A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
The Torngat Mountains are a mountain range on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Newfoundland and Labrador and eastern Quebec. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera; the mountains form a peninsula. The Torngat Mountains have a substantial geographical extent. About 56% of the range is located in Quebec, 44% is in Labrador, the remainder, less than 1%, is located on Killiniq Island in Nunavut. At least 2% of the mountain chain is under water, poorly surveyed; the Torngat Mountains cover 30,067 square kilometres, including lowland areas and extend over 300 km from Cape Chidley in the north to Hebron Fjord in the south. The Torngat Mountains have the highest peaks of eastern continental Canada; the highest point is Mount Caubvick at 1,652 m. There are no trees in the Torngat Mountains because the mountains lie in an arctic tundra climate and are therefore above the tree line. Permafrost is continuous on the Quebec side of the border, it is extensive but discontinuous on the eastern Atlantic side.
The terrain is predominantly rocky desert. Precambrian gneisses that comprise the Torngat Mountains are among the oldest on Earth and have been dated at 3.6 to 3.9 billion years old. Geologists recognize the gneisses of the Torngats as a part of the Canadian Shield or Laurentian Upland, composing the old North American Craton, split from the continent of Rodinia 750 million years ago to form the geologic core of North America. However, the mountain-building or orogeny of the Torngats took place much more and is characteristic of the folding and faulting that defines the series of geological events known as Arctic Cordillera. This, according to some, makes the Torngats, as mountains, "distinct compared to the surrounding Precambrian Canadian Shield," though they are composed of shield rock. Evidence of this dramatic cordilleran folding and faulting characterizing the Torngat Mountains can be seen distinctly in rocks where the North American Craton long ago collided with the Nain Craton exposed in cross-section by glacial scouring at Saglek Fjord.
The ranges of the Torngat Mountains are separated by deep fjords and finger lakes surrounded by sheer rock walls. The fjords were produced by glaciation; the Laurentide ice sheet covered most of the mountains at least once, however during the last ice age the coverage was more limited. There are over 100 active small mountain glaciers in the Torngat Mountains with a total of about 195 ice masses in the region. Caribou travel through the Torngat Mountains, polar bears roam along the coast. Numerous species of vegetation common to the Arctic region of Canada are found in the Torngat Mountains; the name Torngat is derived from an Inuktitut word meaning place of spirits, sometimes interpreted as place of evil spirits. The Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve was announced on 1 December 2005, it aims to protect wildlife. In the CBC Series Geological Journey the Torngat mountains are featured. Notably, a billion-year-old coal seam was discovered in the Torngat mountains on the Newfoundland Coast as part of the filming of the series.
Backcountry Magazine ran a feature story written by Drew Pogge in 2009 on steep skiing in the Torngat Mountains, notably first descents in Nachvak and Saglek fjords, as well as on the Caubvick massif. Arctic Cordillera List of mountain ranges Torngat Mountains National Park Torngat Mountains Great photos of the mountain range Statistics Canada Principal heights by range or region Tales from the Torngats, August 2004 Alexander Forbes Collection: Aerial photo survey of Labrador from 1931, 1932, 1935 expeditions - University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries Digital Collections Torngat Mountains: Canada's newest national park
The Challenger Mountains are a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. The range is the most northern range of the Arctic Cordillera; the highest mountain in the range is Commonwealth Mountain 2,225 m. The United States Range is to the east of the Challenger Mountains; the range lies within Quttinirpaaq National Park, one of the two most northerly park on Earth with Northeast Greenland National Park in Greenland. Low elevation lakes located along Taconite Inlet are part of the Challenger Mountains and local relief exceeds 1,250 m. "Challenger Mountains". Peakbagger.com
The Kaumajet Mountains are a dramatic compact mountain range rising directly out of the sea on the northern Labrador coast. The mountain range has one 4,000-foot peak, the highest island peak on the east coast of North America between the Caribbean and Hudson Strait, several peaks with high prominence; the highest mountain in the Kaumajet Mountains is Brave Mountain at 1,300 m. List of mountain ranges "Kaumajet Mountains". Peakbagger.com
Byam Martin Mountains
The Byam Martin Mountains are a rugged mountain range extending east to west across Bylot Island, Canada. It is one of the most northern ranges in the world and is an extension of the Baffin Mountains which in turn form part of the Arctic Cordillera mountain system; the highest mountain in the range is 1,951 m, located near the island's center. Sharp peaks and ridges, divided by deep glacier-filled valleys are typical features in the range and has been extensively modified by glacial erosion; the Byam Martin Mountains have not been conducive to habitation. While there are no permanent settlements in the Byam Martin Mountains, Inuit from Pond Inlet and elsewhere travel to the range; the Byam Martin Mountains are made up of Archean-Aphebian igneous crystalline rock and Proterozoic metasedimentary and metamorphic rock, such as gneiss. The first known expedition to the Byam Martin Mountains was by Pat Baird in 1939, he traversed Bylot Island from the Aktineq Glacier to Bathurst Bay on the east coast and returned down the Sermilik Glacier.
