company. Along the Gelderse Ijssel an iron foundry and a concrete call centre have been established, as well as, near the bridge, a builder of motor yachts. Doesburg's list of national characters and well known icons includes sea hero Jan van Kinsbergen, the family Verhuell to which the Verhuellweg has been named after. Other well-known Doesburgers are chronicler Peter of Dusburg, politician Charles August Masse, politician Clemens Cornielje, son of the ex-mayor of the former municipality Angerlo, current mayors Niels Joosten, Elbert Roest, Henk Aalderink and Arno Frankfort. Former national politician Agnes Kant was active in local politics in Doesburg until 1998 before she became an MP of the Dutch Parliament.
Official website many sourced quotes and facts of Theo van Doesburg in: De Stijl 1917-1931 - The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art, by H. L. C. Jaffé. M. Meulenhoff, Amsterdam 1956
Zevenaar is a municipality and a city in the Gelderland province, in the eastern Netherlands near the border with Germany. Angerlo Babberich Giesbeek Lathum Ooij or Ooy Oud-Zevenaar Zevenaar The earliest signs of human activity are remnants of a 700 BC settlement found near present-day Zevenaar. In 1049, Emperor Hendrik III donated a large amount of land to five warlords of which the leader was named Bartholomeus II of Sevenaer, they founded a castle to protect the old Roman settlements from the Germans. In 1355 Sevenaer passed from the control of the county/Duchy of Guelders to the Duchy of Cleves. In 1487, the duke of Cleves gave Sevenaer city rights. Sevenaer was an important strategic point –this border area between Gelderland and Cleveland, was the border between the regions that would, over the centuries, be controlled from different centers of power – the modern states of The Netherlands and Prussia; some of the Castles and houses in Zevenaar have foundations dating back to the 14th Century Huize Sevenaer.
When Sevenaer obtained city rights it had the monopoly on markets and on sale of bread and beer with the surrounding towns. The jurisdiction in Sevenaer was founded, the town government was charging taxes so that the town could build roads and public buildings. For the 500 inhabitants, a heavy tax; because of the plundering by several armies there were not enough supplies and money to build anything. Contagious diseases ensured much embarrassment. In that time not the citizens but some well-to-do families got the right to participation in policy and government. Sevenaer experienced a prosperous period. In 1614 Sevenaer as part of the Duchy of Cleves fell under control of the Margraviate of Brandenburg which would become part of Prussia. In 1793 the city had 900 inhabitants. In 1816, Sevenaer became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Two years the old spelling of Sevenaer was changed to the current name: Zevenaar; the municipality had 2564 inhabitants. The 19th century was a century of poverty, bad harvests and hunger.
There was hardly work. Many people lived from charity. In 1856, Zevenaar was connected to the European railroad system, which led to the increase in workforce. In 1920, the cigarette factory Turmac came. After the second World War, which caused a lot of damage, people started to rebuild and new residential areas arose around the old core. In the 1950s 10,000 people lived in Zevenaar. By 2005, that number had more than doubled to 22,500 inhabitants; the municipality of Zevenaar exists of the following residential areas: Angerlo, Giesbeek, Ooy, Old Zevenaar, Zevenaar, which together have 31.840 inhabitants in January 2007. Phillip Cocu, footballer Karel de Nerée tot Babberich, symbolist artist Esmée Denters, female singer Ruud Knol, footballer Andreas Masius, Catholic priest and European scholar Erik Parlevliet, hockey player Linda Wagenmakers, musical star H. L. M. van Nispen van Sevenaer, mayor of Laren and Blaricum, co founder of singer museum and resistance fighter Media related to Zevenaar at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Lathum is a village in the municipality of Zevenaar in the province of Gelderland, the Netherlands. Lathum has 550 inhabitants. Van Baer
Giesbeek is a village in the municipality of Zevenaar in the province of Gelderland, the Netherlands. Giesbeek has 2,839 inhabitants