On June 7, 1939 he climbed an unnamed, 6,000 ft mountain at coordinates 73deg 06.7'N 078deg 30.5'W. Mount Thule 1,711m was climbed in 1954 by American Ben Ferris, a member of the Harvard Mountaineering Club. In 1963, British explorer Bill Tilman sailed his boat to the north coast and traversed the island from north to south, but did not climb any of the larger peaks. Laurie Dexter, an Anglican minister and Arctic resident and climbed peaks on the southern coast. In 1974, Dr. George Van Brunt Cochran climbed an unnamed peak west of the Narsarsuk Glacier on the south coast. In 1977, a Canadian expedition led by Rob Kelly and four others, traversed the island from NW to SE, they climbed 20 peaks, including Pat Baird's unnamed peak on July 27, 1977. In June 1981, another Canadian expedition led by Jack DeBruyn with three other members of the Grant MacEwan Mountain Club from Edmonton, traversed the island from NW to S, they climbed 15 peaks, with 14 first ascents, Pat Baird's unnamed peak on July 3, 1981.
In 1984, another Canadian expedition led by Mike Schmidt and others traversed the island from N to SE, climbing 28 peaks, with 16 first ascents. Sirmilik National Park, which includes most of Bylot Island
Pond Inlet is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, is located in northern Baffin Island. At the 2016 census the population was 1,617, an increase of 4.4% from the 2011 census Pond Inlet was named in 1818 by explorer John Ross for John Pond, an English astronomer. The mayor is Charlie Inuarak. Tununiq Sauniq Cooperative Limited, most referred to as the Co-op operates a local hotel and other endeavours, its economy is service based with government as the largest employer. Small businesses that serve the community and art work though are found; the local co-operative, Tununiq Sauniq Co-op, a member of Arctic Co-operatives Limited, is one of the largest co-ops in Nunavut. It serves the community by managing contracts and delivering goods and services to the citizens of Pond Inlet; some of the services T. S. Co-op provides are: school bus services, First Air services, Qilaut heavy equipment rentals and services, Sauniq Hotel, construction contracts, T. V. Cable Services, a grocery and department store, Yamaha snowmobile and ATV repair shop, others.
The economy is expected to boom. The mine site is 160 km west south-west of the community and still in its developmental stage; as a tourist destination, Pond Inlet is considered one of Canada's "Jewels of the North". It is one of the most picturesque communities with mountain ranges viewable from all directions. Icebergs are most accessible from the community within walking distance or a short snowmobile ride in winter. Pond Inlet boasts a nearby floe edge, several dozen glaciers, explorable ice caves, many grand and picturesque inlets. Barren-ground caribou, ringed seal and polar bears are just some of the wildlife that can be encountered while travelling out on the land. Nunavut boasts one of Canada's newest national parks named after the glaciers that can be viewed north of the community on Bylot Island. Pond Inlet is most accessible by aircraft through a connection in Iqaluit, Nunavut's capital to Pond Inlet Airport; the ocean is ice free for as long as three and a half months when tourist cruise ships visit and goods can be transported to the community by sealift cargo carrying ships.
Fresh foods such as fruits and milk are flown from Montreal to Pond Inlet several times a week, a distance of about 2,500 km. Because of such great distances the cost of food and other materials such as construction supplies can be much higher than that of southern Canada. Milk is $3.75/L, carbonated drinks can be as much as $4.50/can. Although the community is not more than 2.5 km long, snowmobiles and ATV four-wheelers are the main modes of transportation. With the decentralization of the Nunavut government and increased economic opportunities in the community, the number of vehicles has been increasing tenfold. Pond Inlet provides a full range of educational opportunities. Piruvik preschool offers award-winning early childhood learning with a strong focus on Inuit culture. Ulaajuk Elementary School and Nasivvik High School together teach kindergarten through grade 12 to 450 students. Nunavut Arctic College hosts a variety of programs for adult learners. Pond Inlet is the headquarters of the Qikiqtani School Operations which runs schools throughout the Qikiqtaaluk Region.
The community has been served by the Qiniq network since 2005. Qiniq is a fixed wireless service to homes and businesses, connecting to the outside world via a satellite backbone; the Qiniq network is operated by SSI Micro. In 2017, the network was upgraded to 4G LTE technology, 2G-GSM for mobile voice. Pond Inlet has a polar arctic climate with short cool summers. Pond Inlet's average high for the year is −11.1 °C while the average low for the year is −18.0 °C. The daily mean for the coldest month, February, is −34.7 °C. The daily mean for the warmest month, July, is 6.6 °C. The record high for Pond Inlet is 22.0 °C on 11 July 1991. The record low for Pond Inlet is −53.9 °C on 12 February 1979. List of municipalities in Nunavut Sheila Burnford Jobie Nutarak Katharine Scherman Official site Pond Inlet at the Canadian Arctic Collections Sirmilik National Park Pond Inlet at the Qikiqtani Inuit Association
The Baffin Mountains are a mountain range running along the northeastern coast of Baffin Island and Bylot Island, Nunavut are part of the Arctic Cordillera. The ice-capped mountains are some of the highest peaks of eastern North America, reaching a height of 1,525–2,146 metres above sea level. While they could be considered a single mountain range as they are separated by bodies of water to make Baffin Island, this is not true, as they are related to the other mountain ranges that make the much larger Arctic Cordillera mountain range; the highest point is Mount Odin at 2,147 m while Mount Asgard at 2,015 m is the most famous. The highest point in the northern Baffin Mountains is Qiajivik Mountain at 1,963 m. There are no trees in the Baffin Mountains. Rocks that comprise the Baffin Mountains are deeply dissected granitic rocks, it was covered with ice until about 1500 years ago, vast parts of it are still ice-covered. Geologically, the Baffin Mountains form the eastern edge of the Canadian Shield, which covers much of Canada's landscape.
The ranges of the Baffin Mountains are separated by deep fjords and glaciated valleys with many spectacular glacial and ice-capped mountains. The snowfall in the Baffin Mountains is light, much less than in places like the Saint Elias Mountains in southeastern Alaska and southwestern Yukon which are plastered with snow; the largest ice cap in the Baffin Mountains is the Penny Ice Cap, which has an area of 6,000 km2. During the mid-1990s, Canadian researchers studied the glacier's patterns of freezing and thawing over centuries by drilling ice core samples; the dominant vegetation in the Baffin Mountains is a discontinuous cover of mosses and cold-hardy vascular plants such as sedge and cottongrass. One of the first mountaineering expeditions in the Baffin Mountains was in 1934 by J. M Wordie, in which two peaks called Pioneer Peak and Longstaff Tower were climbed; the Auyuittuq National Park was established in 1976. It features many of Arctic wilderness, such as fjords and ice fields. In Inuktitut - the language of Nunavut's Aboriginal people, Inuit - Auyuittuq means "the land that never melts".
Although Auyuittuq was established in 1976 as a national park reserve, it was upgraded to a full national park in 2000. There were Inuit settlements in the Baffin Mountains before European contact; the first European contact is believed to have been by Norse explorers in the 11th century, but the first recorded sighting of Baffin Island was Martin Frobisher during his search for the Northwest Passage in 1576